K eys to Success What Makes Technology Work in Schools?
A Virtual Seminar by Wayne Burnett EDES 545 October 11, 2007 Dr. Jennifer Branch University of Alberta Topic 2: Enhancing ...
A Technology Agnostic <ul><li>“ I’m agnostic on this,” Dede says.   My goal isn’t to promote technology. It’s to show the ...
A Technology Skeptic <ul><li>For about 15 years, Larry Cuban has argued that computers, as a medium of instruction and as ...
Technology? <ul><li>There is a lot of hype behind the use of technology in education. There are skeptics like Cuban who qu...
Seminar Outline <ul><li>Part One: Do computers in education result in improved learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Part Two: What ...
Part One: I am agnostic, too (reflection) <ul><li>Despite the fact that I have substantial ICT responsibilities at my scho...
Evidence for  libraries <ul><li>Todd (2003) makes a case for teacher librarians to document their positive impact on stude...
Evidence for  technology (1) <ul><li>Gibbons and Young (1997) state that “a review of the relevant research literature, ho...
Evidence for  technology (2) <ul><li>Becker (2000), examining whether Cuban was right, writes: </li></ul><ul><li>“ On the ...
Summary of Part One <ul><li>There are lots of reports in favour of technology in education. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually...
Part Two: Expectations <ul><li>What are our expectations when technology is used in education? </li></ul><ul><li>Improved ...
Expectations – academic improvement <ul><li>If the goal is improved student learning, what kind of skills are assessed. </...
Expectations – 21 st  century learning <ul><li>For many, the issue is ensuring that schools are up-to-date with what is ha...
Expectations – student engagement <ul><li>This is an area where there seems to be more success. </li></ul><ul><li>There ar...
Expectations – changing teaching, reforming schools <ul><li>Perhaps the area that I find most contentious </li></ul><ul><l...
Part Three: Giving Computers a Chance <ul><li>No connection to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Tired, old computers </li></...
What is necessary for success? <ul><li>In some cases, the problem is money. </li></ul><ul><li>In others, it is the lack of...
Keys to Success <ul><li>However success is to be measured, there are a range of factors or conditions that appear to be ne...
International Society for Technology in Education <ul><li>The ISTE develops and publishes the National Educational Technol...
Essential Conditions (1) <ul><li>Shared Vision —Proactive leadership in developing a shared vision for educational technol...
Essential Conditions (2) <ul><li>Consistent and Adequate Funding —On-going funding to support technology infrastructure, p...
Essential Conditions (3) <ul><li>Skilled Personnel —Educators and support staff skilled in the use of technology appropria...
Essential Conditions (4) <ul><li>Technical Support —Consistent and reliable assistance for maintaining, renewing, and usin...
Essential Conditions (5) <ul><li>Assessment & Evaluation —Continuous assessment, both of learning and for learning, and ev...
Essential Conditions (6) <ul><li>Support Policies —Policies, financial plans, accountability measures, and incentive struc...
What’s important? <ul><li>Gibbons and Young listed these items as necessary for progress: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on learn...
What’s important? <ul><li>Gibbons and Young’s list (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in realistic budgeting </li></ul>...
What’s Important <ul><li>The  Technology Planning and E-Rate Support Center  recommends 30% of the technology budget shoul...
What’s Important <ul><li>Personal view: In my experience, the two items – professional development and realistic budgeting...
What’s important (practical) <ul><li>My final project looks at laptop learning and particularly at what’s important/necess...
Questions to Ponder (1) <ul><li>Are you a technology evangelist, skeptic or agnostic (in Singapore, a “free thinker”)? </l...
Questions to Ponder (2) <ul><li>Should the introduction of technology be expected to change schools fundamentally or is fu...
Questions to Ponder (3) <ul><li>What are the key factors that make technology integration successful? </li></ul><ul><li>Wh...
References <ul><li>Becker, H. J. (2000).  Findings from the Teaching, Learning, and Computing Survey: Is Larry Cuban Right...
References <ul><li>Gibbons, J. H. and Young, J. (1997).  Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen Ed...
References <ul><li>Livingston, P. (2006). 1-to-1 Learning: Laptop Programs that Work. Eugene, Oregon: International Societ...
References <ul><li>Sandholtz, J. H., Ringstaff, C., and Dwyer, D. (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating Student Centr...
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Keys To Success Burnett

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Prepared for a course on educational technology within a diploma on teacher librarianship.

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Keys To Success Burnett

  1. 1. K eys to Success What Makes Technology Work in Schools?
