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Impact of peer interaction on
learning practices in a Social Network
Site for Language Learning
Κaterina Zourou, Web2Learn...
Conceptual framework
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Social Network Sites for Language Learning (SNSLL)
• massive numbers of users register to learn a second/foreign language
...
Informal ways of learning form a
fast-growing landscape
(portability, technology, community-
based learning as drivers)
Zo...
…in informal and non-formal learning contexts
• SNSLL as possibilities for learner-driven learning in out-of-class context...
Peer learning in SNSLL
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Peer interaction and learning in SNSLL
Peer interaction= feedback
provision and reception.
Connection between peer
interac...
Learning progress intermingled with gamification elements
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Busuu garden, bare (above) and c...
SNSLL learning modalities
(differences exist among SNSLL)
• Each learner is expected to pursue individual L2 goals; severa...
Peer interaction and user types
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Peer interaction possibilities are not the same for all us...
Example of a lesson
Blue items: accessible to all
Orange items: premium users
only
=> All production activities (from
quiz...
Possibilities afforded to user types
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Example: Busuu
Example: Duolingo
Scope, method,
research questions
Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
Justification/scope
Aim: to explore peer interaction and learning
possibilities offered to the two user types and the
way ...
Framing of the study
We opt for a mixed methodology (Fuchs,
Hauck & Müller-Hartman, 2012; Johnson
& Onwuegbuzie, 2004) com...
Method
• 2 independent investigators ( a Premium user// a non-Premium user), create
accounts on the same SNSLL (Busuu) to ...
Hypotheses
(effect of the independent variable οn the dependent variable)
• H1 : A user with a Premium account receives mo...
Ongoing study
Data collection completed; data analysis
ongoing/delayed due to the pandemic.
Perspectives beyond data analy...
Indicative references
• Bonk, C. J. & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). « Searching for learner‐centered, constructivist, and soci...
Τhank you for attending
Do reach out
Anthippi Potolia apotolia@hotmail.com
Katerina Zourou katerinazourou@gmail.com
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Impact of peer interaction on learning practices in a Social Network Site for Language Learning

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Presentation at EUROCALL 2021 conference

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Impact of peer interaction on learning practices in a Social Network Site for Language Learning

