Exploring the cotents of webpages between Korean and Chinese sites
Exploring the contents of webpages between Korean and Chinese sites:<br />Who are talking about what and how?<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />영남대학교 WCU웹보메트릭스 사업단<br />http://english-webometrics.yu.ac.kr<br />한국방송학회 2010 봄철 정기학술대회 5월14일<br />
Background<br /><ul><li>Korea and China are close to each other and the two peoples have similar cultural background and traditions.
Exchange activities between Korea and China can be traced back to the 6th century.
In 1992, South Korea and China re-established the official diplomatic relations, and communications between the people in both countries has started since then.
China was quickly become a major export market for Korea.
Apart from economic activities, exchanges between the two countries have also included culture, entertainment, education, science, to name a few.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Background<br />The number of citizens’ visiting Korea and China <br />Data from Korea Tourism Organization*Began in July 2006 did not record travel destinations.<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Background<br /><ul><li>The speedy development of computer and internet technologies have been seen as a cost-effective tool for promoting self images and reach more audiences around the world.
It is now possible for individuals and organizations to obtain and distribute information (on an unprecedented scale and at a low cost) and to form coalitions with like-minded groups in very short time scales.
A web site represent an individual, an organisation, and any other sort of entity.A web link to any pages on the Web represents recognition, acknowledgement, or a suggestion for example.Any changes on links might imply a change of affiliation, removal of relations, or disapproval.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Background<br /><ul><li> Research aims to study communications of Korean and Chinese citizens on the Internet.
The current structure of information flow between South Korea and China based on hyperlinking structures will be examined.
Types of information communicated between South Korean and China through the network structure will be investigated.
Discuss some possible factors that might affect the current setting of the communciation environment between South Korea and China.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Framework<br />Global networks are increasingly a part of our work and social life today. Countries’ contact is not constrained by geographical restrictions.<br /><ul><li> Global networks are not only tools but offer a venue for the global village, a matrix where the world can meet (Harasim,1993).
Data communications networks, such as the Internet, can create new opportunities for people to interact (Baym, 1993; Kraut et al, 1996; Rheingold, 1993).
International communication is the most common examples of commercial activities in the cyberspace.
The international communication is not only indicate on the field of economy but also include various things (e.g., scientific citations, broadcasting programs, data, telephone calls and e-mails.). </li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Framework<br />International Information Flow Analyses (IIFA) <br /><ul><li> IIFA is the study and interpretation of structures, determinants, and outcomes of the relational state among nation-states in terms of information flow: patents, data, citations, mass media, phone calls.
IIFA is the outcomes of the relational state among nation-states (Park, 2004), and to emphasize that international information flow has been maked as a main issue in the study of international communication (Barnett & Salisbury, 1996; Barnett, 1999; Barnett et al., 2001).</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Framework<br />Hyperlinking patterns in the Internet<br /><ul><li>Web studies of hyperlinking patterns in the Internet emerged in the mid-1990s.
Webometrics applies bibliometric and informetric techniques to investigate the Internet (Almind & Ingwersen 1997).
The major topics for Internet researchers include: structure of web links, web-based citation analysis, web impact factors and mapping (issue) networks.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Framework<br />Social Network Analysis (SNA) & Hyperlink Network Analysis (HNA)<br /><ul><li> SNA, which has been used to uncover patterns of interaction between people, in particular “social and communication connections within a group”, can also be useful for disclosing virtual communication patterns (Thelwall 2004).
SNA is now applied in many different fields of study, such as organisational behaviour, inter-organisational relations, social support, the diffusion of information and political science.
Park (2003) referred to HNA, of which the idea was derived from communication studies (e.g., computer-mediated communication (CMC) networks). In a hyperlink network, actors are web sites (or nodes) belonging to individual, organisation, government, nation-state or others, and two individual nodes are connected by hyperlinks.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Research Questions<br />한국에서 중국으로 연결된(linked) 온라인 콘텐츠의 생산자는 누구이며 주제분야와 포맷은 무엇인가?<br />중국에서 한국으로 연결된(linked) 온라인 콘텐츠의 생산자는 누구이며 주제분야와 포맷은 무엇인가?<br />한국-중국 콘텐츠의 생산자, 주제분야, 포맷별 유형 분포는 한국-중국의 사회문화적 관계를 어떻게 반영하고 있는가?<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Method<br />Hyperlink network analysis<br />LexiURL Searcher: A computer program designed to gather data from search engines via their applications programming interfaces (APIs) for webometric purposes, to retrieve data from the Yahoo! data base (Thelwall 2009).<br /><ul><li> Through LexiURL Searcher, we queried Yahoo! by submitting the command: linkdomain:.cnsite:.krand linkdomain:.krsite:.cnto search the hyperlinks between Korean website and Chinese website.</li></ul>We used country code top-level domain (ccTLD) to search the links, not used top-level domain (TLD; e.g., .com, .net). It is the only and most nationally representative domain.<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Method<br />Social network analysis<br />The HNA mentioned earlier was derived from the social network analysis (SNA). This research also applies the basic concept and measurements of SNA.<br /><ul><li>density: Which is an indicator of how connected the actors in a network are to one another.
