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Development and urban infrastructure: a sustainability perspective


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WASH 2011 conference: Stuart White, ISF, UTS

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Development and urban infrastructure: a sustainability perspective

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  3. 3. Pressures and drivers<br />3<br />Pressure to achieve MDG water and sanitation targets and ‘water for all’<br />Uncertainty and threat of water scarcity<br />Need to protect public health<br />Need to conserve the environment<br />
  4. 4. The pressure of increasing costs<br />Source: World Bank World Development Report 1992<br />
  5. 5. A new approach for urban waterNext generation water systems must be…<br />Cost effective<br />Low risk<br />Adaptable<br />Focused on meeting needs - ‘service’ rather than water provision<br />More equitable<br />Environmentally sustainable<br />Protect public health<br />This requires a focus on actual water uses and users - the demand side of water planning and management<br />
  6. 6. New approach is underpinned by ‘end use’ or ‘demand side’ analysis<br />6<br />Water end use<br />Demand side planning<br />Conservation potential<br />Disaggregation of water use data<br />Integrated Resources Planning<br />Understanding how we use water now is essential to accurately forecast future water needs in different cities and best plan to meet those needs<br />
  7. 7. The quantity of water used varies greatly between countries<br />7<br />Need to respond to actual water needs in different cities with appropriate supply and demand option<br />
  8. 8. The quantity of water used varies greatly between and within countries<br />litres per capita per day<br />Residential (pink), non residential (yellow) and unaccounted for water (light blue) per capita demand comparison (EBMUD is the Oakland area, east of San Francisco)<br />
  9. 9. Not just quantity that differs, also how water is used – eg Alexandria and Sydney<br />
  10. 10. Alexandria residential water use<br />A disaggregated water use analysis (‘end use study’) is the foundation for good supply-demand planning<br />
  11. 11. Level of water/ energy/ materials use per capita<br />Level of water/ energy/ materials use per capita<br />Level of development<br />
  12. 12. Pathways to sustainability<br />Bossell (1998) “Pathways to sustainability”<br />
  13. 13. Stock models - toilets<br />
  14. 14. Stock models - toilets<br />
  15. 15. Then what? The ‘5 Step’ Process as a way forward<br />Step 1: Plan the overall process<br />Step 2: Analyse the situation<br />Demand forecasting<br />Step 3: Develop the response<br />Design & analyse options<br />Step 4: Implement the response<br />Step 5: Monitor, evaluate & review<br /><br />
  16. 16. The focus is on cost effective water service provision<br />Forecast water demand more accurately <br />Think differently - ‘water service provision’ not just water supply<br />Design and compare broad selection of options (water efficiency, reuse, supply)<br />Use same $/m3 to compare costs and benefits of all options supplying or saving water<br />We can provide water services differently and potentially save water and money through identifying “conservation potential”<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Salalah – supply curve<br />Desalination<br />
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  19. 19. Four generations of infrastructure<br />
  20. 20. Principles for eco-technology<br /><ul><li>Maximise efficiency and source control
  21. 21. Water reuse, energy recovery, nutrient capture
  22. 22. Distributed systems can reduce energy use and capital cost, as well as reduce risk</li></li></ul><li>The economics of generational change<br />Relative cost per household<br />Third<br />Second<br />Fourth<br />First<br />We are here<br />Developing cities have the opportunity to be at the forefront of innovation<br />Generations<br />
  23. 23. Tools for sustainable urban water futures<br />International Demand Management Framework<br />Analysis of costs and benefits and options assessment<br />Social inclusion approaches (poverty, gender)<br />All policy instruments (regulation, economic instruments and communication)<br />Deliberative processes<br />22<br />
  24. 24. Australian ODA on health and watsan<br />23<br />
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  26. 26. Citizen engagement/ stakeholder engagement<br /><br />
  27. 27. Citizen engagement/ stakeholder engagement<br /><br />
  28. 28. Examples<br />
  29. 29. Key messages<br />Current conventional urban water management approaches are unsustainable environmentally and economically. We need to move beyond ‘business as usual’based on increasing water demand and intensive and expensive treatment of wastewater.<br />Best practice approaches emphasise cost effectiveness, adaptability and sustainability – this requires a focus on the demand side of water planning so solutions are right for their context and we can tap into conservation potential.<br />There are a suite of tools to support demand centred planning for sustainable urban water systems – social and regulatory drivers.<br />Developing cities have the opportunity to be at the forefront of innovation – they can ‘leapfrog’ to sustainable options, characterised by efficient water use and adaptive wastewater treatment systems (or waterless waste systems).<br />
  30. 30. Further information<br /><br />