Genetics & Evolutionary Biology Vocabulary


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Vocabulary review for Genetics and Evolutionary Biology unit.

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Genetics & Evolutionary Biology Vocabulary

  1. 1. Beverley SuttonPistor Middle School
  2. 2.  Definition - the changes in behavior, physiology, and structure of an organism to become more suited to the environment. My definition – something special about you that helps you fit your environment better.
  3. 3.  Allele - the different forms of a gene My definition – the different types of genes you get from your parent (Example: hair color)
  4. 4.  Asexual Reproduction – non-sexual reproduction; reproduction which produces offspring from one parent that is genetically identical to the parent ( a clone). My definition – getting a baby from just one parent
  5. 5.  Cell - the basic unit of structure and function in living things My definition – the tiny building blocks of organisms
  6. 6.  Cell Division - the process by which a cell divides to form two daughter cells My definition – the way a cell copies itself Cell divides into two identical daughter cells
  7. 7.  Chromosome - The physical structures in cells containing the large stretches of DNA (hundreds of millions of bases) and the information for thousands of genes. Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes plus the pair of sex chromosomes (XX or XY) - 23 pairs in all - i.e. 46 chromosomes. My definition – tightly wound DNA
  8. 8.  Co-dominance - A condition in which the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed thereby resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive . My definition – a mixture of two strong alleles
  9. 9.  Diversity - The number and variety of species present in an area My definition – lots of differences in all the organisms living in one place
  10. 10.  DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring My definition – the spiral ladder molecule that is the blueprint for all life on Earth.
  11. 11.  Dominant - An allele or a gene that is expressed in an organism’s phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele or gene when present (strongest). My definition – the strongest gene (the bully in the playground)
  12. 12.  Dormant - (behavioral/physiological adaptation) an organism whose growth and activity has stopped. My definition – sleeping … suspended animation
  13. 13.  Evolve - to change over time My definition – to change very slowly from generation to generation. How we get different species.
  14. 14.  Charles Darwin, developed his Theory of Descent with Modification … now known as the Theory of Natural Selection. Individuals in any species have differences (variations). These variations could give an individual the ability to survive longer and breed, ensuring that this beneficial (helpful) variation would be passed to the survivor’s offspring, slowly resulting in new species over a long period of time.
  15. 15.  Jean Baptiste Lamarck was another 19th century scientist who also tried to explain evolution with his Theory of Acquired Characteristics. Lamarck thought that animals using, or not using, physical features caused those changes to be passed to their offspring. He believed that creatures went from less complex to more complex and viewed evolution like a ladder.
  16. 16. Organisms canNOT choose to evolve
  17. 17.  Gene - The set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular trait. My definition – a piece of DNA (a “sentence” in the DNA “book”)
  18. 18.  Genetic adaptation: the natural selection of the offspring better adapted to a new environment. My definition – something special about your DNA that helps you fit your environment better.
  19. 19.  the two alleles for an inherited trait; one from each parent (E.g. TT, tT, Tt, or tt) Genotypes are always written as pairs and are by convention written as a combination of the upper and lowercase version of the same letter as shown above. Exceptions: XX and XY (the sex genotypes), and also the blood type genotypes.
  20. 20.  Heterozygous -- having two different alleles for a single trait (AKA Hybrid) Homozygous -- having identical alleles for a single trait (AKA Purebred)
  21. 21.  having a related or similar position, structure, etc. Similar in structure and evolutionary origin, though not necessarily in function, such as the flippers of a seal and the hands of a human. Similar structure, similar position, same origin.
  22. 22.  Hibernate - (behavioral/physiological adaptation) an organism enters a state of greatly reduced body activity during winter My definition – a very deep winter sleep that allows an animal to survive months without food
  23. 23.  Inherit - to acquire genetic traits from a parent My definition – to be born with characteristics from a parent
  24. 24.  Incomplete dominance - A kind of dominance occurring in heterozygotes (two DIFFERENT alleles) in which the dominant allele is only partially expressed, and usually resulting in an offspring with an intermediate phenotype. My definition – a blended mixture of two different alleles
  25. 25.  Migrate - (behavioral adaptation) - an organism moves to a new location and back again. Usually for feeding and reproduction. My definition – to move to where the food is, or to move to the place to have babies
  26. 26.  Mutate (Mutation) – 1. A sudden structural change within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new characteristic or trait not found in the parental type. 2. A permanent change in the genetic material that may alter a trait or characteristic of an individual, or manifest as disease, and can be transmitted to offspring.
  27. 27.  Natural Selection - a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best suited (adapted) to an environment My definition – the way good mutations spread to help you better suit your environment
  28. 28.  Offspring - The progeny or descendants of a person, animal, or plant considered as a group. My definition – babies!
  29. 29.  the way the genotype is expressed (shows) in the individual (E.g. Blue or Orange tail; Brown or blonde hair). My definition: the characteristics you can see or measure (E.g. blood type)
  30. 30.  Punnett Square - is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment My definition – heredity tic-tac-toe! Remember rows then columns or columns then rows … don’t try to wing it!
  31. 31.  Recessive - hidden or masked. Recessive allele – an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present. My definition – shy, hides, only shows when the bully isn’t around!
  32. 32.  Sexual Reproduction - the union of two sex cells (male & female) which produces a unique organism that shows a combination of genetic traits from both parents. My definition – reproduction that needs a male and female parent
  33. 33.  Species– a distinct group whose members can interbreed My definition – a group of the same type.
  34. 34.  Symbiosis - a close relationship between two organisms of different species that benefits at least one of the organisms. My definition – two organisms that live together and it helps at least one of them.
  35. 35.  Vary - to change. Variation: in genetics, a change in characteristics in an individual from the group to which it belongs, or deviation in characteristics of the offspring from those of its parents.
  36. 36.  Refers to a body part that has become small and lost its original use because of evolutionary change. Shrunken body part, no longer used