degree centrality: Which focuses on the number of neighbours an actor has.The more an actor connects directly to other network members, the more central the actor is.
Pajek was used to calculate some network metrics and NodeXL was employed to visualize Korea-China online networks.</li></ul>Through these measurements, we are able to identify network patterns of these web pages and important web pages.<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Method<br />Content analysis<br />LexiURL has randomly listed 400 web pages which link from China to South Korea and other 400 web pages from South Korea to China.<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Inter-coder reliability<br />Bi-lingual coder의 어려움: 한국어-중국어 모두를 이해하는 코더를 구하기 어려웠음<br />Authorship, website type와 비교해 web page content에 대한 코더간 불일치률이 비교적 높음<br />400개의 웹페이지 가운데 코더간 불일치한 자료는 모두 폐기하여, 분석의 타당성과 신뢰성을 높임<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Results<br />Webpage compare<br />중국에 링크한 한국 웹사이트의 도메인별 유형<br />한국에 링크한 중국 웹사이트의 도메인별 유형<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Results<br />중국에 링크한 한국 웹사이트의 생산자 및 포맷 유형<br />한국에 링크한 중국 웹사이트의 생산자 및 포맷 유형<br />Random webpage(400)-Korea vs. China<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Results<br />중국에 링크한 한국 웹사이트의 주제분야별 유형<br />한국에 링크한 중국 웹사이트의 주제분야별 유형<br />Random webpage(400)-Korea vs. China<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Results<br />중국의 target이 된 한국 사이트의 유형<br />China to Korea<br />한국의 target이 된 중국 사이트의 유형 <br />Korea to China<br />사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Discussions<br /><ul><li>South Korea clearly has a stronger presence on the Internet: the network consists of more actors (2326 nodes, compared to787 nodes in the other network). It positively correlates with the offline situation that Korean people might have more interest in China.
Due to the country’s high broadband penetration, population distribution and government strategies (Kgoggin & MeLelland, 2009), South Korean citizens are highly engaged in online activities.
The popularity of Web 2.0 among Korean netizens also reflect on one of our findings that the majority of Chinese web pages are in the format of regular homepage (89%) while 52% of Korean web pages are regular homepages.
Social influence of the Internet is considered to play an important role in both countries.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Discussions<br /><ul><li>The Chinese government is known for its attempt to exert control over the Internet.Government related factors that might affect the behavior of Chinese citizens in using more interactive functions of the Internet.
We assume that the use of the Internet in China might not be very different from other countries, as interactive technologies are used as a tool for communication and organisation.
One interesting finding is that one targeted Korean web page by the Chinese web sites belongs in our ‘religion’ class.Given the fact that in recent years the society has developed quickly and more opened to foreigners, people in China would receive more diverse informaiton and start to use the Internet to search for more references.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Limitation<br />Our research has shown that a social network based webometric analysis is a feasible methodology for studying web phenomenon.<br /><ul><li> Search engines do not cover all the data in the world wide web. In fact it is often suggested that commercial search engines only covers a fraction of the publicly available web.
We only used the 800 web pages randomly selected by LexiURL’s and the targeted web pages of these 800 pages to examine what information has been communicated through the Internet. Thus, it is important to emphasize that our findings should not be overly generalized.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />
Limitation<br />Another limitation is related to the classification of web pages. Coders regarding content types of a web page is higher compared to ‘authorship’ and ‘web format’.<br /><ul><li> Some websites to be analyzed could not be opened or connected (e.g., termination of service, invalid website, website not found).
Some Chinese websites consist of a large number of unicode and special symbols. We could not fully understand the content of information.
Some websites provide information related to a variety of topics. These website are difficult to distinguish in what category they should be placed.</li></ul>사이버 공간의 한국-중국 콘텐츠의 유형과 관계망<br />