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“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
「初歩だよ、福岡UX勉強会君」
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology
研究方法の基礎定義及び一般的な間違い

Cruz Christian
クルッツ・クリスチャン
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

RE

SEARCH

2
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

1000 pt

Systematised effort to gain new knowledge
研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。

3
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Random decisions
over CREATIVITY

Precise Control
over INNOVATION

創造力のランダムな
決定

イノベーションの正確な
管理

RE

SEARCH

Systematised effort to gain new knowledge
研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。

4
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

A

GOOD

research is

‣

SYSTEMATIC体制的: Reject the use of guessing & intuition, but DOES NOT rule out creative thinking

‣

CONTROLLEDコントロール: Variables are identified & controlled, wherever possible

‣

LOGICAL論理的: Guided by rules of logical reasoning & logical process of induction& deduction
•

Deduction (Aristotle)推論 - “From whole to part”

•

Induction (Francis Bacon) 帰納 - “From number of Observations”

‣

EMPIRICAL実証的: Provide a basis for external validity to results (validation)

‣

REPLICABLE重複: Verified by replicating the study

‣

SELF CORRECTING自ら修正: Built in mechanism & open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals

5
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“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Descriptive 

叙述的


Analytical
分解的


WHAT?

WHY?

何?

なぜ?

Applied
応用的


Fundamental
理論的


Problem
問題

Theory
理論

Quantitative
数量的


Qualitative
質的


How much, many, fast,
heavy, long? etc.

いくつ、どのぐらい?など

HOW?
どう?

Conceptual
概念的


Empirical
実証的


Abstract idea Applied idea
抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

TYPES of research

6
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Descriptive 

叙述的


Analytical
分解的


WHAT?

WHY?

何?

なぜ?

The major purpose of
descriptive research is
description of the state of
affairs as it exists at present.
The methods of research used
in descriptive research are
survey methods of all kinds,
including comparative and
correlational methods.

The analytical research usually
concerns itself with causeeffect relationships

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

TYPES of research

7
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Applied research aims at
finding a solution for an
immediate problem facing a
society or an industrial/
business organisation.
”Discover a solution for some
pressing practical problem"

Concerned with
generalisations and with the
formulation of a theory.

Applied
応用的


Fundamental
理論的


Problem

Theory
理論

問題

TYPES of research

8
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative research is based
on the measurement of
quantity or amount.

Qualitative research, on the
other hand, is concerned with
qualitative phenomenon, i.e.,
phenomena relating to or
involving quality or kind. This
type of research aims at
discovering the underlying
motives and desires, using in
depth interviews for the
purpose

Quantitative
数量的


Qualitative
質的


How much, many, fast,
heavy, long? etc.


Why?
なぜ?

いくつ、どのぐらい?など

TYPES of research

9
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

TYPES of research
Conceptual research is that
related to some abstract
idea(s) or theory. It is generally
used by philosophers and
thinkers to develop new
concepts or to reinterpret
existing ones.

Empirical research relies on
experience or observation
alone, often without due regard
for system and theory. It is
data-based research, coming
up with conclusions which are
capable of being verified by
observation or experiment.

Conceptual
概念的


Empirical
実証的


Abstract idea Applied idea
抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア

10
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“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

1.

Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立

2.

Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化

3.

Conceptual(or Theoretic) Framework 観念的枠組み

4.

Development of working hypotheses 仮説を立てる

5.

Preparing the research design 研究方法を立てる

6.

Determining sample design 統計方法を立てる

7.

Collecting the data データーを集計

8.

Analysis of data データーを分析

9.

Hypothesis-testing 仮説を検証

10.

Generalisations and interpretation 結論とまとめ

11.

Preparation of the report or the thesis 論文をまとめ

EMPHASIS
EMPHASIS

Research PROCESS

EMPHASIS
EMPHASIS
Execution of the project プロジェクトを実行

11
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“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

A good idea is…
良いアイデアは…

Personal

Novel

Useful

個人的

新た

有意義

To think a good idea one must REVIEW THE EXISTING RESEARCH.
良いアイデア考える為に先行研究を調べなければなりません。

12
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“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化

The problem

Objectives

問題点

目標

Research

Research
Questions

PROCESS

Viability
実行可能性

Relevance Consequences
重要

結果

Convenience
利便
何?

!

WHEN?

いつ?

Social relevance
社会的関連

The problem MUST
express one or more
relations between
variables.

The Objectives MUST be
measurable.

問題点は必ず変数の
一つまたは一つ以上
と関連する。

An objective MUST NOT
contain moral or
aesthetic judgments.

!
WHO?
誰?

WHY?

Practical Implications

なぜ?

具体的結果

目標は必ず測定可能。

!

目標は必ず道徳また
は美感覚を含めない。

!

ETC…
HOW?

ETC…

どうやって? など・・・

など・・・

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

研究質問

WHAT?

13

!
Theoretical value
理論的価値

!
Methodological value
方法論的価値
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

Measuring sets of
variables or
quantities and their
relationship to one
another

MEASUREMENT
!
態度測定Attitude measurement
アンケートQuestionnaire
一定試験と目録Standardised test and inventories

PROCESS

Understanding
the qualities of a
specific field of
inquiry

Quantitative
数量的


Qualitative
質的


How much, many, fast,
heavy, long? etc.


HOW?
どう?

いくつ、どのぐらい?など

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

ETHNOGRAPHY
!
Interviewインタビュー
Focus Groupフォーカスグループ
ETCなど

Research

PROCESS

14
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Measure
測定

To assign empiric(quantifiable) indicators to abstract concepts
抽象概念を量的指標化する

Observable Data
観測可能なデータ

Hypotheses relation
仮説関係

Answer
結果

15
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

data

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

knowledge

information

知識

情報

データ

Variable
変数

A property which can change and its variations
can be measured.
変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。

Our personal map/model of the World
世界の個人的なモデル。

Data is raw and unorganised
fundamental facts.
Numerical values

!

データとは、未処理あるいは未組
織な基礎的事実のことです。
「数値」

When data is
processed,
organised, structured
or presented in a
given context so as to
make it useful, it is
called Information.
Meaning

データが処理、整理、
構造化されると、役立
つデータになり、情報
と呼ばれています。

「意味」

16
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

A property which can change and its variations
can be measured.

Variable
変数

data

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。

データ

information

Variable 変数

Watch times

情報

Watch times
month

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

January

January

2

4

31

6

8

1

8

February

February

3

7

28

3

5

1

3

March

March

1

4

31

8

3

1

3

April

April

4

8

30

4

4

4

4

May

May

5

3

31

5

2

1

5

June

June

12

3

30

6

1

2

1

July

July

5

14

31

5

4

5

3

August

August

6

6

31

7

1

2

3

September

September

8

8

30

8

4

2

3

October

October

3

6

31

5

5

2

1

November

November

5

4

30

5

7

2

2

December

December

1

0

31

12

8

1

1

month

times

KEEP
CALM
AND

LOVE
Evangelion

17
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Collection Instrument
手法

VALIDITY
妥当性
The degree in which an
instrument really
measures what is
intended to be measured.
本当に測定する手法の程度は
意図している測定です。

RELIABILITY
確実性
The degree in which the
repeated application
produces the same results.
繰り返す適用の程度は同じ結果を
生成している

18
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Collection Instrument
手法

VALIDITY

RELIABILITY

妥当性

確実性

Factors that affect Validity and Reliability
妥当性と確実性に影響を与える要因
Improvisation

Morphology

即興

形態論

e.g. Intelligence measurement
e.g. Behaviour measurement

e.g. Not enough space for writing
e.g. Too small characters

Environment

Empathy

環境

共感

e.g. Weather
e.g. Lunch time

e.g. Complicated language
e.g. economical background
e.g. educational background

Cultural Context and Time
文化的文脈と時間

19
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Collecting the data

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

What is measuring the instrument? (items scales)
Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.)
メーカ

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Category

Quantity

部門

手法は何を測定するのか?

