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Future of Metadata and Learning Objects

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slides from my keynote presentation at the International Conference on Digital Archives Technology in Taipei on Oct. 19, 2006. See blog entry for more details and comments at www.autodesk.com/waynehodgins

Published in: Technology, Education

Future of Metadata and Learning Objects

  1. 1. The Future of Metadata & Learning Objects Towards a more holistic perspective on learning and performance International Conference on Digital Archive Technology Taipei, Taiwan Oct. 19, 2006
  2. 2. [email_address] Strategic Futurist President & Co-Founder Learnativity.org Chair, IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee Learning Object Metadata 0 Strategic Advisor
  3. 3. www.creativecommons.org
  4. 4. Grand Vision <ul><li>In a word? PERSONALIZATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Or if you insist on a prefix call it..) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>me Learning! </li></ul><ul><li>Personalized Learning Experiences for every person every day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all 6.4 billion of us -- every day!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Just for me and just right: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, place, amount, device, medium, way… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On demand, adaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markets of one: Billions of Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in ALL forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal AND informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not just online, on computer, on screen, etc, but every where, every time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ When the learner is ready the ‘teacher’ will appear.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Maybe Goldilocks had it right all along? The ideal is “just right”…. <ul><li>Just the right CONTENT , to </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right PERSON , with </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right PARTNERS , at </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right TIME , on </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right DEVICE , in </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right CONTEXT , and </li></ul><ul><li>Just the right WAY ……… </li></ul>UP
  6. 6. “ C -ing the Future” C ontent, C ompetencies C ontext LEARNING & PERFORMANCE CONTENT CONTEXT COMPETENCE
  7. 7. “ C-ing” the Future <ul><li>C ontent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving toward a supply chain model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repositories, discovery, assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ompetencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are following similar exponential curve and revolution as content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to content objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES are the critical “connective tissue”!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ontext </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective metadata, pattern recognition, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. It all depends upon…………….. METADATA CONTENT CONTEXT COMPETENCE
  9. 9. Metadata: The past <ul><li>1997 tipping point, creation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE LTSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADL </li></ul></ul><ul><li> A model of standardized modularity emerged as the best way to enable mass customization and adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg no mandatory fields in LOM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accredited standards completed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM, LOM XML, </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Metadata: The Present <ul><li>Broad spread adoption, globally and universally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Tremendous adoption within Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft announcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU support (CEN ISSS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation and adaptation is the order of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively stable </li></ul><ul><li>Application profiles </li></ul><ul><li>DOI’s and the whole unique identifier issues </li></ul><ul><li>Joint activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO SC36? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM/DCMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract Data model with RDF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOM/RDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CORDRA </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. networking, not taking over repositories Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  12. 12. Federated Metadata Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  13. 13. Metadata: Current Challenges <ul><li>too exposed to end users </li></ul><ul><li>Not localized or adopted to context of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg direct use of LOM terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms must die! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not flexible enough </li></ul><ul><li>Too focused on “just” the content </li></ul><ul><li>Poor utility behond text </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough tools & technology for the masses </li></ul><ul><li>Not integrated into workflow and habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. Replacing directories & file names with metadata </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Metadata: beyond data <ul><li>All the nouns; people, places and things </li></ul><ul><li>People: </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills, knowledge, abilities, Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg. GIS, 3D info such as height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merges into context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul>
