STD vs STISTD – sexually transmitted disease• A disease is any condition of the body or mind that displays some type of symptom.STI – sexually transmitted infection• Infection means that a bacteria, parasite or virus is present in the body.• Symptoms may not be present and the person may be unaware that she/he is infected.
Infecting Organisms Two Main CategoriesBacterial Viral
Characteristics of BacteriaUsually can be quickly treated and CURED withantibiotics Although treatment is brief, those who test positive need to abstain from sexual contact for 7-10 days Re-testing is recommended, 3 months after treatment
GonorrheaGonorrhea is a bacteriathat can grow and multiplyeasily in the warm, moistareas of the reproductivetract : Urethra (urine canal) in men and women Cervix (opening to the womb) Uterus (womb) Fallopian tubes (egg canals)
GonorrheaThe bacteria can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes,and anus.Gonorrhea can be transmitted to both male and femalepartners during vaginal, anal and oral sex from a partnerinfected in his or her throat, vagina, urethra or anus.Has been labeled as a major driver in new HIV cases
GonorrheaMost men develop symptoms of gonorrheawithin 2-5 days and up to 30 days after beingexposed.Most women do not have symptoms, for thosewho do have symptoms, they usually appearwithin 10 days after being exposed.Common symptoms: • Discharge from genitals or anus • Pain or itching in head of the penis • Pain or burning when urinating • Lower abdominal pain (women)
ChlamydiaChlamydia is a common STI caused by abacteria.Symptoms are usually mild or absent, seriouscomplications that cause irreversible damage
ChlamydiaSymptoms usually appear fromone to three weeks afterinfection In men, untreated chlamydia infections can lead to inflammation of the prostate gland, urethral scarring, infertility, or epididymitis (inflammation of the cord-like structure at the back of the testes).
ChlamydiaWomen may experiencepain and itching of thevulva or vagina; vaginaldischarge; unusualvaginal or anal bleeding;pain with urination; and/orpain when having sex.Untreated chlamydia inwomen can cause pelvicinflammatory disease(PID) and lead toinfertility.
Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)Sexually transmitted disease caused by threestrains of the bacterium of chlamydia transmittedthrough unprotected oral, vaginal and anal sex.Symptoms include raised bumps, swelling of thelymph glands. Rectal ulcers, bleeding anddischarge are also common.Treated with antibiotics over a 21-day period
Non Gonococcal Urethritis (NGU) NGU is an infection of the male urethra causedby bacteria other than gonorrhea, most oftenchlamydia or another type of bacteriaUsually transmitted with direct mucousmembrane contact during oral, vaginal or analsex even if body fluids are not exchanged.Non-sexually, NGU may be caused by urinarytract infectionsSymptoms are similar to those experienced withgonorrhea and chlamydia
Pharyngitis Gonorrhea Chlamydia NGUAll can occur in the throat if you have oral sex and often won’t have symptoms.
Infecting OrganismsViruses Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Herpes Simplex (1,2) Hepatitis (A,B & C) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Bacteria
Characteristics of VirusesViruses cannot be cured. Medications are available to reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks.. Some viruses are like Chickenpox; they infect you once and then go away.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)Most common STICan be passed by skin-to-skin contact during oral, analand vaginal sexThere are 100 types of HPV. Only some of them causegenital warts and other types can cause various types ofcancer
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)Warts usually appearas painless growths Flat Raised Cauliflower-shapedWarts may appearwithin weeks ormonths after sexualcontact with aninfected person
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-I & HSV-II)There are two types of HSV HSV-I: Oral HSV-II: GenitalCan be passed by skin-to-skin contact during oral,anal and vaginal sex Herpes can be transmitted to others without sores present.
HerpesCommon symptoms include: tingling painful/itchy soresTreatment involvesmedication to addressfrequency and severitysymptoms. There is no cure
Hepatitis A, B, CThe word "hepatitis" means inflammation of theliver and also refers to a group of viral infectionsthat affect the liver.Symptoms of all types of viral hepatitis aresimilar and can include one or more of thefollowing:
Hepatitis AThink A for “Anal”Hepatitis A is transmitted through consumingfeces (even microscopic amounts)Risk Reduction: vaccination, hand washing,barriers when rimming, washing genitals andanus before and after anal sex.
Hepatitis BThink B for “Body Fluids”Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious blood, semen, are found in blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva primarily through: Sexual contact with an infected person Sharing of contaminated needles, syringes or other injection drug equipment Needlesticks or other sharp instrument injuriesRisk reduction: Vaccination, barriers during oral
Hepatitis CThink C for “cooker” (used for cooking heroin before injection). Hepatitis C is transmitted through contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids, primarily through: Sexual contact with an infected person Sharing of contaminated needles, syringes or other injection drug equipment Needlesticks or other sharp instrument injuriesRisk Reduction: Condoms and barriers during oral, vaginal and anal sex. Blood awareness during
HIV & STI RelationshipHaving an STI increases the risk forgetting HIVGetting an STI for people with HIV canincrease viral load and chance oftransmitting HIV/STIs to othersRisk reduction: Using barriers for oral,vaginal and anal sex. Getting tested.Talking about status with partners. Usingclean needles and equipment.
Prevention & Risk ReductionCondoms and barriers, correct and consistent usecan dramatically reduce your risk of getting a STI.Remember that some STIs may occur on parts ofthe body not covered by condoms.Getting Tested every 3 – 6 monthsCommunication Ask about testing history Do not assume “clean means clean”Partner Reduction Greater the number of partners the more often you are potentially exposed.
Prevention & Risk ReductionPartner Notification www.InSpot.org City Clinic staff (for Syphilis and HIV)Setting limits for what you’re OK and not OK withLimiting drug and alcohol useDiscretion If it’s a sore, don’t touch it. Don’t convince yourself it’s a zipper cut, etc. Get checked or encourage partner to get checked.
Tips on Talking to Partners About Status1. Pick a time when you wont be interrupted.2. Pick a neutral place to chat (not the bedroom, or in the throes of passion).3. Be sober.4. Be open to the possibilities.5. Have a sense of humor and use it— remember sex is about having fun
Testing Locations & Methods San Francisco City Clinic 356 - 7th Street (between Harrison and Folsom St; 487-5500). www.SFcityclinic.org Confidential, free/low-cost, comprehensive STD/HIV and family planning services Services provided to patients age 12 and up – parental consent is not required, per California law. Monday, Wednesday, Friday: Open 8:00 -4:00 We will accept provider referrals until 4:00; call 487-5595 Tuesday:1:00pm - 6:00pm Thursday 1:00pm - 4:00pm*Clinic may be unable to see patients without symptoms if maximum capacity has been reached. Urge your referrals to visit earlier during
You can always find resources online… San Francisco City Clinic www.SFCityClinic.org Online Partner Notification www.InSpot.org Center For Disease Control (CDC) www.cdc.gov