Variable
変数

20

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

分量

Nominal
名義

Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.)
タイプ

Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.)
要素のメーカ

Age
期間
USED BICYCLE
中古自転車

Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor)
状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い)

Ordinal
順序

Price
値段

Measurement

Size of frame
フレームのサイズ

測定

Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…)
変速の数量

Discrete
個別

Qualitative
Interval
間隔

HOW good?

ratio
比率
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

attitude
態度
Learned predisposition to react in favor or against to objects or symbols
態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映する学習の偏向です。

21
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

!

態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映す
る学習の偏向です。

態度

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Learned predisposition to react in favor or
against to objects or symbols

ATTITUDE

PROCESS

22

Attitudes are INDICATORS of
conduct but NOT the conduct itself.

!

態度は、行動ではなく、行動の指標です。

?

Attitudes are symptoms only.

!

態度は兆候だけです。
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Attitude measurement
態度測定

Attitude Scales
態度スケール

Likert Scale

Semantic Differential

リッカート尺度

SD法

23
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Likert Scale
リッカート尺度

Statement
陳述

Scoring
得点

1.Strongly disagree
1.全く同意できない

2. Disagree
2.同意できない

Reaction
反応

3. Neither agree nor disagree
3.どちらともいえない

4. Agree
4.同意できる

5.Strongly agree
5.非常に同意できる

1

-2

5

2

-1

4

3

0

3

4

1

2

5

2

1

24
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Codebook (Likert Scale)
コードブック (リッカート尺度)

Variable

Item

Category

Codes

Column

変数

アイテム

カテゴリー

コード化

列

1.Strongly disagree
1.全く同意できない
2. Disagree
2.同意できない

3. Neither agree nor disagree
3.どちらともいえない

3
4
5
1

2. Disagree
2.同意できない

陳述 n

2

1.Strongly disagree
1.全く同意できない

Statement n

1

5.Strongly agree
5.非常に同意できる

陳述2

5

4. Agree
4.同意できる

Statement 2

4

2. Disagree
2.同意できない

陳述1

3

1.Strongly disagree
1.全く同意できない

何を測定するのか?

3. Neither agree nor disagree
3.どちらともいえない

5.Strongly agree
5.非常に同意できる

Statement 1

2

4. Agree
4.同意できる

What is being measured

1

2

3. Neither agree nor disagree
3.どちらともいえない

3

4. Agree
4.同意できる

4

5.Strongly agree
5.非常に同意できる

5

1

2

n

25
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
Data Matrix
データー行列

Subject

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column n

回答者

列1

列2

列3

列4

列n

1

1

2

5

1

3

2

2

3

4

2

3

3

3

2

5

3

2

4

4

5

4

3

2

5

5

3

3

3

4

6

1

2

2

2

2

7

2

1

3

1

1

8

4

2

4

2

2

n

o

p

q

r

s

26
74
Collecting the data

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

27

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Research

PROCESS

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Likert Scale
リッカート尺度

Subject

回答者

Column 1
 Column 2
 Column 3
 Column 4

列1
列2
列3
列4

Level of Agreement (per Subject)

Average

平均

1

2

5

1

2.25

2

2

3

4

2

2.75

3

3

2

5

3

3.25

4

4

5

4

3

4

5

5

3

3

3

3.5

6

1

2

2

2

1.75

7

2

1

3

1

1.75

8

4

2

4

2

3

4

Agreement Level

1

5
4
3

2.25
1.75

0

Subject 1

Subject 2

2

5

2

3

4

2

3

3

2

5

3

4

4

5

4

3

5

5

3

3

3

6

1

2

2

2

7

2

1

3

1

8

4

2

4

2

Average

平均

2.75

2.5

3.75

2.125

Subject 4

Column 2

Subject 5

Subject 6

Column 3

Subject 7

Column 4

Subject 8

Average

5

1

2

Subject 3

Level of Agreement Average (per Statement)

4
Agreement Level

1

1.75

1

Column 1
 Column 2
 Column 3
 Column 4

列1
列2
列3
列4

1

3

2.75

Column 1
Subject

回答者

3.5

3.25

3.75

3
2

2.75

2.5

2.125

1
0

Statements

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

MEASUREMENT
態度測定Attitude measurement

Percentage of Selections
(Statement 1)

18%

28

25%

Percentage of Selections (Total)

Likert Scale

20%

リッカート尺度

30%

5%
3%
23%
17%
11%
50%

1.Strongly disagree
4. Agree

2. Disagree
5.Strongly agree

3. Neither agree nor disagree

1.Strongly disagree
4. Agree

2. Disagree
5.Strongly agree

3. Neither agree nor disagree
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

MEASUREMENT
態度測定Attitude measurement

Comparission of the Agreement Level Average and Best Possible Selection

Level of Agreement

5
5

4
3.75

3
2.75

2

2.5

1
0

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Average

Column 4

Likert Scale

Best Possible

リッカート尺度

Comparission of the Agreement Level for Each Statement (Number of selections)
40

Number of People

30

27
23
20

20

20

20

14
10

10

10
7
1

0

13

7

2

Statement 1

10
7
4

2

1.Strongly disagree
5.Strongly agree

10

5
1

Statement 2

10

Statement 3

2. Disagree

1 1 1
Statement 4

2

1 1

Statement 5

3. Neither agree nor disagree

3

5
2

Statement 6
4. Agree

29
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Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

MEASUREMENT
態度測定Attitude measurement

Semantic Differential
SD法

Dimension
次元

Positive adjective

Scoring

Negative Adjective

積極的形容詞

得点

消極的形容詞

3
7

1

0

-1

-2

2

GOOD

2

1

0

-1

-2

6

5

4

3

2

○

-3

BAD
1

30
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
Codebook(Semantic Differential)
コードブック (SD法)

Dimension

Bipolar Adjectives Pair

Codes

Column

次元

正反対的形容詞双

コード化

列

2
1

What is being measured

Positive adjective 1

Negative Adjective 1

何を測定するのか?