  15. 15. Metadata: The Future <ul><li>Superseding the standard definition of metadata as “data about data” to include all nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit and inferred metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Going beyond text! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent examples at ICDAT 2006 such as with video & audio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AUGMENTED Automated metadata generation (AMG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual mass contribution of metadata from the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual metadata from the experts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>especially that from within learning & working environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attention metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon gifts example </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Metadata: The Future <ul><li>Transparency and invisibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata models to replace historic meta-categorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg automated and transparent directories & file names </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated into applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automated simply a part or the “save” function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including context </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>see MS announcement re SCORM in Office 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making metadata transparent or invisible to users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federated AND Standards based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards based but agnostic! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Growing attention on Competencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New IEEE Study Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign up for online forum at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/StudyGroup-Competencies </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Visualizing reuse http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/infovis/ Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  18. 18. Federated AMG Engine http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/amg/ Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  19. 19. Attention Metadata http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.ac.be/empirical/ Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  20. 20. User feedback Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  21. 21. Contextual and Automated Metadata Generation (AMG) http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/amg/ Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  22. 22. scaleable remix Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  23. 23. Hiding everything but the benefits http://ariadne.cs.kuleuven.be/alocom/ Slide courtesy Erik Duval, KU Leuven
  24. 24. A glimpse of the future? <ul><li>Learning from other domains: Music? </li></ul><ul><li>The “genome” model </li></ul><ul><li>Pandora and the Music Genome Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ help me discover more music I will like” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note that it avoids subjective categorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently dependent upon trained “experts” and manual evaluation but can and must be automated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What of a “Content Genome” and a “Competencies Genome”?? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Pandora and the Music Genome Project
  26. 26. “ Individualized” Career Development The Navy “5 Vector Model” Universal Quals Apprentice Journeyman Master Recruit EM Quals First line Leader Foundational Leader Primary Leader Advanced Leader Command Leader Executive Leader Platform Career Options EM Gas Turbine 5VM (DDG-51) Engineering Quals PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT LEADERSHIP CERTS | QUALS PERFORMANCE Industry Certs Personal Dev SO Personal Dev SO Personal Dev SO Lifelong Learning Lifelong Learning Lifelong Learning Master S/O Journeyman S/O Apprentice S/O E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9 Recruit S/O EM2 Sciulli Universal Quals Engineering Quals EM Quals Universal Quals Engineering Quals EM Quals Industry Certs Industry Certs Industry Certs Apprentice Positions Journeyman Positions Master Positions Selected Electricians All Electricians
  27. 27. LEARNING OBJECTS <ul><li>The world of CONTENT </li></ul>
  28. 28. Learning Objects: The Past <ul><li>Learning Objects initially proposed in 1992 with LALO </li></ul><ul><li>A Lego model of modularity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Learning Objects: The Present <ul><li>Enormous popularity of the term and the basic approach of modularity </li></ul><ul><li>Growing demand for dynamic “just the right” content </li></ul><ul><li>Critical role of accredited and other standards </li></ul>
  30. 30. Learning Objects: Myths & Misunderstandings <ul><li>Can’t have both Reusability AND context </li></ul><ul><li>No such thing as RLO’s! </li></ul><ul><li>how small the level of granularity is </li></ul><ul><li>the roles of richness and metadata in the model </li></ul><ul><li>the “nested” nature of the model </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to deliver both maximum “context” (learning) and maximum reusability and repurposing </li></ul><ul><li>the degree of mass customization and ultimately personalization this enables </li></ul><ul><li>the connection to skills and competencies through objectives </li></ul>
  31. 31. Learning Objects: Challenges <ul><li>Have not hit the tipping point of modularity yet </li></ul><ul><li>Separating content down to “raw” level </li></ul><ul><li>Treating content as an island, no inclusion of Context and Competencies yet </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of shareable and reusable OBJECTIVE statements </li></ul>
  32. 32. Universal Object Model? Principle Fact Process Overview Procedure Text Audio Summary Concept ENABLING Objective E nabling L earning O bject T erminal L earning O bject Animation Simulation illustration TERMINAL Objective Common Content Application Specific Profiles Repurposed with Permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity “ Raw” Data & Media Elements Information Blocks CONTENT ASSETS 0 SkillObject
