GORGING ANDGOUTHealth and the Disposable IncomeWaterford County ArchivistJoanne Rothwell
Disposable IncomeIncrease  in cash paymentsAll levels of society – weekly tenancies, yearly tenancies, terms of leaseCr...
DISPOSING OF INCOMEFood  – meat, new foodsDrink – alcoholFashion and FadsHealth
GORGING : 18th CenturyRev. Nicholas Herbert, Carrick-on-Suir took his family to their  seaside cottage in Bonmahon in 1793...
GORGING 19TH CENTURYFirst  Course: Soup, Fish Dish “It is customary to eat fish only at the commencement of the dinner” M...
GORGING: MEAT Increase  in meat consumption in the diet – beef and mutton  (boiled), lamb only if a lamb died Pig rearin...
GORGING – NEW FOODS   Bought bread – more finely milled, alum added to make dark bread look    lighter and to weigh heavi...
TEA AND SUGARPer  capita consumption rose .5lb to 2.2lbs between late 1830s-early 1860s and grew further as the 19th cent...
SUGAR BEET Sugar  Cane sole source of sugar During the mid-1700’s, the German chemist Andreas  Margraff discovered that ...
WORKHOUSE DIETInAugust 1869 390lbs of meat was purchased with 320 inmates in the Workhouse in Dungarvan 2780lbs of bread ...
CHEAP DRINK   Expansion in distilling industry in 18 th century – corn surplus, technological    advances   Duty paid on...
ILLEGAL DISTILLING Unlicensed   distilling illegal from 1667 Increase in tax on spirits – increase in illegal distilling...
GOUTForm   of arthritis, joint inflammation due to uric acid in the bloodRich food produces uric acid in abundance and a...
FASHION AND FADS   Corsets –health risks (women and men)   In 1878 Dr Gustave Jaeger argued that woollen clothing promot...
COSMETICS   Lead Face Powder    several thin plates of lead    a big pot of vinegar    a bed of horse manure    water    ...
MEDICINE AND DOCTORSConnection   between germs and disease not widely accepted even by 1860s – doctors often spread disea...
CONCLUSIONMore  money – more consumptionThe cure was often worse than the diseaseNext week – Dis-ease and Disease
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Gorging and gout waterford

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Lecture 2 of "Is Health Better than Wealth"