積極的形容詞1

消極的形容詞

0

1

-1
-2
2
1

Positive adjective 2

Negative Adjective 2

積極的形容詞2

消極的形容詞2

0

2

-1
-2
2
1

Positive adjective n

Negative Adjective n

積極的形容詞 n

消極的形容詞

0
-1
-2

n

31
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
Data Matrix
データー行列

Subject

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Column n

回答者

列1

列2

列3

列4

列n

1

1

2

5

1

3

2

2

3

4

2

3

3

3

2

5

3

2

4

4

5

4

3

2

5

5

3

3

3

4

6

1

2

2

2

2

7

2

1

3

1

1

8

4

2

4

2

2

n

o

p

q

r

s

32
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

態度測定Attitude measurement

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

Semantic Differential
SD法

Dimension 1

Dimension 2

Dimension 3

Dimension 4

Average

+/-1

4

1

3

1

2.25

+/-2

4

1

2

2

2.25

+/-3

4

1

3

3

2.75

+/-4

5

2

2

4

3.25

+/-5

3

3

2

4

3

+/-6

4

4

2

4

3.5

+/-7

2

5

2

4

3.25

+/-8

3

5

2

4

3.5

+/-9

4

5

2

4

3.75

+ / - 10

5

4

2

4

3.75

+ / - 11

3

3

3

3

3

+ / - 12

2

4

4

2

3

+ / - 13

3

3

5

2

3.25

+ / - 14

2

4

3

2

2.75

+ / - 15

2

3

2

2

2.25

+ / - 16

2

2

2

2

2

+ / - 17

3

1

3

1

2

+ / - 18

4

4

4

1

3.25

+ / - 19

3

5

5

1

3.5

+ / - 20

2

2

5

2

2.75

33
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

アンケートQuestionnaire

Research

PROCESS

Quantitative
数量的

questionnaire
アンケート
a set of questions about a certain variable
特定の変数についての質問のセット

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

34
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

アンケートQuestionnaire

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

questionnaire
アンケート

CLOSED
Delimited Categories or
Alternatives of answers
限定するカテゴリーの自由な
答えあるいは提供された選択
肢からの答え

ANSWER 1
ANSWER 2
ANSWER 3
ANSWER 4

OPEN

35
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

アンケートQuestionnaire

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
questionnaire
アンケート

CLOSED
ANSWER 1
ANSWER 2
ANSWER 3
ANSWER 4

Advantages

Disadvantages

メリット

デメリット

Easy to answer (effortless)
答えやすい

!
Faster
早い

!

Easy to Codify
コード化しやすい

!

Easy to analyse
分析しやすい

Due to their nature, these questions
might limit the number of options and
not really represent the respondents'
point of view.
限定された選択肢からの答えのため、参加者の
本当の見解が見つからない可能性がある。

36
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

アンケートQuestionnaire

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
questionnaire
アンケート

OPEN

Advantages

Disadvantages

メリット

デメリット

These questions allow the
gathering of more detailed data
about the measured topic

Slower

これらの質問は、測定されたトピックに関
するより詳細なデータの収集を可能にする

Difficult to Codify

遅い

!

コード化しづらい

!

Difficult to analyse
分析しづらい

37
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的

MEASUREMENT
アンケートQuestionnaire

questionnaire

CLOSED

OPEN

アンケート

ANSWER 1
ANSWER 2
ANSWER 3
ANSWER 4

!
BE Clear and Easy to understand
わかりやすい、理解しやすい

!

NOT be uncomfortable or disturbing
不快なことは与えない

!

BE oriented toward a UNIQUE logical aspect.

Questions must…
質問は必ず…

固有の論理の側面に行

!

NOT contain the answers or elements which negate the free will of the respondent
全く自由意志否定ません

!

Be according to the social, cultural, and intellectual characteristics of the respondent
回答者の社会的・文化的・知的特性に応じたこと

!

NOT express ideas supported by institutions, organisations, or groups.
組織やグループなどの考えを表現しない

!

Include clear and easy to understand INSTRUCTIONS.
わかりやすい、理解しやすい説明があり

38
74
Collecting the data

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

データーを集計
MEASUREMENT

アンケートQuestionnaire

Research

PROCESS

39
74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Quantitative
数量的
questionnaire

CLOSED

OPEN

アンケート

ANSWER 1
ANSWER 2
ANSWER 3
ANSWER 4

A questionnaire should…
アンケートは…すべき

Contain introductory questions of a neutral nature (age, sex, job, etc.) so the respondent can get accustomed to the situation.
回答者は慣れるためにニュートラル 質問があります(年齢、性別、仕事、など)

!
Include (depending on the necessity) verification questions
検証質問があり(必要性による)

Depend on wether the answers really reveal the necessary information.

!

答えは本当に必要な情報を表示しているかどうか

Not ask unnecessary or unjustified questions in order to keep the answer time on a "comfortable scope"
不必要な質問が含まれていない
Collecting the data

データーを集計

Research

PROCESS

What is measuring the instrument? (items scales)
Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.)
メーカ

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Category

Quantity

部門

手法は何を測定するのか?

Variable
変数

40

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

分量

Nominal
名義

Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.)
タイプ

Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.)
要素のメーカ

Age
期間
USED BICYCLE
中古自転車

Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor)
状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い)

Ordinal
順序

Price
値段

Measurement

Size of frame
フレームのサイズ

測定

Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…)
変速の数量

Discrete
個別

Qualitative
Interval
間隔

HOW good?

ratio
比率
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Measurement Scales
測定スケール

Calculation

Category

Quantity

計算

部門

分量

Nominal

度数分布

Median and Percentiles
中央値、パーセンタイル

Add or Subtract

Interval

ratio

名義

Frequency Distribution

Ordinal
順序

間隔

比率

○

○
○

○
○
○
○

○
○
○
○
○

X

足し算、減算

X

X

Arithmetic Mean, standard deviation,
standard error of the mean

X

X

X

X

平均、標準偏差、標準誤差

Ratio, coefficient of variation
比率、微系数

Likert Scale

!

Semantic Differential

X
Likert Scale
Semantic Differential

!

41
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations
クロス集計

age

gender

income

health

年齢

性別

給料

健康

42
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

“Statistical Thinking”
統計的な考え

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

43
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Summarising our experience so that we and other
people can understand its essential features.
皆が分かるために我々の経験をまとめます

!

Using the summary to make estimates or
predictions about what is likely to be the case in
other (perhaps future) situations.
未来を予測するためにその経験を使います

2010

18歳

2011

19歳

2012

20歳

2013

21歳

?

44
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Statistics
統計
Descriptive Statistics
要約統計量
Methods to summarise or describe our observations

A set of methods used to collect
or process or interpret
quantitative data.
統計とは数量的なデータを集計し、手順
を整理する及び判断する手法。

Inferential Statistics
推計統計量
Using those observations as a basis for making
estimates or predictions, i.e. inferences about a
situation that has not been observed.

45
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

46
74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Population
母集団

!

Refers to ALL the finite or infinite collection of items under consideration.
母集団とは、調査対象のとなる数値,属性等の源となる集合全体を意味する。

Sample
標本

!
A portion from a population
標本とは、母集団の部分集合のこと

Sampling
標本調査
Representatively generalise from a
Sample to the population
標本は母集団を代表する
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

n =

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

((k2)×N×p×q)
((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q))
Sampling
標本調査

n =

(N×σ2×k2)
((N-1)e2+σ2×k2)

47
74
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Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

母集団

n:Sample size"

n =
((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q))

標本サイズ

k:confidence value

[constant不変量]!

信憑性

1.15

1.28

1.44

1.65

1.96

2

2.58

75%

k

80%

85%

90%

95%

95.5%

99%

e:error margin

信憑性

[constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or

experiment to the total population and the sample)!
誤差

0.01

e

p:
q:

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

8%

9%

subjects proportion which posses the studied characteristic.!