  2. 2. A Virtual Seminar by Wayne Burnett EDES 545 October 11, 2007 Dr. Jennifer Branch University of Alberta Topic 2: Enhancing Education Through Information Technology
  3. 3. A Technology Agnostic <ul><li>“ I’m agnostic on this,” Dede says. My goal isn’t to promote technology. It’s to show the strengths and weaknesses of the technology. It’s a value to the field to show this. I’m not on a crusade.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Dede, Professor of Learning Technologies, </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Graduate School of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Hough, 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Technology Skeptic <ul><li>For about 15 years, Larry Cuban has argued that computers, as a medium of instruction and as a tool for student learning, are largely incompatible with the requirements of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Becker, 2000 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Technology? <ul><li>There is a lot of hype behind the use of technology in education. There are skeptics like Cuban who question whether computers are actually helping. Dede might be expected, given his position, to support technology in education, but even he declines to be a technology evangelist in favour of focusing on the research findings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Seminar Outline <ul><li>Part One: Do computers in education result in improved learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Part Two: What are our expectations in introducing technology in teaching and learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Part Three: What are the necessary conditions for technology in education to be effective? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Part One: I am agnostic, too (reflection) <ul><li>Despite the fact that I have substantial ICT responsibilities at my school, some years of experience and academic work in the area, I recognize that the machines are just one part of the puzzle. In certain situations, I would give up ICT teaching time for other subjects…in early elementary, probably for a weekly visit to the library! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evidence for libraries <ul><li>Todd (2003) makes a case for teacher librarians to document their positive impact on student achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Haycock (2003) provides research evidence that teacher librarians and libraries contribute to student achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence for technology is not so easily found. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Evidence for technology (1) <ul><li>Gibbons and Young (1997) state that “a review of the relevant research literature, however, suggests that although a substantial amount of very interesting and potentially significant work has been done, we are not yet able to answer this question…” (“…the extent to which widely useable constructivist applications of computing and networking technologies in fact achieve desirable educational outcomes in a cost-effective manner”). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Evidence for technology (2) <ul><li>Becker (2000), examining whether Cuban was right, writes: </li></ul><ul><li>“ On the issue of whether computers are generally a central vehicle of instructional activities in classrooms, the data suggest that Cuban remains correct up to the present time. ” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Summary of Part One <ul><li>There are lots of reports in favour of technology in education. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually point to improvements in student engagement and motivation, or to the need to develop modern skills for the 21 st century workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there is little research to point to improved academic achievement. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Part Two: Expectations <ul><li>What are our expectations when technology is used in education? </li></ul><ul><li>Improved literacy and numeracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Computer skills, work skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Student motivation, engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in teaching methodology? </li></ul><ul><li>Peck, Cuban and Kirkpatrick, 2002, has a similar list. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Expectations – academic improvement <ul><li>If the goal is improved student learning, what kind of skills are assessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some research suggests that traditional uses of computers can improve basic skills, though there are some contentious results (Gibbons and Young, 1007). </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in information literacy, collaboration and other skills are more difficult to measure. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Expectations – 21 st century learning <ul><li>For many, the issue is ensuring that schools are up-to-date with what is happening outside the school walls </li></ul><ul><li>Just as technology is changing the worlds of work, of play, of communication, so should it change education. </li></ul><ul><li>But, can schools ever keep up with technological change? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Expectations – student engagement <ul><li>This is an area where there seems to be more success. </li></ul><ul><li>There are reports of increased student engagement, fewer discipline problems </li></ul><ul><li>This may be a success story, but so too are other initiatives to improve student motivation, like arts and sports programmes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Expectations – changing teaching, reforming schools <ul><li>Perhaps the area that I find most contentious </li></ul><ul><li>There are assertions that by integrating technology into schools, teaching will change </li></ul><ul><li>Should this be an expectation of technology? Should PD, leadership, pre-service and in-service education, mentoring, etc. be the way to achieve desired changes? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Part Three: Giving Computers a Chance <ul><li>No connection to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Tired, old computers </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough or no training for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough computers </li></ul><ul><li>Few peripherals, such as printers </li></ul><ul><li>Old styles of teaching (and learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate software </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is necessary for success? <ul><li>In some cases, the problem is money. </li></ul><ul><li>In others, it is the lack of a plan for integration, including PD and other kinds of support. </li></ul><ul><li>What is important for success in technology integration? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Keys to Success <ul><li>However success is to be measured, there are a range of factors or conditions that appear to be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>It is perhaps where these conditions are lacking that explains the lack of measurable improvement in student achievement or in other areas. </li></ul>
