コンピュータの歴史 - 基本コンセプト

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コンピュータの歴史 - 基本コンセプト

  1. 1. Brief history of digital computer - Basic Conceptsコンピュータの歴史 - 基本コンセプト
  2. 2. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 2 / 49 ANTIKYTHERA MECHANISM アンティキティラ島の機械 The world’s oldest “computing machine” 世界の最古「演算機会」です。
  3. 3. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 3 / 49 ≠ ANALOG DIGITAL
  4. 4. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 4 / 49 ANALOG 5分 An “analog or analogue” signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity.
  5. 5. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 5 / 49 DIGITAL Describes any system based on discontinuous data or events.
  6. 6. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 6 / 49 ANALOG DIGITAL 100010101010
  7. 7. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 7 / 49 WWII
  8. 8. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 8 / 49 WWII
  9. 9. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 9 / 49
  10. 10. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 10 / 49 謎 Enigma Machine German almost won over Great Britain! thanks to the U-boots, specially the ENIGMA MACHINE ドイツ語はほぼグレートブリテンに勝っ! 潜水艦のおかげで、特別エニグマ機
  11. 11. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 11 / 49 Go to .. Let’s Go TAGB to .. !
  12. 12. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 12 / 49 Bletchley Park Government Code and Cypher School(GC&CS)
  13. 13. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 13 / 49 Bombe Alan Turing(1912~1954)
  14. 14. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 14 / 49 An algorithm is any set of detailed instructions which results in a predictable end-state from a known beginning. ALGORITHM アルゴリズム(演算手順) アルゴリズムとは最初から最後まで知られている予期結果の状態 状態の詳細な手順のセットです。 1.An algorithm will consist of a finite set of precise instructions to be executed アルゴリズムは、実行される正確な手順の有限集合で構成され ます 2.Be computable in a finite number of steps (the inability of a program to determine whether or not it can be executed in a finite number of steps is called "the halting problem") 有限回のステップで計算できる 3.Be computable in principle with only a pen, paper, and infinite time; 唯一のペン、紙、無限の時間と、原理的に計算可能である。 4.Require no background information to execute, that is, be self-contained. 実行するために背景情報が必要がありません
  15. 15. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 15 / 49 ‣Leave Home ‣Check time, it’s 9:10 Leave Home ‣Return Home ‣Wait ‣Leave Home ‣Check time, it’s 9:20 ‣Return Home ‣Wait Wait Check Time ‣Leave Home ‣Check time, it’s 9:30 ‣Return Home ‣Wait ‣Leave Home ‣Check time, it’s 9:40 M 10 ‣Return Home Return YES A. re .? fo ‣Wait Home Be ‣Leave Home ‣Check time, it’s 9:50 ‣Return Home NO ‣Wait ‣Leave Home Go to Bus Stop ‣Check time, it’s 10:00 ‣Go to the Bus Stop
  16. 16. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 16 / 49 Application Program = algorithm
  17. 17. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 17 / 49 A Turing Machine is TURING MACHINE a simple mathematical construct that can be imagined as a recordable tape of infinite length coupled to a mechanical unit with read/ write capability. The unit can perform only three actions; read a bit of the tape and return the result; write a bit on the tape; or erase a preexisting bit. A Turing machine can theoretically compute any algorithm given enough time and storage space. It also states that any practical computing model must be a type of Turing machine. 1.Read a bit of the tape and return the result テープから一つビットを読んで結果がでる。 2.Write a bit on the tape テープに一つビットを書く 3.or Erase a preexisting bit または、あるビットを消す
  18. 18. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 18 / 49 TURING MACHINE 1.Read a bit of the tape and return the result テープから一つビットを読んで結果がでる。 2.Write a bit on the tape テープに一つビットを書く 3.or Erase a preexisting bit または、あるビットを消す
  19. 19. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 19 / 49 CPU THE CPU IS A TURING MACHINE
  20. 20. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 20 / 49 ≠
  21. 21. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 21 / 49 An algorithm is any set of detailed instructions which results in a predictable end-state from a known beginning. ALGORITHM アルゴリズム(演算手順) アルゴリズムとは最初から最後まで知られている予期結果の状態 状態の詳細な手順のセットです。 1.An algorithm will consist of a finite set of precise instructions to be executed アルゴリズムは、実行される正確な手順の有限集合で構成され ます 2.Be computable in a finite number of steps (the inability of a program to determine whether or not it can be executed in a finite number of steps is called "the halting problem") 有限回のステップで計算できる 3.Be computable in principle with only a pen, paper, and infinite time; 唯一のペン、紙、無限の時間と、原理的に計算可能である。 4.Require no background information to execute, that is, be self-contained. 実行するために背景情報が必要がありません
  22. 22. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 22 / 49 ive rs cu re to COMPUTER = to Make a mathematical calculation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27......1000000000000000000000 } start n = 0 while (n < 1000000000000000000000)               n = n+1 ALGORITHM                else stop
  23. 23. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 23 / 49 a COMPUTER makes recursive mathematical calculations 1+1=2
  24. 24. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 24 / 49 BINARY
  25. 25. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 25 / 49 0123456789 ABCDEFG... !”#$%&’... 0 1 C H R I S 01000011 01001000 01010010 01001001 01010011
  26. 26. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 26 / 49 BIT( 1 ) ZERO ( 0 )
  27. 27. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 27 / 49 0123456789 DECIMAL SYSTEM 01 BINARY SYSTEM
  28. 28. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 28 / 49 DECIMAL to BINARY conversion Example 44 to Binary 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 44 32 12 8 4 4 0
  29. 29. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 29 / 49 Turing Machine Computer BINARY SYSTEM Machine Language
  30. 30. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 30 / 49 Computer = Turing Machine MACHINE language 110100001001 001000100010 100100010001 010100001111 111110000101 010101010100 USER Compiler Programming language NATURAL language
  31. 31. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 31 / 49 USER NATURAL language Show a Window with the phrase “Hello world” class myfirstjavaprog { public static void main(String args[]) Programming language { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } Compiler 私の名前は太郎です。 私の名前です太郎。 110100001001 001000100010 100100010001 010100001111 111110000101 010101010100 MACHINE language