!

subjects proportion which DOES NOT posses the studied characteristic, that is to say, 1-p.

p = q = 0.5

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

((k2)×N×p×q)

N:Total Population"

48

誤差
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

n =

N:Total Population"
母集団

n:Sample size"

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

(N×σ2×k2)
((N-1)e2+σ2×k2)

標本サイズ

k:confidence value

[constant不変量]!

信憑性

1.15

1.44

1.65

1.96

2

2.58

75%

k

1.28
80%

85%

90%

95%

95.5%

99%

e:error margin

信憑性

[constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or

experiment to the total population and the sample)!
誤差

0.01

e

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

8%

9%

σ:standard deviation = 0.5!
標準偏差

誤差

49
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Total Population"
母集団

N
!
STRATUM(h)

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Sample"
標本

n

Total Population STRATUM!

Sub-sample!

母集団の層化"

標本の層化"

(Nh)

(nh)

1st year"
students

Nh1

nh1

2nd year"
students

Nh2

nh2

3rd year"
students

Nh3

nh3

4th year"
students

Nh4

nh3

層化

50

Sampling
標本調査

Stratified Sampling
層化抽出法
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Analysis of data データーを分析

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PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Sampling
標本調査
Total Population
STRATUM!
母集団の層化"

(Nh)

fh

Calculation"
計算

Sub-sample!
標本の層化"

(nh)

1st year!
students

Nh1

fh

Nh1 x fh

nh1

2nd year!
students

Nh2

fh

Nh2 x fh

nh2

3rd year!
students

Nh3

fh

Nh3 x fh

nh3

4th year!
students

Nh4

fh

Nh4 x fh

nh4

Total!
students

N
fh = n/N

n
[constant 不変量]

51
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Sampling
標本調査
Every item has the same chance of being selected
各アイテムが選ばれる可能性は同じ

Random

Systematic

ランダム

体制的

I = N/n
I:Approximate integer!
近似整数!

N:Total Population!
母集団!

n:Sample size"
標本サイズ

52
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

?

Sampling
標本調査
Representatively generalise from a
Sample to the population
標本は母集団を代表する
Every important characteristic of the
population is likely to have one or more
representative in the sample

The probability that a one-time-in-twenty phenomenon will not appear
at all in a simple random sample of size 60 is 0.46

53
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Ayanami Rei
Eva Units combat tactics
汎用人型決戦兵器の技術

80 points
点

Arithmetic mean = 60
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 5
標準偏差

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Asuka Langley
History of the Second Impact
セカンドインパクトの歴史

90 points
点

Arithmetic mean = 65
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 15
標準偏差

54
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

5 mts

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Helvetica Regular 20 pts

A

X
50%

○
50%

5 mts
Helvetica regular 20 pts

55
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Helvetica Regular 20 pts

5 mts

A

Normal Curve of Distribution
正規分布曲線
99.7%
95%
68%

0.15%

2.35%

-3SD

13.5%

-2SD

34%

-1SD

34%

M

+1SD

13.5%

2.35%

+2SD

0.15%

+3SD

56
74
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Analysis of data データーを分析

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PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Normal Curve of Distribution
正規分布曲線

Whatever the height or width of the normal curve, the distribution of the area under it, is always the same.
正規分布曲線の高さまたは巾がいろいろあっても、曲線の下にある分布の面積はいつも同じです。

57
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations
クロス集計
Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数

89

68

92

74

76

65

77

83

75

87

85

64

79

77

96

80

70

85

80

80

82

81

86

71

90

87

71

72

62

78

77

90

83

81

73

80

78

81

81

75

82

88

79

79

94

82

66

78

74

72

Look for patterns!
パターンを探そう!

58
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数

62

64

65

66

68

70

71

71

72

72

73

74

74

75

75

76

77

77

77

78

78

78

79

79

79

80

80

80

80

81

81

81

81

82

82

82

83

83

85

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

90

92

94

96

Frequency Distribution
度数分布

59
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数
62

64

65

66

68

70

71

71

72

72

73

74

74

75

75

76

77

77

77

78

78

78

79

79

79

80

80

80

80

81

81

81

81

82

82

82

83

83

85

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

90

92

94

96

Frequency Distribution
度数分布

Frequency is the count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval
度数とは各階級に属する資料の個数のこと

90 BPM:2
69 BPM:0

60
74
61

“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

74

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数
62

64

65

66

68

70

71

71

72

72

73

74

74

75

75

76

77

77

77

78

78

78

79

79

79

80

80

80

80

81

81

81

81

82

82

82

83

83

85

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

90

92

94

96

Range = 34

Median = 79.5

Arithmetic mean = 79.1

Mode = 80-81

レンジ

中央値

相加平均

最頻値

Grouped Frequency Distribution

Pulse-rate

Nº students

心拍数

学生人数

60-64

2

65-69

3

70-74

8

75-79

12

80-84

13

85-89

7

90-94

4

95-99

1

50
Modal Class = 80-84
最頻値的なクラス

Grouped Frequency distribution 度数(各グループの人数)

グループ化された度数分布

14

13
12

Central Tendency
中心傾向

11

Statistical Dispersion

8

統計的ばらつき

7

7

4
4

3
2
1

0

60-64

65-69

70-74

75-79

80-84

85-89

90-94

95-99

0

62

67

72

77

82

87

92

97

102

Pulse-rate 心拍数(BPM)
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

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PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Standard Deviation(SD)
標準偏差
In statistics and probability theory, standard deviation (represented
by the symbol sigma, σ) shows how much variation or "dispersion"
exists from the average (mean, or expected value).
標準偏差とは、統計値や確率変数の散らばり具合(ばらつき)を表す数値のひと
つで σ で表す。

σ =

√

∑(X-X)

Arithmetic mean = 80
相加平均

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数

Arithmetic mean = 79.1
相加平均

2

N

62
74
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Analysis of data データーを分析

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PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 75 students [75人学生の心拍数]

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ]

15

15

12

12

9

9

6

6

3

3

0

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

0

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 100 students [100人学生の心拍数]

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 150 students [150人学生の心拍数]

15

15

12

12

9

9

6

6

3

3

0

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

0

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

63
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 200 students [200人学生の心拍数]
15
12
9
6
3
0

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

64
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 1000 students
[1000人学生の心拍数]

Normal Curve of Distribution
正規分布曲線

Median
中央値
Arithmetic mean
相加平均
Mode
最頻値

65
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ]
14

11

8

1
(
⨍(x) =
e
σ√2π

)

1" x-u!
2
σ

6

3

0

62

67

72

77

82

87

92

97

The Shape of the normal distribution is such that we can state the PROPORTION of the population that will lie between any two values of the variable.
正規分布の形は、変数の任意の2つの値の間にある口数の比率が計算できる。

Standard Deviation(SD)
標準偏差

!
Arithmetic mean
相加平均

66
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students
50人学生の心拍数
62

64

65

66

68

70

71

71

72

72

Arithmetic mean = 79.1

73

74

74

75

75

76

77

77

77

78

相加平均

78

78

79

79

79

80

80

80

80

81

81

81

81

82

82

82

83

83

85

85

86

87

87

88

89

90

90

92

94

96

Arithmetic mean = 80
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 6
標準偏差
-1/2 SD
-2 SD

