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River health assessment:              河流健康评估 :Guiding principles 指导准则Prof Stuart Bunn 斯图亚特 · 巴恩 教授Director, Australian Riv...
Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标Why monitor? 需要监测的原因 ?• To ensure that important environmental ‘assets’ and...
Other examples of ‘assets’   其它例证                                         Recreation                                      ...
Outline 概Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of of the program确定项目目标    Identify the objectives the progr...
Identify the objectives of the program确定项目目标Important to set clear goals and objectives and be able to present avision for...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
Tools to quantify river health?定量河流健康的方法Traditional water chemistry 传统的水中化学元素含量检测• recognized not adequate on its own     ...
Macroinvertebrate assemblages大型无椎动物集合
Invertebrates as Indicators 无脊椎动物Why use invertebrates? 为什么选择无脊椎动物做为河 流健康评估指标– Ubiquitous 分布广  •   occur in most habitats ...
Fish assemblages 鱼类集合
Fish as Indicators 鱼类Why use fish? 选择鱼类做为河流健康评估指标的原因  – Life history information often available 可知道其生长的年份  – Cover variou...
Ecosystem processes 生态系统测量过程                 Primary production                 初级生产力
Selection of indicators 选择评估指标 Important to select a few indicators that are meaningful. 选择有意义的指标非常重要 •Ones that respond t...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
What factors influence importantenvironmental assets?    Minimally Impacted Site 受影响较小的地域影响重要环境资产的因素• Show how healthy eco...
Identify threats to river ecosystems   確定對河流生態系統的威脅Point and diffuse source pollution 污染排放源
Threats to river ecosystems    對河流生態系統的威脅                                           Loss of floodplains and wetlands      ...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program      确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators)...
River Classification 河流分类Different types of river will:不同的河流将•   Require different indicators    要求不同的指示物•   Have differen...
Classification of SE Queensland streams 东南昆士兰州河流类型分类                       Based on 4 variables 基于以下 4                    ...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
Testing indicators 测试指标Literature survey – examples fromprevious studies 文献综述——文献研究中的案例Disturbance gradient approach todet...
Testing indicators against a disturbancegradient 测试指标与干扰变化Ecological health indicator生态健康参数指标                             ...
Testing indicators against a disturbance                                      Xgradient 测试指标与干扰变化Ecological health indicat...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考What is ‘healthy’ and what is not?                       何为“健康 ” 与“不健康 ”     X ...
Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考Need to define a reference point for indicators需要定义指标的参考点 – What should we expe...
Alternatives 其它可能• Minimally disturbed condition (MDC) 最低限度干扰情况  – Best approximation of RC(BI) 的最好近似值  – Most common form...
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
Report card – communication tool评估报告卡 —— 沟通工具                                                                             ...
Example of Report card 其他报告卡样本Strickland River, New Guinea. 斯特里克兰,新几内亚
Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1   Identify the objectives of the program   确定项目目标2   Identify suitable measures (indicators) of...
