The Breakdown of a Film or Editing 101

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The Breakdown of a Film or Editing 101

  1. 1. The Breakdown of A Film Editing 101
  2. 2. THE RULES  Orient the Viewer  Advance the Plot  Reveal The Character  While choosing shots and assembling your Edit you must ALWAYS keep these 3 Rules in mind.
  3. 3. Walter Murch’s 6 Criteria  1. Emotion 51%  2. Story  3. Rhythm 23% 10%  4. Eye-Trace  5. Two-dimensional plane of screen 7% 5%  6. Three-dimensional space of action 4%
  4. 4. The Shots This is how shots are broken down in terms of story.  Long shots show us where we are. (Orient the Viewer)
  5. 5. The Shots This is how shots are broken down in terms of story.  Medium shots show us what the action is. (Advance the Plot)
  6. 6. The Shots This is how shots are broken down in terms of story.  Close shots show use how the characters feel about the action. (Reveal Character)
  7. 7. FULL SHOT  This shot is used when it is necessary to show the action in an entire scene, or as an establishing shot, orienting the viewer, showing the settings where the action takes place.  Use this shot at the beginning of a new location, (or new set) uses it to reorient the viewer.  Note: Always vary the camera angle of full shots when used more than once. Also use in conjunction with pressure psychology.
  8. 8. LONG SHOT  Not exactly like the Full Shot, it’s used to show subjects in full length not necessarily in relation to the surroundings or background.  Example: showing a character from head to toe.
  9. 9. MEDIUM SHOT  This is the most commonly used shot. Instead of showing the full figure as in a long shot. It only shows from roughly the knees up. This shot is great for carrying movement; it concentrates the action and contains it. It also allows reference of the immediate vicinity of the central action. It allows for facial expressions and physical gestures. It is considered the workhorse of all shots. The medium shot may be used to re orientate the viewer after the details of the close shots have been revealed.
  10. 10. MEDIUM CLOSE SHOT  This shot contains the head and shoulders of two characters. The camera is positioned between the close shot and the medium shot.
  11. 11. CLOSE SHOT  This shot would show from the shoulders up of one character, as well as allow for some details to be included from the background. This shot does tend to slow down the forward movement and impede dramatic action, but it can particularize the action and allow the audience to see the specific detail happening in the story.
  12. 12. CLOSE-UP  This shot is closer to the subject only showing heads, hands, feet or any significant detail that can point out or point up for the audience for heightened dramatic impact.  With the close up you can draw attention to or center on any relevant or significant detail.
  13. 13. EXTREME CLOSE-UP  This shot is used when you must show the fleeting expression in the eyes or point up a wart on a nose, or a clue in a mystery story. Use it sparingly! If over used this shot will lose its dramatic impact and shock value towards the audience. A re establishing shot to re orient the viewer should always follow them.
  14. 14. INSERT  The insert is a cut in of a close up of a letter, newspaper headline, a sign, or any written or printed legend that can’t be read by the audience at any other distance. It must be required for the plot. Unless this is used at the end of a sequence or scene as a transition device. It is best to cut back to a re establishing shot and re orient the viewer. If it must be read make sure that it is brief or have one of the characters read it allowed for the audience. This could be used as a prop to advance the plot
  15. 15. Size Long shot Medium shot Invented by D.W. Griffith Close Shot
  16. 16. Pure Cinema
  17. 17. Orchestration Medium shot Long shot Close Shot
  18. 18. Staccato
  19. 19. Montage
  20. 20. Montage
  21. 21. What You Don’t Show Can Be More Important Than What You Do Show!
  22. 22. MOVING CAMERA OR, what to do if you don’t want to cut to another shot.
  23. 23. !!WARNING!!  The camera should only move to follow the significant action, that Advances the Plot, Reveals Character or Orients the Viewer!  Moving camera SLOWS the forward momentum of the story. So it is also used to allow the audience to EXPERIENCE THE ACTION in a deeper way.  OR it is the Director saying, “come here I want to show you something.”
  24. 24. Tracking Shots
  25. 25. Long Shot Cut Away Close Up
