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Agua y Energía: Problemática y soluciones por Tomás Sancho, Consejo Mundial de Ingenieros Civiles

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Presentación sobre "Agua y Energía: Problemática y soluciones" por Tomás Sancho, Consejo Mundial de Ingenieros Civiles, en la Conferencia Anual 2014 de ONU-Agua en Zaragoza. Preparando el Día Mundial del Agua 2014: Alianzas para mejorar el acceso, la eficiencia y la sostenibilidad del agua y la energía. 13-16 de enero de 2014.

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Agua y Energía: Problemática y soluciones por Tomás Sancho, Consejo Mundial de Ingenieros Civiles

  1. 1. AGUA Y ENERGÍA: PROBLEMÁTICA Y SOLUCIONES
  2. 2. AGUA Y ENERGÍA: PROBLEMÁTICA Y SOLUCIONES Tomás A. Sancho Presidente Consultores en Ingeniería y Arquitectura Zaragoza 15 01 2014
  3. 3. Water & Energy in the nature: the hydrologic cycle
  4. 4. • 1.- El agua y la energía están mal distribuidas. • Muy buena parte de la población mundial no tiene acceso a agua segura y saneamiento básico, ni a electricidad. • El primer mundo importa agua (virtual) y energía del mundo en desarrollo • El primer mundo no puede aceptar inestabilidades extremas en los lugares de donde depende su bienestar y prosperidad
  5. 5. AGUA: RETOS FRENTE A LA URBANIZACIÓN Y EL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO
  6. 6. With electricity Without electricity Fuente: Luis Berga, ICOLD honorary President
  7. 7. ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY LACK ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY. 2010 1441 million people 1.4 billion people live without acces to electricity. CHINA; 8 OTHERS; 14 LATIN AMERICA; 31 OTHER ASIA; 397 Another billion only have acces to unreliable electricity Source: Luis Berga ICOLD honorary President . INDIA; 404 AFRICA; 587
  8. 8. • 2.- La energía, “big brother” ve las orejas al lobo: puede haber problemas en un futuro no muy lejano • Agotamiento yacimientos fósiles • Stress hídrico • Cambio climático
  9. 9. Fuente; Mariano Marzo, Club de Roma, 2012
  10. 10. ¿CÓMO SUSTITUIR EL PETRÓLEO? ¿RENOVABLES, SHALE GAS, FUSIÓN…?
  11. 11. Fuente; Mariano Marzo, Club de Roma, 2012
  12. 12. • 3.- Las renovables son parte de la solución • • • • Aseguran mayor autoabastecimiento Versátiles y acercables a la demanda Junto con nuclear, las de menores emisiones CO2 Eólica y solar tienen sus problemas, necesitan almacenamiento y respaldo • Los países desarrollados deben absorber la curva de aprendizaje
  13. 13. La Directiva UE Renewable Energy Source Directive (2008), más conocida como la Directiva 20-20-20: 3 objetivos, 3 retos para Europa en el año 2020: - Reducción del 20% en la emisión de gases de los hogares europeos - Incremento del 20% en la eficiencia energética de los edificios - Utilización del 20% de energías renovables en el total de la producción energética europea.
  14. 14. NECESIDAD DE ALMACENAMIENTO DE EÓLICA
  15. 15. EL IMPERATIVO ALMACENAMIENTO DE ENERGÍA: REALIDAD ACTUAL, LAS REVERSIBLES DE BOMBEO
  16. 16. • 4.- LA ENERGÍA HIDROELÉCTRICA, APUESTA DE FUTURO • Es una tecnología renovable, madura, probada, fiable y que actualmente a nivel mundial, tiene capacidad para generar mucha más electricidad que todas las demás fuentes renovables, juntas. • Es el mejor respaldo para la eólica y la solar
  17. 17. HYDROPOWER: 3.551 TWh/y ≈ 16% ELECTRICITY. 2011. 85% RENEWABLES Source: Luis Berga, ICOLD honorary President
  18. 18. The role of hydropower in 2012: • World hydro production stands at 3,551 TWh/year • Hydro capacity is 976 GW. • Increase 3.5 % annual rate, in the last 5 years. • There are about 180 GW of hydro under construction, and more than 300 MW planned Source: Luis Berga, ICOLD honorary President
  19. 19. HYDROPOWER: USAGE/ ECONOMIC FEASIBLE POTENTIAL (2004) Source: Luis Berga, ICOLD honorary President
  20. 20. ROLE OF HYDROPOWER IN CC MITIGATION -PREVENT EMISSION: ≈ 3 Gt CO2 –eq/year. -9 % OF TOTAL ANNUAL GHG EMISSIONS -IN GENERAL, IT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY PRODUCING FEW GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS
  21. 21. • 5.- Actuaciones en el mundo
  22. 22. 33.150 MW Under construction
  23. 23. WORLD BANK GUARANTEE PROGRAM YEARS 2005-2012
  24. 24. Central Asia Energy-Water Development Program • At the country level, the World Bank is supporting a number of energy and water resources projects and studies in Central Asia. Many have regional significance and benefits and others have more localized project or country level benefits. • At the regional level, in response to requests from Central Asian governments, the World Bank is actively engaged in dialogue on energy/water issues with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, acting in the best interests of all its member countries and taking maximum care in the application of its policies, including environmental and social safeguard policies.