  32. 32. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 32 / 49 ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer 1946
  33. 33. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 33 / 49 17,468 Vacuum Tubes ! (管球)
  34. 34. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 34 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm None Not really being Moving cables Reading blinking None ~1945 Mechanical, The investors (computers had “used” except for around, Punching lights and punch (direct hands-on to Prehistory Electromechanical themselves not left the labs calculations Cards cards the hardware) yet)
  35. 35. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 35 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm None Not really being Moving cables Reading blinking None ~1945 Mechanical, The investors (computers had “used” except for around, Punching lights and punch (direct hands-on to Prehistory Electromechanical themselves not left the labs calculations Cards cards the hardware) yet)
  36. 36. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 36 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm None Not really being Moving cables Reading blinking None ~1945 Mechanical, The investors (computers had “used” except for around, Punching lights and punch (direct hands-on to Prehistory Electromechanical themselves not left the labs calculations Cards cards the hardware) yet)
  37. 37. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 37 / 49 Both are TURING MACHINES!
  38. 38. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 38 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Vacuum tubes, huge One user at a time 1945~1955 machines, short Machine language Computer as Programming “owns” machine TTY, typewriter. Experts Pioneer mean time between 0011001111101 calculator batch (limited time) failures
  39. 39. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 39 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Vacuum tubes, huge One user at a time 1945~1955 machines, short Machine language Computer as Programming “owns” machine TTY, typewriter. Experts Pioneer mean time between 0011001111101 calculator batch (limited time) failures 10000010 10000000 01111111 11111100
  40. 40. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 40 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Batch Line-oriented Technocrats, Computer as 1955~1965 Transistors (centralized Assembler ADD A, Command terminals (“glass- professional information Historical (more reliable) “computer as B languages TTY”) computerists processor temple”)
  41. 41. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 41 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Batch Line-oriented Technocrats, Computer as 1955~1965 Transistors (centralized Assembler ADD A, Command terminals (“glass- professional information Historical (more reliable) “computer as B languages TTY”) computerists processor temple”) addcc %r1,-4,%r1 printn(n,b) { extrn putchar; auto a; if(a=n/b) /* assignment, トランジスタ not test for equality */ printn(a, b); /* recursive */ putchar(n%b + 0); }
  42. 42. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 42 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Full-screen Time-sharing High Level Specialized groups Mechanization of Full-screen strictly 1965~1980 terminals, Integrated circuits (online processing languages, without computer “white collar” hierarchical menus Traditional alphanumeric systems) Fortran, Pascal, C knowledge labor and fill-in forms characters only
  43. 43. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 43 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Full-screen Time-sharing High Level Specialized groups Mechanization of Full-screen strictly 1965~1980 terminals, Integrated circuits (online processing languages, without computer “white collar” hierarchical menus Traditional alphanumeric systems) Fortran, Pascal, C knowledge labor and fill-in forms characters only Program HelloWorld(output); begin Writeln(Hello, world!) end. #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { printf("hello, worldn"); return 0; }
  44. 44. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 44 / 49
  45. 45. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 45 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Graphical display. Personal WIMP Single-user Problem oriented Business 1980~1995 VLSI Desktop productivity, (Windows, Icons, personal languages professionals, Modern DIYS workstations, computers as a Menus, Pointing computers (Imperatives) hobbyists heavy portables tool Device)
  46. 46. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 46 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Graphical display. Personal WIMP Single-user Problem oriented Business 1980~1995 VLSI Desktop productivity, (Windows, Icons, personal languages professionals, Modern DIYS workstations, computers as a Menus, Pointing computers (Imperatives) hobbyists heavy portables tool Device) // Outputs "Hello, world!" and then exits public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String args[]) { System.out.println("Hello, world!"); } }
  47. 47. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 47 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm Networked single Nonimperative “Dynabook” 1995~? Wafer-scale Computer as Non command user and (declarative), multimedia I/O, Everybody Future integration. appliance based interfaces embedded systems possibly graphical easily portable
  48. 48. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 48 / 49 GENERATION 0 GENERATION 1 GENERATION 2 GENERATION 3 GENERATION 4 GENERATION 5 User Hardware Operating Programming Terminal User Generation Image Interface Technology Mode Language Technology Types Paradigm WSI, Photonic Networked single Nonimperative “Dynabook” 1995~? Computer as Noncommand computing, Quantum user and (declarative), multimedia I/O, Everybody Future appliance based interfaces computing embedded systems possibly graphical easily portable writeHello world!
  49. 49. INFORMATION DESIGN: History & Basics Concepts of Digital Computing 49 / 49 USER NATURAL language Show a Window with the phrase “Hello world” class myfirstjavaprog { public static void main(String args[]) Programming language { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } Compiler 私の名前は太郎です。 私の名前です太郎。 110100001001 001000100010 100100010001 010100001111 111110000101 010101010100 MACHINE language

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