  20. 20. International Society for Technology in Education <ul><li>The ISTE develops and publishes the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) in three editions – student (NETS-S), teacher (NETS-T) and administrator (NETS-A). NETS-S has recently been updated. </li></ul><ul><li>ISTE also publishes “ ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS : Necessary conditions to effectively leverage technology for learning ”. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Essential Conditions (1) <ul><li>Shared Vision —Proactive leadership in developing a shared vision for educational technology among school personnel, parents, students, and the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Planning —A systemic plan aligned with a shared vision for school effectiveness and student learning through the infusion of technology and digital learning resources. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Essential Conditions (2) <ul><li>Consistent and Adequate Funding —On-going funding to support technology infrastructure, personnel, digital resources, and staff development. </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable Access —Robust and reliable access to current and emerging technologies, digital resources, and connectivity for all students, teachers, staff, and school leaders. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Essential Conditions (3) <ul><li>Skilled Personnel —Educators and support staff skilled in the use of technology appropriate for their job responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing Professional Learning —Technology-related professional learning plans and opportunities with dedicated time to practice and share ideas. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Essential Conditions (4) <ul><li>Technical Support —Consistent and reliable assistance for maintaining, renewing, and using technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Framework —Content standards and related digital curriculum resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Student-Centered Learning —Use of technology to facilitate engaging approaches to learning. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Essential Conditions (5) <ul><li>Assessment & Evaluation —Continuous assessment, both of learning and for learning, and evaluation of use of technology and digital resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged Communities —Partnerships and collaboration within the community to support and fund use of technology and digital resources. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Essential Conditions (6) <ul><li>Support Policies —Policies, financial plans, accountability measures, and incentive structures to support the use of technology in learning and in district and school operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive External Context — Policies and initiatives at the national, regional, and local levels to support schools in the effective implementation of technology for achieving curriculum and technology standards. </li></ul>
  27. 27. What’s important? <ul><li>Gibbons and Young listed these items as necessary for progress: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on learning with technology, not about technology </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize content and pedagogy, and not just hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Give special attention to professional development </li></ul>
  28. 28. What’s important? <ul><li>Gibbons and Young’s list (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in realistic budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure equitable, universal access </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate a major program of experimental research </li></ul>
  29. 29. What’s Important <ul><li>The Technology Planning and E-Rate Support Center recommends 30% of the technology budget should go to professional development. </li></ul><ul><li>Wahl (2000, quoted in Ringstaff and Kelley, 2002) recommended that 70% of technology budgets go for training and technical support. </li></ul>
  30. 30. What’s Important <ul><li>Personal view: In my experience, the two items – professional development and realistic budgeting – are often issues. A lot of money needs to be set aside for professional development, both for adequate technical skills and more importantly for technology integration/pedagogy skills. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What’s important (practical) <ul><li>My final project looks at laptop learning and particularly at what’s important/necessary to make my school’s programme successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The suggestions here need to be made more practical so that essential changes can be made. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Questions to Ponder (1) <ul><li>Are you a technology evangelist, skeptic or agnostic (in Singapore, a “free thinker”)? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think technology improves student achievement? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Questions to Ponder (2) <ul><li>Should the introduction of technology be expected to change schools fundamentally or is fundamental change a separate issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Is technology being used effectively and significantly in your school/school district? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions to Ponder (3) <ul><li>What are the key factors that make technology integration successful? </li></ul><ul><li>What is missing in your teaching and learning environment that would make technology integration more successful? Think practical, day-to-day needs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. References <ul><li>Becker, H. J. (2000). Findings from the Teaching, Learning, and Computing Survey: Is Larry Cuban Right? Education Policy Analysis Archives . Retrieved 8 October 2007 from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n51/ . </li></ul><ul><li>Burns, M. (2002). From Black and White to Color: Technology, Professional Development and Changing Practice. T.H.E. Journal, June 2002. ProQuest Education Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Clyde, L. (2004). Computing in the palm of your hand. Teacher Librarian, February, 2004. ProQuest Education Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Frazier, M. and Bailey, G. D. (2004). The Technology Coordinator’s Handbook. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education. </li></ul>
  36. 36. References <ul><li>Gibbons, J. H. and Young, J. (1997). Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen Education in the United States. President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. Panel on Educational Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Haycock, K. (2003). The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Re-Investment. Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers. Retrieved 3 October 2007 from http://www.peopleforeducation.com/librarycoalition/Report03.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Hough, L. (2007). Handhelds, Avatars, and Virtual Aliens : How learning in the classroom is changing and why Professor Chris Dede and his team are on a non-crusade to figure out how all of the pieces fit together. Retrieved 9 October 2007 from http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news_events/ed/2007/fall/features/handhelds.html . </li></ul><ul><li>International Society for Technology in Education. Essential Conditions to Make it Happen (2007 draft). National Educational Technology Standards for Students. Retrieved 15 September 2007 from http://cnets.iste.org/students/pdf/essential-conditions2007.pdf . </li></ul>
  37. 37. References <ul><li>Livingston, P. (2006). 1-to-1 Learning: Laptop Programs that Work. Eugene, Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Peck, C., Cuban, L., and Kirkpatrick, H. (2001). High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox . ProQuest Education Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Peck, C., Cuban, L., and Kirkpatrick, H. (2002). High-Tech’s High Hopes Meet Student Realities. Phi Delta Kappan. ProQuest Education Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ringstaff, C. and Kelley, R. (2002). The Learning Return On Our Educational Technology Investment: A Review of Findings from Research. San Francisco: WestEd. Retrieved 1 October 2007 from http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/learning_return.pdf . </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Sandholtz, J. H., Ringstaff, C., and Dwyer, D. (1997). Teaching with Technology: Creating Student Centred Classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Planning and E-Rate Support Center . (2007). Accessed 11 October 2007 at http://tpesc.esc12.net/ . </li></ul><ul><li>Todd, R. J. (2003). Irrefutable Evidence. School Library Journal, April 2003. ProQuest Education Journals, p. 52. </li></ul>

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