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Gorging and gout waterford

  1. 1. GORGING ANDGOUTHealth and the Disposable IncomeWaterford County ArchivistJoanne Rothwell
  2. 2. Disposable IncomeIncrease in cash paymentsAll levels of society – weekly tenancies, yearly tenancies, terms of leaseCredit – shops supplied credit to good customers and to “powerful” customersPawnbrokers – William Burke, Cappoquin was appointed Appraiser and Auctioneer of Pawned Goods in Pawn Offices by the Grand Jury in 1854Tallymen – goods supplied for payment in instalments
  3. 3. DISPOSING OF INCOMEFood – meat, new foodsDrink – alcoholFashion and FadsHealth
  4. 4. GORGING : 18th CenturyRev. Nicholas Herbert, Carrick-on-Suir took his family to their seaside cottage in Bonmahon in 1793. His daugther Dorothea and her friends celebrated with a feast …we set all Hands to work, got our Pastry and Music from Carrick with every Rarity the Season afforded in Meats, Fruits or Vegetables –The two Blundons got us all manner of fish and wildfowl – Miss Butler, Miss Blunden and Fanny manufactured the Whipps, Jellies and Creams and I made a Central Arch of Pasteboard and Wild Heath with various other Ornaments and Devices Aonach Bhearna na Gaoithe – Tomas Ó Moráin (Tomás na mbodharán)c.1770 Sliabh gCua lists food of the fair (raisins, honeycomb, chicken, meat, crubeens, leek, onions, cheese, carrots, turnips, parsnips, hakes, crabs, herrings, shellfish, salmon, fraughan, gooseberries, apples, gingerbread, plums and cherries…) Plúr na nDeise, arán sinséir…Bradán is bric-gheala ón tSiúir ann”
  5. 5. GORGING 19TH CENTURYFirst Course: Soup, Fish Dish “It is customary to eat fish only at the commencement of the dinner” Miss Leslie’s Directions for Cookery, 1851. SherrySecond Course: Joint or Roast – mutton, goose, duck. Game pies. Champagne with roast, Claret with mutton, beef or venisonThird Course: Pastry, Creams, JelliesDessert: Iced puddings, trifle, cakes, tarts. Liqueur served after ice, madeira, sherry or port after dessert
  6. 6. GORGING: MEAT Increase in meat consumption in the diet – beef and mutton (boiled), lamb only if a lamb died Pig rearing was very common in Ireland – one for the table and one for market among poorer families but more in other families. Hand cured at home and slaughtered late Autumn/early Winter. John Risbal, Dungarvan That Deft committed a nuisance by allowing 3 pigs in his dwelling house situate in Borheenatra in the Town of Dungarvan on Monday 4th March 1867. Nicholas Riordan and Johanna Whelan – same complaint
  7. 7. GORGING – NEW FOODS Bought bread – more finely milled, alum added to make dark bread look lighter and to weigh heavier Butter and Milk – water, starch, carbonate of water, sugar Tea and Coffee – used tea leaves were boiled with copperas (ferrous sulphate) and sheeps dung, then coloured with prussian blue (ferric ferrocyanide), verdigris (basic copper acetate), logwood, tannin or carbon black, before being resold. Some varieties of cheap teas contained or were made entirely from the dried leaves of other plants Tinned Food – bole armenian added to colour potted fish and meat 1754 1st patent in England for the manufacture of gelatin, unflavoured dried gelatin, 1842 Corn syrup invented 1811 Corn starch – custard Alfred Bird 1837 Margarine – 1870 Sweets – turkish delight (1777), boiled sweets, toffee, chocolate bar (1847), milk chocolate (1875)liquorice allsorts (1899),
  8. 8. TEA AND SUGARPer capita consumption rose .5lb to 2.2lbs between late 1830s-early 1860s and grew further as the 19th century progressedHigh quality tea was purchasedTea was stewed and consumed with lots of sugar and even more sugar if no milk was to be hadSurveys 1859-1904 indicate a tenfold increase in sugar consumptionCoffee was a middle and upper class drinkWorkhouses dramatically increased their tea and sugar purchases
  9. 9. SUGAR BEET Sugar Cane sole source of sugar During the mid-1700’s, the German chemist Andreas Margraff discovered that both white and the red beetroot contained sucrose, which was indistinguishable from that produced from cane One of Margraff’s students, Franz Karl Achard, conducted research in this area and built the first sugar factory at Cunern in lower Silesia (modern day Poland), and developed effective processing methods Napoleonic Wars – more research due to English blockade of West Indies Decline in slavery – increase in sugar beet production 1850s – widespread sugar beet production
  10. 10. WORKHOUSE DIETInAugust 1869 390lbs of meat was purchased with 320 inmates in the Workhouse in Dungarvan 2780lbs of bread were purchasedOxheads, beef and mutton from local suppliersBest 2nd Bread – all supplies put out to local tenderMore eggs purchasedMore Wine, Porter, Beer and Whiskey purchasedMore Sugar
  11. 11. CHEAP DRINK Expansion in distilling industry in 18 th century – corn surplus, technological advances Duty paid on gin was 2 pence a gallon, as opposed to 4 shillings and nine pence on strong beer. Consequently gin was dirt cheap Breweries concentrated on the production of porter - became popular from the 18th century. The dark coloured beer was favoured by the market porters in London, hence its name. Watered Beer - bittern sold to brewers of bitter beer in large quantities. It contained copperas (ferrous sulphate), extracts of Cocculus indicus, quassia and liquorice juice. There was also a preparation of ground coriander seeds, with Nux vomica and quassia, again to impart bitterness to the brew. Rum and brandy were gradually displaced by whiskey in the late 18 th century in Ireland
  12. 12. ILLEGAL DISTILLING Unlicensed distilling illegal from 1667 Increase in tax on spirits – increase in illegal distilling Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords appointed to consider the consequences of extending the functions of the constabulary in Ireland to the suppression or prevention of illicit distillation… 1854 Difficult “to enforce a law which was not directed against a moral offence” 1860 police complained about the lack of assistance from the coast guards and the lords commissioners replied that they believe the coast guards were “lowered in the estimation of the country people and the service injured by employment of their boats on the duty referred to” Father Mathew and Temperance Movement
  13. 13. GOUTForm of arthritis, joint inflammation due to uric acid in the bloodRich food produces uric acid in abundance and alcohol, by drying out the body, discourages it from leaving. The best prevention, is sensible food and lots of water.Lord Chesterfield “the gout is the distemper of a gentleman; whereas the rheumatism is the distemper of a hackney coachman.”
  14. 14. FASHION AND FADS Corsets –health risks (women and men) In 1878 Dr Gustave Jaeger argued that woollen clothing promoted better health. He stated that wearing natural, undyed wool next to the skin was a healthy alternative to silk or cotton as it allowed perspiration to pass freely away, leaving the skin dry and warm. By the 1890s Jaeger was marketing a range of woollen underwear including Sanitary Woollen Corsets for women. Less wealthy wore more comfortable clothes Smoking – pipe, snuff, cigarettes, cigars 1791: London physician John Hill reports cases in which use of snuff caused nasal cancers. Ireland and Scotland were the primary exporters of pipes in the 19 th Century
  15. 15. COSMETICS Lead Face Powder several thin plates of lead a big pot of vinegar a bed of horse manure water perfume & tinting agent Steep the lead in the pot of vinegar, and rest it in a bed of manure for at least three weeks. When the lead finally softens to the point where it can pounded into a flaky white powder (chemical reaction between vinegar and lead causes lead to turn white), grind to a fine powder. Mix with water, and let dry in the sun. After the powder is dry, mix with the appropriate amount of perfume and tinting dye.
  16. 16. MEDICINE AND DOCTORSConnection between germs and disease not widely accepted even by 1860s – doctors often spread disease by contaminating patients with unwashed hands and instrumentsMercury Pills were used to treat gout (also used as a cure for syphilis)Caryocostin (costus root, scammony, cloves)Opium – widely used in medicinesBloodletting – still widely practised in the 19th century
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONMore money – more consumptionThe cure was often worse than the diseaseNext week – Dis-ease and Disease

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