-1 SD

+1 SD

Z-Values
偏差値

Arithmetic mean = 80
相加平均

+1 1/2 SD

+3 SD

67
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

M ± 1SD
Point of Inflection

Point of Inflection

編曲点

編曲点

68% of all
observations
(34%)

-1SD

(34%)

M

+1SD

68
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

99.7%
95%
68%

2.35%

0.15%

-3SD

-2SD
(1.96)

13.5%

34%
-1SD

34%
M

13.5%
+1SD

2.35%
+2SD
(1.96)

0.15%

+3SD

69
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

1000 cars

Arithmetic mean = 55
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 5
標準偏差

50
Km/H

-1SD
50

M
55

+1SD
60

Km/H

70
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

1000 cars

Arithmetic mean = 55
相加平均

34%

Standard Deviation(SD) = 5

50%

標準偏差

50

84%

Km/H

-1SD
50

M
55

+1SD
60

Km/H

71
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Ayanami Rei
Eva Units combat tactics
汎用人型決戦兵器の技術

80 points
点

Arithmetic mean = 60
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 5
標準偏差

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

Asuka Langley
History of the Second Impact
セカンドインパクトの歴史

90 points
点

Arithmetic mean = 65
相加平均

Standard Deviation(SD) = 15
標準偏差

72
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”

Analysis of data データーを分析

Research

PROCESS

Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

99.7%
95%
68%

2.35%

0.15%

-3SD

-2SD
(1.96)

Eva Units combat tactics
汎用人型決戦兵器の技術

50

History of the Second Impact
セカンドインパクトの歴史

15

13.5%

34%

34%

13.5%

2.35%
+2SD
(1.96)

0.15%

-1SD

M

+1SD

+3SD

55

60

65

70

75

80

30

45

60

75

90

105

73
74
“Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group”
Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology

RE

SEARCH

74
74

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研究方法の概論(research basics)

