Earth history

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7th Grade Curriculum Earth History

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Earth history

  1. 1. EARTH HISTORY Review Created by Beverley Sutton Pueblo Gardens PreK-8
  2. 2. Our Changing Earth• Earth is a geologically active planet.• Huge quantities of energy are always acting on the surface of the Earth and its interior.• Observable evidence in the present gives information about processes and events that occurred in the past.
  3. 3. How Scientists work: Observation• Using one or more of the five senses
  4. 4. How Scientists work: Inference• Based on what you already know about footprints and the footprints you see … What happened here?
  5. 5. Layers of the Earth
  6. 6. Let’s take them apart …… and look at them one by one
  7. 7. Crust• The outermost “skin” of Earth. Two types: Oceanic crust (thinner, mostly basalt) and Continental crust (thicker, mostly granite)
  8. 8. Lithosphere• The crust and the uppermost part of the mantle – brittle and cool
  9. 9. Lithosphere• Like the skin and a little of the white of an apple
  10. 10. Mantle• Molten rock – between the crust and the core
  11. 11. Core• Center of the Earth: Made up of mostly iron and some nickel.• Outer core (liquid)• Inner Core (solid)
  12. 12. Mineral• a crystalline inorganic solid that occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust.
  13. 13. PHYSICAL properties of minerals
  14. 14. Rock• inorganic solid that occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust.
  15. 15. Rock Cycle –a process that constantly recycles rock
  16. 16. Rock Cycle
  17. 17. Erosion• The wearing away of rocks by weather (wind, water), or chemical means
  18. 18. Sediments• small particles of sand, dirt, broken up rocks
  19. 19. Sedimentary Rock • Formed by compaction and cementation. Sediments are compacted (packed down) and glued together (cemented). Grains are in layers sandwiched between a muddy matrixLimestone Sandstone Coal Shale
  20. 20. Metamorphic Rocks• Rock that was once one type of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat and pressure. Grains arranged in bands.Marble –which was once limestone Slate – which was once shale Quartzite – which was once sandstone
  21. 21. Igneous Rock• rocks that form from magma (melted, liquid Pumice rock) that cools and crystallizes. The crystals are randomly arranged Granite and interlocking. Gabbro
  22. 22. Tectonic Plates• Solid plates of lithosphere that float on the mantle
  23. 23. Convection• Convection -- Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another.
  24. 24. Divergent Boundary• At divergent boundaries new crust is created as plates pull away from each other.
  25. 25. Convergent Boundaries• Here crust is destroyed and recycled back into the interior of the Earth as one plate dives under another. These are known as Subduction Zones - mountains and volcanoes are often found where plates converge.
  26. 26. Oceanic-Continental Convergence
  27. 27. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence
  28. 28. Continental-Continental Convergence
  29. 29. Transform-Fault Boundaries• Transform-Fault Boundaries are where two plates are sliding past one another. These are also known as transform boundaries or more commonly as faults.
  30. 30. Fault • a crack in the earths crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the otherNormal Fault Strike-slip Fault
  31. 31. Law of Superposition• In a sequence of layered rocks, a given bed must be older than any bed on top of it. In other words, each layer is younger than those underneath it.
  32. 32. Law of Original Horizontality• Most sediments, when originally formed, were laid down horizontally. In other words, most sediments settle in flat horizontal layers. If the layers are no longer horizontal then something happened to move them.
  33. 33. Howlandforms change
  34. 34. Seismologist• scientist who studies earthquakes
  35. 35. Seismograph• an instrument that records the magnitude (size) and duration (how long it lasted) of an earthquake.
  36. 36. Richter scale• the logarithmic scale used to measure earthquakes.
  37. 37. Epicenter• The point of the earths surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
  38. 38. Rock Column• A diagram that shows the sequence of rocks in a particular area.• Stratigraphy – the science of layered rocks.
  39. 39. Index fossil• The fossil remains of an organism that lived in a particular geologic age, used to identify or date the rock or rock layer in which it is found. Also called guide fossil.
  40. 40. Our Changing Earth• Earth is a geologically active planet.• Huge quantities of energy are always acting on the surface of the Earth and its interior.• Observable evidence in the present gives information about processes and events that occurred in the past.
  41. 41. Serene, still, and peaceful? Wrong! A dynamic, always changing world!

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