  25. 25. Central Asia Energy-Water Development Program The main components of the CAEWDP are: • Energy Development to promote highest value energy investments and management. Areas of focus include: infrastructure planning, winter energy security, energy trade, energy accountability, and institutional development; • Energy-Water Linkages to improve the understanding of linkages between water and energy at the national and regional levels. Areas of focus include: energy-water modeling, regional hydrometeorology, climate vulnerability, and energy-water dialogue; • Water Productivity to enhance the productivity and efficiency of water use in both agriculture and energy sectors. Areas of focus include: capacity strengthening, 3rd Aral Sea Basin Management Program, national action plans for water productivity, and rehabilitation of infrastructure. OTHER ACTORS INVOLVED IN W&E IN CENTRAL ASIA: the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), the European Commission (EC), Eurasian Development Bank, UNDP, UNECE, Germany (GTZ), Switzerland (SECO), UK (DFID), the US (USAID), and the Aga Khan Foundation
  26. 26. WPP WATER PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM The WPP Response Making efficient use of water and energy in parallel can transform development regimes and foster growth. The WPP is influencing activities at the core of the water-energy nexus. The WPP shows how mitigation incentives can bring energy efficiency improvements to water service delivery. It is also helping several countries re-engage in large-scale hydropower, and helping others meet development objectives through comprehensive planning to secure energy sources from water. WPP Activity Highlights: • Water utilities in Karnataka, India are using energy efficient pumps to reduce supply costs. The project will cut 135,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions over 10 years. • Tajikistan benefited from suggested operational improvements for a hydropower facility that supplies 70 percent of the country’s electrical power. • A new 21-country study details the opportunities for using concentrated solar power as a reliable energy source for desalination plants across the water-scarce Middle East.
  27. 27. AFGHANISTAN: Micro-Hydro Power Plant Lights the Way for Future • A micro-hydro power plant has eased the life of villagers in Nangarhar province, enabling children to study at night and families to use computers and cell phones. • The power plant was made possible by the National Solidarity Program, which provides basic infrastructure and services to rural Afghanistan. It is implemented by the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development with support by the World Bank and ARTF. Some 3,200 projects involving small-scale construction have already been completed in the province under NSP
  28. 28. INFRASTRUCTURE AT THE IDB •The IDB is helping the region (LAC) to address their needs and challenges by financing projects and leading collaborative processes. •In the last decade (2000-10) the IDB approved more than US$37 billion in infrastructure projects (US$ 26 billion in SGO + US$ 11 billion in NSGO). •Around 30% of this financing went to water and sanitation. •Since 2007, the IDB financed more than $2.6 billion for renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change loans and technical cooperation operations. To encourage sustainable development, the IDB is supporting through the Climate Change and Renewable Energy Initiative (SECCI), the development of institutional and regulatory frameworks to allow investments in sustainable transport, alternative fuels, renewable energy and energy efficiency.
  29. 29. • The IDB participation in hydroelectric projects in the private sector is just one area within the context of the Bank’s strategy to support the introduction or increased utilization of energies from renewable sources • The IDB has been principally involved in run-of-the-river hydroelectric transactions which from an environmental and social perspective tend to have less potential negative impacts. Nevertheless, the IDB undertakes a thorough environmental and social due diligence with attention to issues such as, but not limited to, minimum ecological flows, protection of indigent species and fish, sedimentation impacts, cumulative impacts with other projects on the same river, upstream and downstream impacts and if any, resettlement and indigenous population concerns.
  30. 30. Project Form of IDB Support PandoSenior, Monte Lirio Secured Loan IDB Loan Amounts Approved US$40 million (Cost 292) Country/ Power IDB website link Panama 83 MW http://www.iadb.org/en/projects/projectdescription-title,1303.html?id=PN-L1054 Reventazon Senior, Secured Loan US$200 mllion (Cost 944) Costa Rica 305 MW http://www.iadb.org/en/projects/projectdescription-title,1303.html?id=CR-L1056 Chaglla Senior, Secured Loan US$150 million (Cost 1200) Perú 406 MW http://www.iadb.org/en/projects/projectdescription-title,1303.html?id=PE-L1113 Alto Maipo Senior, Secured Loan US$200 million (Cost 1200) Chile 531 MW http://www.iadb.org/en/projects/projectdescription-title,1303.html?id=CH-L1067
  31. 31. FONDO DE COOPERACIÓN PARA AGUA Y SANEAMIENTO (1.500 MILLONS USD) OBJETIVOS ESPECÍFICOS DEL FONDO • Garantizar el acceso al agua potable asegurando el uso sostenible de los recursos naturales. • Garantizar el acceso a servicios básicos de saneamiento promoviendo el uso sostenible de los recursos naturales. • Favorecer la gestión integral del recurso hídrico. • Fortalecer una gobernanza del sector agua promoviendo una gestión pública, transparente y participativa del recurso. • Adoptar mecanismos que mejoren la calidad de la ayuda, en los términos de la Declaración de París.
  32. 32. ¡MUCHAS GRACIAS POR SU ATENCIÓN! Tomás A. Sancho tsancho@sers.es

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