  • 1. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 「初歩だよ、福岡UX勉強会君」 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 研究方法の基礎定義及び一般的な間違い Cruz Christian クルッツ・クリスチャン
  • 2. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology RE SEARCH 2 74
  • 3. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 pt Systematised effort to gain new knowledge 研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。 3 74
  • 4. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Random decisions over CREATIVITY Precise Control over INNOVATION 創造力のランダムな 決定 イノベーションの正確な 管理 RE SEARCH Systematised effort to gain new knowledge 研究とは体制的に新しい知識を身につける事です。 4 74
  • 5. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology A GOOD research is ‣ SYSTEMATIC体制的: Reject the use of guessing & intuition, but DOES NOT rule out creative thinking ‣ CONTROLLEDコントロール: Variables are identified & controlled, wherever possible ‣ LOGICAL論理的: Guided by rules of logical reasoning & logical process of induction& deduction • Deduction (Aristotle)推論 - “From whole to part” • Induction (Francis Bacon) 帰納 - “From number of Observations” ‣ EMPIRICAL実証的: Provide a basis for external validity to results (validation) ‣ REPLICABLE重複: Verified by replicating the study ‣ SELF CORRECTING自ら修正: Built in mechanism & open to public scrutiny by fellow professionals 5 74
  • 6. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Descriptive 叙述的 Analytical 分解的 WHAT? WHY? 何? なぜ? Applied 応用的 Fundamental 理論的 Problem 問題 Theory 理論 Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. いくつ、どのぐらい?など HOW? どう? Conceptual 概念的 Empirical 実証的 Abstract idea Applied idea 抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research 6 74
  • 7. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Descriptive 叙述的 Analytical 分解的 WHAT? WHY? 何? なぜ? The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The methods of research used in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. The analytical research usually concerns itself with causeeffect relationships Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research 7 74
  • 8. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/ business organisation. ”Discover a solution for some pressing practical problem" Concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory. Applied 応用的 Fundamental 理論的 Problem Theory 理論 問題 TYPES of research 8 74
  • 9. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. This type of research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews for the purpose Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. Why? なぜ? いくつ、どのぐらい?など TYPES of research 9 74
  • 10. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology TYPES of research Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. Conceptual 概念的 Empirical 実証的 Abstract idea Applied idea 抽象的アイデア 応用的アイデア 10 74
  • 11. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1. Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立 2. Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化 3. Conceptual(or Theoretic) Framework 観念的枠組み 4. Development of working hypotheses 仮説を立てる 5. Preparing the research design 研究方法を立てる 6. Determining sample design 統計方法を立てる 7. Collecting the data データーを集計 8. Analysis of data データーを分析 9. Hypothesis-testing 仮説を検証 10. Generalisations and interpretation 結論とまとめ 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis 論文をまとめ EMPHASIS EMPHASIS Research PROCESS EMPHASIS EMPHASIS Execution of the project プロジェクトを実行 11 74
  • 12. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Defining the research theme or idea 研究テーマを設立 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology A good idea is… 良いアイデアは… Personal Novel Useful 個人的 新た 有意義 To think a good idea one must REVIEW THE EXISTING RESEARCH. 良いアイデア考える為に先行研究を調べなければなりません。 12 74
  • 13. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Formulating the research problem 研究問題を明確化 The problem Objectives 問題点 目標 Research Research Questions PROCESS Viability 実行可能性 Relevance Consequences 重要 結果 Convenience 利便 何? ! WHEN? いつ? Social relevance 社会的関連 The problem MUST express one or more relations between variables. The Objectives MUST be measurable. 問題点は必ず変数の 一つまたは一つ以上 と関連する。 An objective MUST NOT contain moral or aesthetic judgments. ! WHO? 誰? WHY? Practical Implications なぜ? 具体的結果 目標は必ず測定可能。 ! 目標は必ず道徳また は美感覚を含めない。 ! ETC… HOW? ETC… どうやって? など・・・ など・・・ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 研究質問 WHAT? 13 ! Theoretical value 理論的価値 ! Methodological value 方法論的価値
  • 14. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research Measuring sets of variables or quantities and their relationship to one another MEASUREMENT ! 態度測定Attitude measurement アンケートQuestionnaire 一定試験と目録Standardised test and inventories PROCESS Understanding the qualities of a specific field of inquiry Quantitative 数量的 Qualitative 質的 How much, many, fast, heavy, long? etc. HOW? どう? いくつ、どのぐらい?など Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ETHNOGRAPHY ! Interviewインタビュー Focus Groupフォーカスグループ ETCなど Research PROCESS 14 74
  • 15. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Measure 測定 To assign empiric(quantifiable) indicators to abstract concepts 抽象概念を量的指標化する Observable Data 観測可能なデータ Hypotheses relation 仮説関係 Answer 結果 15 74
  • 16. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 data Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology knowledge information 知識 情報 データ Variable 変数 A property which can change and its variations can be measured. 変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。 Our personal map/model of the World 世界の個人的なモデル。 Data is raw and unorganised fundamental facts. Numerical values ! データとは、未処理あるいは未組 織な基礎的事実のことです。 「数値」 When data is processed, organised, structured or presented in a given context so as to make it useful, it is called Information. Meaning データが処理、整理、 構造化されると、役立 つデータになり、情報 と呼ばれています。 「意味」 16 74
  • 17. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS A property which can change and its variations can be measured. Variable 変数 data Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 変化する特徴、この特徴が計る事が出来る。 データ information Variable 変数 Watch times 情報 Watch times month A B C D E F G January January 2 4 31 6 8 1 8 February February 3 7 28 3 5 1 3 March March 1 4 31 8 3 1 3 April April 4 8 30 4 4 4 4 May May 5 3 31 5 2 1 5 June June 12 3 30 6 1 2 1 July July 5 14 31 5 4 5 3 August August 6 6 31 7 1 2 3 September September 8 8 30 8 4 2 3 October October 3 6 31 5 5 2 1 November November 5 4 30 5 7 2 2 December December 1 0 31 12 8 1 1 month times KEEP CALM AND LOVE Evangelion 17 74
  • 18. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Collection Instrument 手法 VALIDITY 妥当性 The degree in which an instrument really measures what is intended to be measured. 本当に測定する手法の程度は 意図している測定です。 RELIABILITY 確実性 The degree in which the repeated application produces the same results. 繰り返す適用の程度は同じ結果を 生成している 18 74
  • 19. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Collection Instrument 手法 VALIDITY RELIABILITY 妥当性 確実性 Factors that affect Validity and Reliability 妥当性と確実性に影響を与える要因 Improvisation Morphology 即興 形態論 e.g. Intelligence measurement e.g. Behaviour measurement e.g. Not enough space for writing e.g. Too small characters Environment Empathy 環境 共感 e.g. Weather e.g. Lunch time e.g. Complicated language e.g. economical background e.g. educational background Cultural Context and Time 文化的文脈と時間 19 74
  • 20. Collecting the data データーを集計 Research PROCESS What is measuring the instrument? (items scales) Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.) メーカ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Category Quantity 部門 手法は何を測定するのか? Variable 変数 20 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 分量 Nominal 名義 Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.) タイプ Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.) 要素のメーカ Age 期間 USED BICYCLE 中古自転車 Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor) 状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い) Ordinal 順序 Price 値段 Measurement Size of frame フレームのサイズ 測定 Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…) 変速の数量 Discrete 個別 Qualitative Interval 間隔 HOW good? ratio 比率
  • 21. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 attitude 態度 Learned predisposition to react in favor or against to objects or symbols 態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映する学習の偏向です。 21 74
  • 22. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research ! 態度は物がシンボルに対する賛成か反対かを反映す る学習の偏向です。 態度 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Learned predisposition to react in favor or against to objects or symbols ATTITUDE PROCESS 22 Attitudes are INDICATORS of conduct but NOT the conduct itself. ! 態度は、行動ではなく、行動の指標です。 ? Attitudes are symptoms only. ! 態度は兆候だけです。
  • 23. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Attitude measurement 態度測定 Attitude Scales 態度スケール Likert Scale Semantic Differential リッカート尺度 SD法 23 74
  • 24. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Likert Scale リッカート尺度 Statement 陳述 Scoring 得点 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 2. Disagree 2.同意できない Reaction 反応 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 4. Agree 4.同意できる 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 1 -2 5 2 -1 4 3 0 3 4 1 2 5 2 1 24 74