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4 river health assessment guiding principles

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4 river health assessment guiding principles

  1. 1. River health assessment: 河流健康评估 :Guiding principles 指导准则Prof Stuart Bunn 斯图亚特 · 巴恩 教授Director, Australian Rivers Institute 澳大利亚河流学会 会长Griffith University 格里菲斯大学
  2. 2. Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标Why monitor? 需要监测的原因 ?• To ensure that important environmental ‘assets’ and ‘values’ are protected 保证重要的环境“资产”及“价值”得到保护 - Ecosystem goods and services 生态系统的产品和服务 Clean, fresh drinking water is an example of an ecosystem service that healthy rivers provide … (for free) 洁净、新鲜的饮用水是是健康河流“ 免费”提供的生态产品的一个例证
  3. 3. Other examples of ‘assets’ 其它例证 Recreation 娱乐Fishing - protein 捕鱼 - 蛋白 Freshwater biodiversity 质 淡水生物多样性Aesthetics 美的享 受
  4. 4. Outline 概Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of of the program确定项目目标 Identify the objectives the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  5. 5. Identify the objectives of the program确定项目目标Important to set clear goals and objectives and be able to present avision for the future: 设置明确目标及对未来愿景的阐述非常重要For example, your vision might simply be “Healthy River”例如,你的愿景可能非常简单:“健康的河流” What would a healthy river look like? 健康的河流应该是怎样的 ? •Is it safe to drink? 河水是否可以安全饮用 ? •Will it have more fish? 是否拥有更多的鱼类 ? •Will it be safe to eat the fish? 河流中的鱼类是否可以安全食用?With a clear vision, it is possible to identify the values that reflect thatvision, and the water quality and ecosystem health objectives thatprotect those values.有了清晰的愿景我们才能够确定反映该愿景的价值,才能确定保护这些价值的水质及环境系统健康的指标
  6. 6. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  7. 7. Tools to quantify river health?定量河流健康的方法Traditional water chemistry 传统的水中化学元素含量检测• recognized not adequate on its own 不足以准确测量,需要其他数据 Three components of river health: 河流健康的三个要素• ecosystem vigour 系统活力 (e.g. rate of processes such as primary production)• organisation 种群结构 (refers to diversity and structure of biological communities)• Resilience 系统自我修复能力 (refers to a system’s capacity to recover after disturbance, Widespread use of biota (Rapport et al. 1998) 被广泛应用的生物群测量方法
  8. 8. Macroinvertebrate assemblages大型无椎动物集合
  9. 9. Invertebrates as Indicators 无脊椎动物Why use invertebrates? 为什么选择无脊椎动物做为河 流健康评估指标– Ubiquitous 分布广 • occur in most habitats across a diverse range of aquatic systems 在 不同的水生生态系统中广泛分布– Many species and families 大量的种类和种群 • spectrum of responses to environmental stresses 许多种类对环境变 化反应敏感– Sedentary 稳定 • effective spatial analyses of pollutants or disturbance effects 稳定不 迁徙,有效的在空间上分析污染及干扰的程度– Longevity 持续时间长 • evaluation of temporal changes 测试短时间的变化 Act as continuous monitors of the water they inhabit 在其居住水域中可持续监测
  10. 10. Fish assemblages 鱼类集合
  11. 11. Fish as Indicators 鱼类Why use fish? 选择鱼类做为河流健康评估指标的原因 – Life history information often available 可知道其生长的年份 – Cover various trophic classes 涉及不同层次的食物链 – Acute toxicity & stress effects generally known 对河流毒性及压 力反应激烈 – Affected by large scale influences 为规模较大的变化影响 – Long lived 存活时间长 – Have social and cultural value 同时具有社会及文化价值
  12. 12. Ecosystem processes 生态系统测量过程 Primary production 初级生产力
  13. 13. Selection of indicators 选择评估指标 Important to select a few indicators that are meaningful. 选择有意义的指标非常重要 •Ones that respond to things that threaten the values we identify 这些指标可以直接响应我们确定的河流既定价值 •Guide management actions 为实施管理提供指导方针 Design of the monitoring program and selection of indicators are very important. 监测项目的设计及评估指标的选择非常重要
  14. 14. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  15. 15. What factors influence importantenvironmental assets? Minimally Impacted Site 受影响较小的地域影响重要环境资产的因素• Show how healthy ecosystems function Nutrients GPP R24 Sediment 展示健康的生态系统如何运作• Show how important assets are affected by human disturbance 展示重要的环境 SEQRWQMS 2001 资产如何受人为活动影响 Highly Impacted Site 受影响较大的地域• Indicate critical components in the ecosystem to target for monitoring 显示 生态系统中必须检测的关键因素 N and P GPP R24• Highlight appropriate management Sediment actions for rehabilitation 着重强调如何 从利用管理手段复原健康生态系统 SEQRWQMS 2001