  26. 26. Long Shot Cut To Close Up
  27. 27. Long Shot Crane Shots Close Up
  28. 28. Dolly Shots Close Up Long Shot
  29. 29. Pans Long Shot Close Up
  30. 30. Tilts Close Up Long Shot
  31. 31. If you CAN’T Move The Camera MOVE The Actors! Long Shot Close Up
  32. 32. THE PAN  The contraction of the word panoramic used to describe the swivel action of the camera. The pan shot is any side to side movement of the camera used in order to follow the action.  It can also be used to show scenic vistas, mountains valleys etc. Only follow the significant action.
  33. 33. EXIT & ENTRANCE PAN  Used to follow the action as it exits or enters. Only used when such movements are essential.  Use it to follow a character from one room to another, but only if necessary.
  34. 34. REVELATION PAN  Used to slowly reveal part of the story. The camera pans slowly across the empty room then suddenly reaches and holds on a corps. The contrast between the quiet static room and the violent death is what makes for dramatic impact. Then a dolly shot could be used to reveal the instrument of death or another significant detail to advance the plot.  Use Sparingly.
  35. 35. PAY OFF PAN  Used to follow a character when moving out of frame. The camera however does not follow the character all the way. Instead it notices some thing else and fixates on the new interest to advance the plot.
  36. 36. MEDIUM TO CLOSE PAN  Used for taking the audience from the general to the particular, and for connecting the two. Thus the camera can hold on one action in a medium shot then move to a close up of a letter lying on a desk.  This method avoids dolling which is time consuming in production.
  37. 37. REACTION PAN  Used to effectively present a collective reaction to a speech or action.
  38. 38. SUBJECTIVE PAN  used to make the pan appear to be the eyes of the character. Putting the audience in the place of the character.  Warning the pan shot is not an accurate mimic of human Eye movement. (Reference MARKER OF TRUTH)
  39. 39. FLASH PAN  This is done by jerking the camera from one place to another.  It’s used to show two or more vital actions at once. Taking place simultaneously.
  40. 40. TRANSITION FLASH PAN  Used as a transitional device to connect two shots of action which are simultaneous in time, but geographically separated.  This is how it works. You flash pan away from one shot and then flash pan into another shot that links together the two shots optically. Use very infrequently in one film.
  41. 41. REVERSE PAN  Avoid Reverse Pans too often in the same shot. A single pan works enough strain on the audience’s eyes without having them jerked to and fro to cover the same territory.  In long pans the camera should hold at points to reveal important elements. This applies to all moving camera shots.
  42. 42. !!WARNING!!  Limit the Pan. Don’t go overboard on using the pan. The pan shot is not a true representation of the human eye. The Pan also tends to slow down the tempo of the film.
  43. 43. TILT  In addition to panning horizontally the camera can also pan perpendicularly. Both up and Down. Thus Tilt Shot. Tilt shots are used to capture important falling and rising action used to emphasize height. (Buildings, Cliffs)  Tilt Shots can be used as transitions. Tilt down to reveal a persons feet then dissolve into new feet. Tilts and Pans can be combined.
  44. 44. DOLLY  Dolly in or Dolly out, that is move in or move closer to or pull away from a subject. It can be used with pans and tilts. A dolly Shot or Trucking Shot is also used to move Parallel with the subject or action, and the camera may be mounted on a vehicle.  Dolly or Cut In to reveal significant detail revelation. For instance You may Dolly in to slowly reveal the detail and slow down the action or Cut in to a Close up to rapidly reveal the detail for faster pacing. Dolling In tends to slow the forward movement of the film.
  45. 45. REVELATION DOLLY  Suitable for a certain type of revelation. Where the Pull Back Dolly can reveal a startling detail in the small, the Pullback or Revelation Dolly can reveal startling information in the large.  Great for establishing or re-establishing viewer orientation.
  46. 46. TRANSITIONAL DOLLY  Used to dolly in on a subject to a close or close-up shot, dissolve dolly out to reveal a new setting, orients the viewer.  The second part is called the Re-Establishing Dolly. This helps to keep the forward movement of the film.

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