  • 25. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Codebook (Likert Scale) コードブック (リッカート尺度) Variable Item Category Codes Column 変数 アイテム カテゴリー コード化 列 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 3 4 5 1 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 陳述 n 2 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない Statement n 1 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 陳述2 5 4. Agree 4.同意できる Statement 2 4 2. Disagree 2.同意できない 陳述1 3 1.Strongly disagree 1.全く同意できない 何を測定するのか? 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる Statement 1 2 4. Agree 4.同意できる What is being measured 1 2 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3.どちらともいえない 3 4. Agree 4.同意できる 4 5.Strongly agree 5.非常に同意できる 5 1 2 n 25 74
  • 26. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Data Matrix データー行列 Subject Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column n 回答者 列1 列2 列3 列4 列n 1 1 2 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 5 4 3 2 5 5 3 3 3 4 6 1 2 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 1 8 4 2 4 2 2 n o p q r s 26 74
  • 27. Collecting the data データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement 27 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Likert Scale リッカート尺度 Subject 回答者 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 列1 列2 列3 列4 Level of Agreement (per Subject) Average 平均 1 2 5 1 2.25 2 2 3 4 2 2.75 3 3 2 5 3 3.25 4 4 5 4 3 4 5 5 3 3 3 3.5 6 1 2 2 2 1.75 7 2 1 3 1 1.75 8 4 2 4 2 3 4 Agreement Level 1 5 4 3 2.25 1.75 0 Subject 1 Subject 2 2 5 2 3 4 2 3 3 2 5 3 4 4 5 4 3 5 5 3 3 3 6 1 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 8 4 2 4 2 Average 平均 2.75 2.5 3.75 2.125 Subject 4 Column 2 Subject 5 Subject 6 Column 3 Subject 7 Column 4 Subject 8 Average 5 1 2 Subject 3 Level of Agreement Average (per Statement) 4 Agreement Level 1 1.75 1 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 列1 列2 列3 列4 1 3 2.75 Column 1 Subject 回答者 3.5 3.25 3.75 3 2 2.75 2.5 2.125 1 0 Statements Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4
  • 28. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Percentage of Selections (Statement 1) 18% 28 25% Percentage of Selections (Total) Likert Scale 20% リッカート尺度 30% 5% 3% 23% 17% 11% 50% 1.Strongly disagree 4. Agree 2. Disagree 5.Strongly agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 1.Strongly disagree 4. Agree 2. Disagree 5.Strongly agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree
  • 29. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Comparission of the Agreement Level Average and Best Possible Selection Level of Agreement 5 5 4 3.75 3 2.75 2 2.5 1 0 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Average Column 4 Likert Scale Best Possible リッカート尺度 Comparission of the Agreement Level for Each Statement (Number of selections) 40 Number of People 30 27 23 20 20 20 20 14 10 10 10 7 1 0 13 7 2 Statement 1 10 7 4 2 1.Strongly disagree 5.Strongly agree 10 5 1 Statement 2 10 Statement 3 2. Disagree 1 1 1 Statement 4 2 1 1 Statement 5 3. Neither agree nor disagree 3 5 2 Statement 6 4. Agree 29 74
  • 30. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Semantic Differential SD法 Dimension 次元 Positive adjective Scoring Negative Adjective 積極的形容詞 得点 消極的形容詞 3 7 1 0 -1 -2 2 GOOD 2 1 0 -1 -2 6 5 4 3 2 ○ -3 BAD 1 30 74
  • 31. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Codebook(Semantic Differential) コードブック (SD法) Dimension Bipolar Adjectives Pair Codes Column 次元 正反対的形容詞双 コード化 列 2 1 What is being measured Positive adjective 1 Negative Adjective 1 何を測定するのか? 積極的形容詞1 消極的形容詞 0 1 -1 -2 2 1 Positive adjective 2 Negative Adjective 2 積極的形容詞2 消極的形容詞2 0 2 -1 -2 2 1 Positive adjective n Negative Adjective n 積極的形容詞 n 消極的形容詞 0 -1 -2 n 31 74
  • 32. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Data Matrix データー行列 Subject Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column n 回答者 列1 列2 列3 列4 列n 1 1 2 5 1 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 5 3 2 4 4 5 4 3 2 5 5 3 3 3 4 6 1 2 2 2 2 7 2 1 3 1 1 8 4 2 4 2 2 n o p q r s 32 74
  • 33. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT 態度測定Attitude measurement Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 Semantic Differential SD法 Dimension 1 Dimension 2 Dimension 3 Dimension 4 Average +/-1 4 1 3 1 2.25 +/-2 4 1 2 2 2.25 +/-3 4 1 3 3 2.75 +/-4 5 2 2 4 3.25 +/-5 3 3 2 4 3 +/-6 4 4 2 4 3.5 +/-7 2 5 2 4 3.25 +/-8 3 5 2 4 3.5 +/-9 4 5 2 4 3.75 + / - 10 5 4 2 4 3.75 + / - 11 3 3 3 3 3 + / - 12 2 4 4 2 3 + / - 13 3 3 5 2 3.25 + / - 14 2 4 3 2 2.75 + / - 15 2 3 2 2 2.25 + / - 16 2 2 2 2 2 + / - 17 3 1 3 1 2 + / - 18 4 4 4 1 3.25 + / - 19 3 5 5 1 3.5 + / - 20 2 2 5 2 2.75 33 74
  • 34. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート a set of questions about a certain variable 特定の変数についての質問のセット Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 34 74
  • 35. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート CLOSED Delimited Categories or Alternatives of answers 限定するカテゴリーの自由な 答えあるいは提供された選択 肢からの答え ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 OPEN 35 74
  • 36. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート CLOSED ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 Advantages Disadvantages メリット デメリット Easy to answer (effortless) 答えやすい ! Faster 早い ! Easy to Codify コード化しやすい ! Easy to analyse 分析しやすい Due to their nature, these questions might limit the number of options and not really represent the respondents' point of view. 限定された選択肢からの答えのため、参加者の 本当の見解が見つからない可能性がある。 36 74
  • 37. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire アンケート OPEN Advantages Disadvantages メリット デメリット These questions allow the gathering of more detailed data about the measured topic Slower これらの質問は、測定されたトピックに関 するより詳細なデータの収集を可能にする Difficult to Codify 遅い ! コード化しづらい ! Difficult to analyse 分析しづらい 37 74
  • 38. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire questionnaire CLOSED OPEN アンケート ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 ! BE Clear and Easy to understand わかりやすい、理解しやすい ! NOT be uncomfortable or disturbing 不快なことは与えない ! BE oriented toward a UNIQUE logical aspect. Questions must… 質問は必ず… 固有の論理の側面に行 ! NOT contain the answers or elements which negate the free will of the respondent 全く自由意志否定ません ! Be according to the social, cultural, and intellectual characteristics of the respondent 回答者の社会的・文化的・知的特性に応じたこと ! NOT express ideas supported by institutions, organisations, or groups. 組織やグループなどの考えを表現しない ! Include clear and easy to understand INSTRUCTIONS. わかりやすい、理解しやすい説明があり 38 74
  • 39. Collecting the data “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” データーを集計 MEASUREMENT アンケートQuestionnaire Research PROCESS 39 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Quantitative 数量的 questionnaire CLOSED OPEN アンケート ANSWER 1 ANSWER 2 ANSWER 3 ANSWER 4 A questionnaire should… アンケートは…すべき Contain introductory questions of a neutral nature (age, sex, job, etc.) so the respondent can get accustomed to the situation. 回答者は慣れるためにニュートラル 質問があります(年齢、性別、仕事、など) ! Include (depending on the necessity) verification questions 検証質問があり(必要性による) Depend on wether the answers really reveal the necessary information. ! 答えは本当に必要な情報を表示しているかどうか Not ask unnecessary or unjustified questions in order to keep the answer time on a "comfortable scope" 不必要な質問が含まれていない
  • 40. Collecting the data データーを集計 Research PROCESS What is measuring the instrument? (items scales) Maker(Trek, Peugeot, Hammer, etc.) メーカ 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Category Quantity 部門 手法は何を測定するのか? Variable 変数 40 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” 分量 Nominal 名義 Type(Mountain bike, Tourer, Road Racer, etc.) タイプ Components Maker(Shimano, Campagnolo, etc.) 要素のメーカ Age 期間 USED BICYCLE 中古自転車 Condition (Excellent, Acceptable, Poor) 状態(良い, まあまあ, 悪い) Ordinal 順序 Price 値段 Measurement Size of frame フレームのサイズ 測定 Number of gears(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12…) 変速の数量 Discrete 個別 Qualitative Interval 間隔 HOW good? ratio 比率
  • 41. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Measurement Scales 測定スケール Calculation Category Quantity 計算 部門 分量 Nominal 度数分布 Median and Percentiles 中央値、パーセンタイル Add or Subtract Interval ratio 名義 Frequency Distribution Ordinal 順序 間隔 比率 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ X 足し算、減算 X X Arithmetic Mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean X X X X 平均、標準偏差、標準誤差 Ratio, coefficient of variation 比率、微系数 Likert Scale ! Semantic Differential X Likert Scale Semantic Differential ! 41 74
  • 42. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations クロス集計 age gender income health 年齢 性別 給料 健康 42 74
  • 43. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS “Statistical Thinking” 統計的な考え Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 43 74
  • 44. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Summarising our experience so that we and other people can understand its essential features. 皆が分かるために我々の経験をまとめます ! Using the summary to make estimates or predictions about what is likely to be the case in other (perhaps future) situations. 未来を予測するためにその経験を使います 2010 18歳 2011 19歳 2012 20歳 2013 21歳 ? 44 74
  • 45. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Statistics 統計 Descriptive Statistics 要約統計量 Methods to summarise or describe our observations A set of methods used to collect or process or interpret quantitative data. 統計とは数量的なデータを集計し、手順 を整理する及び判断する手法。 Inferential Statistics 推計統計量 Using those observations as a basis for making estimates or predictions, i.e. inferences about a situation that has not been observed. 45 74