  33. 33. SkillObject ™ 0
  34. 34. Universal Object Model? Principle Fact Process Overview Procedure Text Audio Summary Concept Principle Process Concept Procedure Fact Overview Summary Objective E nabling L earning O bject T erminal L earning O bject Collections ( Courses , Stories,) Animation Simulation illustration Objective Theme Enabling Objective Terminal Objective Common Content Application Specific Profiles Repurposed with Permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity “ Raw” Data & Media Elements Information Blocks CONTENT ASSETS 0 SkillObject
  35. 35. Universal Object Model? Principle Fact Process Overview Procedure Text Audio Summary Concept Principle Process Concept Procedure Fact Overview Summary Objective E nabling L earning O bject T erminal L earning O bject Collections ( Courses , Stories,) Animation Simulation illustration Objective Theme Enabling Objective Terminal Objective Common Content Application Specific Profiles Repurposed with Permission: W.Hodgins ©1992 Learnativity “ Raw” Data & Media Elements Information Blocks CONTENT ASSETS 0 SkillObject CONTEXT ReUSABILITY
  36. 36. Learning Objects: The Future <ul><li>Content combined with and driven by Competencies and Context </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizing the use of all media and content types </li></ul><ul><li>Mashups </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Customization  Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Automation of assembly based on demand signal of a performance objective </li></ul>
  37. 37. Long Tail <ul><li>Market of one is the biggest of all? </li></ul><ul><li>The “getting small” of business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine enough non hits on the Long Tail and you've got a market bigger than the hits! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;The biggest money is in the smallest sales.“ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barnes & Noble carries 130,000 books </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than half Amazon sales from OUTSIDE top 130,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The market for books not sold in the bookstore is larger than those that are! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Google makes most of its money from small advertisers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eBay the same </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children today will grow up never knowing the meaning of “out of print” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stuck in the physical world for our frame of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Transform from mass markets to mass marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Finding vs. searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative filtering, social recommender systems, pattern recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Say it again………… </li></ul>
  38. 38. Anatomy of the Long Tail Courtesy Wired magazine
  39. 39. Courtesy Wired magazine
  40. 40. STANDARDS Thanks to Ms. Shu-jiun (Sophy) Chen for the previous coverage
  41. 41. Coming Next: CORDRA! <ul><ul><li>C ontent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O bject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R epository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D ISCOVERY and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ESOLUTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rchitecture </li></ul></ul>See www.cordra.org for MUCH MUCH more!
  42. 42. CORDRA “Triangle” Discovery Delivery Context Identification Location Resolution Retrieval See www.cordra.org for details and MUCH more!
  43. 43. Content Object Model E nabling L earning O bject T erminal L earning O bject CONTENT ASSETS Principle Fact Process Overview Procedure Text Audio Summary Concept Principle Process Concept Procedure Fact Overview Summary Objective “ Raw” Data & Media Elements Information Blocks Collections ( Courses , Stories,) Animation Simulation illustration Objective Theme Enabling Objective Terminal Objective Common Content Application Specific Profiles Typical SCO Circa 2000 Typical SCO Circa 2003 Typical SCO Circa 2005 Typical SCO ?Circa 2010? SCO = Shareable Content Object: Lowest level of granularity of learning resources tracked by an LMS using the SCORM Run-Time Environment. The Incredible Shrinking SCO Path to Content Independence* Repurposed with Permission: W.Hodgins ©2004 Learnativity
  44. 44. IN CLOSING: <ul><li>Everything becoming a “mashup” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People (via competencies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expand your scope: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata for every noun (and some verbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies & Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LO’s as the model for all/most content not “just” learning </li></ul><ul><li>Automate everything possible! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive Scaleablity is mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compounding ROI, putting existing metadata to work </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg music, Pandora </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider the “genome” approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different than taxonomies and ontologies? </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Innovation not replication! <ul><li>Let’s stop “flapping” </li></ul><ul><li>and replicating past artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT about </li></ul><ul><li>FLAPPING faster!! </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start thinking </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENTLY !! </li></ul>How does this apply to YOU? Practice Leadership by EXAMPLE!
  46. 46. 谢 谢 各 位 Thank you very much! For Questions & Comments please contact: [email_address] For slides, podcasts and blogs go to: www.autodesk.com/waynehodgins

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