  1. 1. Impact of peer interaction on learning practices in a Social Network Site for Language Learning Κaterina Zourou, Web2Learn, Greece Anthippi Potolia, Université Paris 8 Nanterre EUROCALL conference 2021
  2. 2. Conceptual framework Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  3. 3. Social Network Sites for Language Learning (SNSLL) • massive numbers of users register to learn a second/foreign language online (e.g. Duolingo, Busuu, Speekoo, Tandem, Memrise) • known also as “web 2.0 language learning communities” or” massive online language communities” For insights into terminology issues (cf. Chik & Ho, 2017; Loiseau et al., 2011; Reinhardt, 2017, Zourou & Potolia, 2021). • A growing body of literature on SNSLL (Alvarez Valencia, 2016; Potolia & Zourou, 2019; Stevenson & Liu, 2010; Liu et al., 2015; Orsini-Jones, 2015) • Growing interest brought into this field by L2 scholars and practitioners Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  4. 4. Informal ways of learning form a fast-growing landscape (portability, technology, community- based learning as drivers) Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 self-access, out-of-school and distance learning; informal, non-formal and naturalistic learning; non-instructed learning and self-instruction; autonomous, independent, self-directed and self-regulated learning, and learning beyond the classroom A wealth of terms (Benson, 2011):
  5. 5. …in informal and non-formal learning contexts • SNSLL as possibilities for learner-driven learning in out-of-class contexts • Technology‐mediated informal learning underlies the concept of learning “in the digital wilds” (Thorne et al. 2015; Sauro & Zourou, 2019) because this learning may be: “situated in arenas of social activity that are less controllable than classroom or organized online intercultural exchanges might be, but which present interesting, and perhaps even compelling, opportunities for intercultural exchange, agentive action and meaning making. (Thorne, 2010:144) • Erratic, multifarious learning practices occurring in SNSLL, urging for more research in CALL beyond the classroom (Dressman & Sadler, 2020, Chik, 2020; Sockett & Toffoli, 2020). Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  6. 6. Peer learning in SNSLL Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  7. 7. Peer interaction and learning in SNSLL Peer interaction= feedback provision and reception. Connection between peer interaction and learning (processes, gains) not yet explored in SNSLL (and scarce in CALL literature overall) Learner profile: gaming and networking features (~social media profile) Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 User profile, Busuu
  8. 8. Learning progress intermingled with gamification elements Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 Busuu garden, bare (above) and cultivated (below) From Zourou et al., 2017. See also: Reinhardt 2017, Alvarez Valencia, 2016
  9. 9. SNSLL learning modalities (differences exist among SNSLL) • Each learner is expected to pursue individual L2 goals; several mechanisms (i.e. notifications, challenges/competitions, scoreboard) to remind learners to pursue them • Requests for written/ oral feedback are common- possibility to send a request to a friend only (among one’s contacts) or to the whole community • Reciprocity as in tandem/1-to-1 learning: not in the strict sense; interaction with any speaker of the target language is more common Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  10. 10. Peer interaction and user types Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 Peer interaction possibilities are not the same for all users. For Premium users (with paid subscriptions): full range of learning resources, including production activities and all interaction possibilities based on produced output for non-Premium users (free accounts) restrictions apply: access to fewer production activities (and consequently, to fewer interaction possibilities with other users).
  11. 11. Example of a lesson Blue items: accessible to all Orange items: premium users only => All production activities (from quizzes to conversations) accessible to Premium users only Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 Indicative lessons (Busuu) (Zourou & Potolia, 2021)
  12. 12. Possibilities afforded to user types Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021 Example: Busuu Example: Duolingo
  13. 13. Scope, method, research questions Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  14. 14. Justification/scope Aim: to explore peer interaction and learning possibilities offered to the two user types and the way they affect learning practices. Comparison of the two user types (Premium user//non-premium or free account user) as a means to understand how different accesses to resources can impact learning practices that occur in the same learning environment. Resources= human resources: peer interaction learning resources: learning materials Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  15. 15. Framing of the study We opt for a mixed methodology (Fuchs, Hauck & Müller-Hartman, 2012; Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004) combining quantitative data (traces of online activity) and qualitative data (open- ended survey). A socio-cultural theoretical approach (Bonk & Cunningham, 1998; Dubreil & Thorne, 2017) is adopted, examining the interrelation between learning practices and the socio-digital context. Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  16. 16. Method • 2 independent investigators ( a Premium user// a non-Premium user), create accounts on the same SNSLL (Busuu) to learn the same language (German). Same L2 skills (no prior knowledge), same age, same qualifications (BA & MA in FLT). Independent Variable: • Type of account with 2 modalities (premium vs non-premium) Dependent Variables • Number of friend requests received by each user • Number of peer corrections received by each user • Number of productions sent by each user • Mean of timespan (timespan: from the time a production is sent to the time 1st correction is received, as well as additional corrections if applicable). • Number of interactions Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  17. 17. Hypotheses (effect of the independent variable οn the dependent variable) • H1 : A user with a Premium account receives more friend requests than a user with a Non-Premium account • H2 : A user with a Premium account receives more peer corrections than a user with a Non-Premium account • H3 : Productions of a user with a Premium account get corrected in an inferior timespan than productions of a user with a Non-Premium account. • H4: A user with a premium account produces less corrections than a user with a Non-Premium account. • H5 : A user with a Non-Premium account sends less productions for peer correction than a user with a Premium account. Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  18. 18. Ongoing study Data collection completed; data analysis ongoing/delayed due to the pandemic. Perspectives beyond data analysis • What does “access to resources” really means and how it impacts on learning, on individual and group levels • a critical examination of the “openness” often promulgated by online platforms; • the very different conceptualizations of individual and group learning that can emerge in the same online learning environment Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  19. 19. Indicative references • Bonk, C. J. & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). « Searching for learner‐centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools ». In C. J. Bonk & K. S. King (eds.), Electronic Collaborators: Learner‐Centered Technologies for Literacy, Apprenticeship, and Discourse, Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum, pp. 25-50. • Chik, A. (2019). Motivation and informal language learning. The Handbook of Informal Language Learning, 13-26. • Chik, A. & Ho. 2017. « Learn a language for free: Recreational learning among adults ». System, n° 69, pp. 162-171. • Dubreil, S. & Thorne, S. L. (2017). « Social pedagogies and entwining language with the world ». In S. Dubreil and S. L. Thorne (eds.), Engaging the World: Social Pedagogies and Language Learning, Boston, MA : Cengage, pp. 1-11. • Fuchs, C., Hauck, M. & Müller-Hartmann, A. (2012). « Promoting learner autonomy through multiliteracy skills development in cross-institutional exchanges ». Language Learning and Technology, 16(3), pp. 82-102. • Johnson, R. B. & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). « Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come ». Educational Researcher, 33(7), pp. 14-26. • Potolia, A., & Zourou, K. 2013. Rétroaction et entraide dans les communautés web 2.0 d’apprenants de langue [Feedback and peer support in web 2.0 language learning communities]. In C. Ollivier, L. Puren (Ed.). Mutations technologiques, nouvelles pratiques sociales et didactique de langue. Le Français Dans Le Monde Recherches et Applications, July 2013, 108-119. • Reinhardt, J. (2017) Social network sites and language education. In S. Thorne and S. May (eds) Language, Education and Technology (pp. 1–12). need location: Springer International Publishing. • Sauro, S., & Zourou, K. 2019. What are the digital wilds? Introduction to special issue. In Sauro, S. & Zourou, K. (Ed.) Computer Assisted Language Learning in the Digital Wilds. Language Learning and Technology. Online • Schugurensky, D. (2000). The forms of informal learning: Towards a conceptualization of the field. NALL Working Report, n° 19. Toronto : University of Toronto, Centre for the Study of Education and Work. • Zourou, K., Potolia, A. 2021. Openness in a crowdsourced massive online language community. In C. Blyth, J. Thoms (Eds.) Open Education and Foreign Language Learning and Teaching: The Rise of a New Knowledge Ecology, p. 369-382. Bristol. Multilingual Matters. • Zourou, K., Potolia, A., & Zourou, F., 2017. Informal Social Networking for Language Learning: Insights into Autonomy Stances. In Lewis, T., Rivens Mompean, A., Cappellini. T. (Ed.), Learner autonomy and Web 2.0, CALICO monograph, 141-167. Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021
  20. 20. Τhank you for attending Do reach out Anthippi Potolia apotolia@hotmail.com Katerina Zourou katerinazourou@gmail.com Slides available at https://www.slideshare.net/Web2Learn_eu/ Zourou & Potolia, EUROCALL 2021

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