  • 46. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 46 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Population 母集団 ! Refers to ALL the finite or infinite collection of items under consideration. 母集団とは、調査対象のとなる数値,属性等の源となる集合全体を意味する。 Sample 標本 ! A portion from a population 標本とは、母集団の部分集合のこと Sampling 標本調査 Representatively generalise from a Sample to the population 標本は母集団を代表する
  • 47. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 n = Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ((k2)×N×p×q) ((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q)) Sampling 標本調査 n = (N×σ2×k2) ((N-1)e2+σ2×k2) 47 74
  • 48. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 母集団 n:Sample size" n = ((e2×(N-1))+((k2)×p×q)) 標本サイズ k:confidence value [constant不変量]! 信憑性 1.15 1.28 1.44 1.65 1.96 2 2.58 75% k 80% 85% 90% 95% 95.5% 99% e:error margin 信憑性 [constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or experiment to the total population and the sample)! 誤差 0.01 e p: q: 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% subjects proportion which posses the studied characteristic.! ! subjects proportion which DOES NOT posses the studied characteristic, that is to say, 1-p. p = q = 0.5 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ((k2)×N×p×q) N:Total Population" 48 誤差
  • 49. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research n = N:Total Population" 母集団 n:Sample size" PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology (N×σ2×k2) ((N-1)e2+σ2×k2) 標本サイズ k:confidence value [constant不変量]! 信憑性 1.15 1.44 1.65 1.96 2 2.58 75% k 1.28 80% 85% 90% 95% 95.5% 99% e:error margin 信憑性 [constant不変量](difference between the results that might be obtained applying the survey or experiment to the total population and the sample)! 誤差 0.01 e 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% σ:standard deviation = 0.5! 標準偏差 誤差 49 74
  • 50. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Total Population" 母集団 N ! STRATUM(h) 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sample" 標本 n Total Population STRATUM! Sub-sample! 母集団の層化" 標本の層化" (Nh) (nh) 1st year" students Nh1 nh1 2nd year" students Nh2 nh2 3rd year" students Nh3 nh3 4th year" students Nh4 nh3 層化 50 Sampling 標本調査 Stratified Sampling 層化抽出法
  • 51. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sampling 標本調査 Total Population STRATUM! 母集団の層化" (Nh) fh Calculation" 計算 Sub-sample! 標本の層化" (nh) 1st year! students Nh1 fh Nh1 x fh nh1 2nd year! students Nh2 fh Nh2 x fh nh2 3rd year! students Nh3 fh Nh3 x fh nh3 4th year! students Nh4 fh Nh4 x fh nh4 Total! students N fh = n/N n [constant 不変量] 51 74
  • 52. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Sampling 標本調査 Every item has the same chance of being selected 各アイテムが選ばれる可能性は同じ Random Systematic ランダム 体制的 I = N/n I:Approximate integer! 近似整数! N:Total Population! 母集団! n:Sample size" 標本サイズ 52 74
  • 53. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology ? Sampling 標本調査 Representatively generalise from a Sample to the population 標本は母集団を代表する Every important characteristic of the population is likely to have one or more representative in the sample The probability that a one-time-in-twenty phenomenon will not appear at all in a simple random sample of size 60 is 0.46 53 74
  • 54. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Ayanami Rei Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 80 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 60 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Asuka Langley History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 90 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 65 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 15 標準偏差 54 74
  • 55. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 5 mts Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Helvetica Regular 20 pts A X 50% ○ 50% 5 mts Helvetica regular 20 pts 55 74
  • 56. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Helvetica Regular 20 pts 5 mts A Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 99.7% 95% 68% 0.15% 2.35% -3SD 13.5% -2SD 34% -1SD 34% M +1SD 13.5% 2.35% +2SD 0.15% +3SD 56 74
  • 57. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 Whatever the height or width of the normal curve, the distribution of the area under it, is always the same. 正規分布曲線の高さまたは巾がいろいろあっても、曲線の下にある分布の面積はいつも同じです。 57 74
  • 58. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Cross-Breaks | Cross-Tabulations クロス集計 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 89 68 92 74 76 65 77 83 75 87 85 64 79 77 96 80 70 85 80 80 82 81 86 71 90 87 71 72 62 78 77 90 83 81 73 80 78 81 81 75 82 88 79 79 94 82 66 78 74 72 Look for patterns! パターンを探そう! 58 74
  • 59. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Frequency Distribution 度数分布 59 74
  • 60. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Frequency Distribution 度数分布 Frequency is the count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval 度数とは各階級に属する資料の個数のこと 90 BPM:2 69 BPM:0 60 74
  • 61. 61 “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS 74 Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Range = 34 Median = 79.5 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 Mode = 80-81 レンジ 中央値 相加平均 最頻値 Grouped Frequency Distribution Pulse-rate Nº students 心拍数 学生人数 60-64 2 65-69 3 70-74 8 75-79 12 80-84 13 85-89 7 90-94 4 95-99 1 50 Modal Class = 80-84 最頻値的なクラス Grouped Frequency distribution 度数(各グループの人数) グループ化された度数分布 14 13 12 Central Tendency 中心傾向 11 Statistical Dispersion 8 統計的ばらつき 7 7 4 4 3 2 1 0 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 0 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 102 Pulse-rate 心拍数(BPM)
  • 62. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Standard Deviation(SD) 標準偏差 In statistics and probability theory, standard deviation (represented by the symbol sigma, σ) shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value). 標準偏差とは、統計値や確率変数の散らばり具合(ばらつき)を表す数値のひと つで σ で表す。 σ = √ ∑(X-X) Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 相加平均 2 N 62 74
  • 63. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 75 students [75人学生の心拍数] Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ] 15 15 12 12 9 9 6 6 3 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 100 students [100人学生の心拍数] 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 150 students [150人学生の心拍数] 15 15 12 12 9 9 6 6 3 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 63 74
  • 64. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 200 students [200人学生の心拍数] 15 12 9 6 3 0 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 64 74
  • 65. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 1000 students [1000人学生の心拍数] Normal Curve of Distribution 正規分布曲線 Median 中央値 Arithmetic mean 相加平均 Mode 最頻値 65 74
  • 66. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students [ 50人学生の心拍数 ] 14 11 8 1 ( ⨍(x) = e σ√2π ) 1" x-u! 2 σ 6 3 0 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 The Shape of the normal distribution is such that we can state the PROPORTION of the population that will lie between any two values of the variable. 正規分布の形は、変数の任意の2つの値の間にある口数の比率が計算できる。 Standard Deviation(SD) 標準偏差 ! Arithmetic mean 相加平均 66 74
  • 67. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Pulse-rate (beats per minute) of 50 students 50人学生の心拍数 62 64 65 66 68 70 71 71 72 72 Arithmetic mean = 79.1 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 77 78 相加平均 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 94 96 Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 6 標準偏差 -1/2 SD -2 SD -1 SD +1 SD Z-Values 偏差値 Arithmetic mean = 80 相加平均 +1 1/2 SD +3 SD 67 74
  • 68. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology M ± 1SD Point of Inflection Point of Inflection 編曲点 編曲点 68% of all observations (34%) -1SD (34%) M +1SD 68 74
  • 69. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 99.7% 95% 68% 2.35% 0.15% -3SD -2SD (1.96) 13.5% 34% -1SD 34% M 13.5% +1SD 2.35% +2SD (1.96) 0.15% +3SD 69 74
  • 70. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 cars Arithmetic mean = 55 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 50 Km/H -1SD 50 M 55 +1SD 60 Km/H 70 74
  • 71. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 1000 cars Arithmetic mean = 55 相加平均 34% Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 50% 標準偏差 50 84% Km/H -1SD 50 M 55 +1SD 60 Km/H 71 74
  • 72. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Ayanami Rei Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 80 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 60 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 5 標準偏差 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology Asuka Langley History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 90 points 点 Arithmetic mean = 65 相加平均 Standard Deviation(SD) = 15 標準偏差 72 74
  • 73. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Analysis of data データーを分析 Research PROCESS Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology 99.7% 95% 68% 2.35% 0.15% -3SD -2SD (1.96) Eva Units combat tactics 汎用人型決戦兵器の技術 50 History of the Second Impact セカンドインパクトの歴史 15 13.5% 34% 34% 13.5% 2.35% +2SD (1.96) 0.15% -1SD M +1SD +3SD 55 60 65 70 75 80 30 45 60 75 90 105 73 74
  • 74. “Elementary my dear Fukuoka UX Study Group” Basics definitions and common mistakes in research methodology RE SEARCH 74 74