  16. 16. Identify threats to river ecosystems 確定對河流生態系統的威脅Point and diffuse source pollution 污染排放源
  17. 17. Threats to river ecosystems 對河流生態系統的威脅 Loss of floodplains and wetlands 泛洪區及濕地流失Dams and weirs – barriers, altered flows水庫及其他改變原徑流形態的因素
  18. 18. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  19. 19. River Classification 河流分类Different types of river will:不同的河流将• Require different indicators 要求不同的指示物• Have different targets 有不同的目标
  20. 20. Classification of SE Queensland streams 东南昆士兰州河流类型分类 Based on 4 variables 基于以下 4 个条件分类 – rainfall 降雨 – altitude 海拔 – slope 坡度 – stream size 河流大小 4 groups 4 种河流类型 – Upland (red) 高地类(红) – Lowland (blue) 低地类(蓝) – South Coastal (green) 南部沿海 类(绿色) – North Coastal (light blue) 背部沿 海类(浅蓝)
  21. 21. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  22. 22. Testing indicators 测试指标Literature survey – examples fromprevious studies 文献综述——文献研究中的案例Disturbance gradient approach todetecting impacts 应用干扰变化方法发现影响• Define a disturbance gradient 定义干扰变化• Objective comparisons - at same sites & times 目标比较 - 在相同试点和时间
  23. 23. Testing indicators against a disturbancegradient 测试指标与干扰变化Ecological health indicator生态健康参数指标 Reference values 参数值 Low 低 High 高 Disturbance gradient 干扰变化
  24. 24. Testing indicators against a disturbance Xgradient 测试指标与干扰变化Ecological health indicator生态健康参数指标 Low 低 High 高 Disturbance gradient 干扰变化
  25. 25. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  26. 26. Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考What is ‘healthy’ and what is not? 何为“健康 ” 与“不健康 ” X 
  27. 27. Reference or benchmark for indicators指标基准参考Need to define a reference point for indicators需要定义指标的参考点 – What should we expect at a site? 我们对试点应该期待些什么? Logical reference point is: 逻辑参考点是: – Expected condition if undisturbed by human activity (Biological Integrity) 无人为影响的期待的条件(生物完整性)In practice 实践中: – Such sites will not exist for many stream types 该试点不广泛存在在很多河流类型 – Common as a concept, rare in practice 概念里比较普遍,但实践中很少
  28. 28. Alternatives 其它可能• Minimally disturbed condition (MDC) 最低限度干扰情况 – Best approximation of RC(BI) 的最好近似值 – Most common form of reference 参考的最普遍形式 – Difficult to find enough sites (not enough for some parts of China) 很难找到足够试点(中国某些地方)• Historical condition 历史条件 – At a point in history prior to major disturbance (long ago in China) 在未受到重大干扰的时间(很久之前)• Least disturbed condition (LDC) 最少干扰的条件 – Best that can be found today (for some stream types, most disturbed) 如果能在现在找到最好(对某些河流类型,最受干扰的)• Best attainable condition 最佳可实现的条件 – Expected condition if Best Management Practices were in use, for a given use of the river/catchment 应用最佳管理方法的预期条件,对于某一给定的 河流
  29. 29. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  30. 30. Report card – communication tool评估报告卡 —— 沟通工具 Need to standardize scores Other water Dissolved quality metals for different indices d As H 必须对不同的指标制定统一的 评估标准 C g TSS pH Cu Pb N Zn i Cond. Tissue Ag Sediment Combine indices into metals metals Cd As H g Cd As H g indicator groups (average or Cu Pb minimum?) 整合评估指数与评估指标群 Cu Pb N Zn i (平均或者最小?) Ni 4 Bio TG Zn m 1: as s Ag Ag TG %TG1 Biomass per Indiv. %T 3 G2 %T G Biota Weighting different indicators – according to the goals of the program 根据评估目的权衡不同的评估指标
  31. 31. Example of Report card 其他报告卡样本Strickland River, New Guinea. 斯特里克兰,新几内亚
  32. 32. Important steps 项目发展的重要步骤1 Identify the objectives of the program 确定项目目标2 Identify suitable measures (indicators) of drivers, stressors and response 确认合适的驱使因素,压力源和反应的指标3 Develop conceptual models linking range of drivers to potential impacts 联系驱使因素和潜在影响开发概念模型4 River Classification to identify homogenous ‘river types’ 河流分类从而确认相同的河流类型5 Trial sampling program and refinement of indicators 采样试验,完善指 标6 Selection of suitable benchmarks for ecological indicators 选取合适的生态指标的基准7 Reporting & Communication 报告和交流8 Implement management actions to address priority areas/threats 执行管理行动,明确地区 / 威胁的优先顺序
  33. 33. Thank you 谢谢

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