SlideShare a Scribd company logo

LED's Presentation

This Presentation most beneficial for Engineering student and mostly for electronics.In this PPT discuss about the led and also how does it work , use and also discuss about construction of LED,color material,cost , application and many more

1 of 34
Download to read offline
Sam Higginbottom Institutes of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences
Presentation
on
Light Emitting Diodes
B.Sc. (PMCS)
Department of Physics
Faculty of Science
Sam Higginbottom Institutes of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences
Allahabad-211007
Submitted To: Submitted By:
Mr. Vivek Kumar Singh Ravi Shankar Yadav(13BSPMCA043)
Department of Physics Mohd. Vaseem Akaram(13BSPMCA014)
Faculty of Science Arun Kumar Pal(13BSPMCA042)
SHIATS Allahabad Bijendra Kushwaha(13BSPMCA048)
1
 Introduction
 History
 Construction of LED
 Working
 Colors & Materials
 Types
 Comparison
 Applications
 Advantages & Disadvantages
Light Emitting Diodes
2
• LED is an acronym for Light Emitting Diode.
• A Light Emitting Diode(LED) is a two LED semiconductor
light source.
• It is a P N Junction diode.
• Which emits light when activated by a suitable voltage is
applied to the leads.
Introduction
3
History
1907 - H.J. Round discovered electroluminescence when using silicon carbide
and a cats whisker.
London, United Kingdom
1920s - Oleg V. Losev studied the phenomena of light emitting diodes in radio
sets. His first work on 'LEDs' involved a report on light emission from SiC.
Saint Petersburg, Russia
1961 - James R. Biard. "Bob" Biard and Gary Pittman developed the Infrared
LED at Texas instruments. This was the first modern LED.
Dallas, Texas
Inventors
4
Inventors
1972 - Herbert Maruska and Jacques Pankove develop the violet LED
using Mg-doped GaN films.
RCA Labs , New Jersey
1976 - Thomas P. Pearsall develops special high brightness LEDs for fiber
optic use. This improves communications technology worldwide.
Paris, France
1962 - Nick Holonyack Jr. develops the red LED, the first LED of visible light.
He used GaAsP (Gallium Arsenide Phosphide) on a GaAs substrate. General
Electric.
Syracuse, New York
5
Inventors
Isamu Akasaki
Nagoya University, Japan
Hiroshi Amano
Nagoya University, Japan
Shuji Nakamura
University of California
Santa Barbara, USA
For the invention of efficient blue light emitting diodes which has enabled bright &
energy saving white light source.
Nobel Prize Winner
6

Recommended

Light Emitting Diode Presentation Report
Light Emitting Diode  Presentation ReportLight Emitting Diode  Presentation Report
Light Emitting Diode Presentation ReportDevansh Gupta
 
INFRARED SENSOR WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CIRCUIT
INFRARED SENSOR WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CIRCUITINFRARED SENSOR WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CIRCUIT
INFRARED SENSOR WORKING PRINCIPLE AND CIRCUITKaushal Shah
 
Avalanche photodiode & there bandwidth
Avalanche photodiode & there bandwidthAvalanche photodiode & there bandwidth
Avalanche photodiode & there bandwidthSHARMAGOLU
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Light emitting diode(LED)
Light emitting diode(LED)Light emitting diode(LED)
Light emitting diode(LED)Krishna Raj
 
OLED technology Seminar Ppt
OLED technology Seminar PptOLED technology Seminar Ppt
OLED technology Seminar PptAshly Liza
 
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Light Emitting Diode (LED)Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Light Emitting Diode (LED)Javeria600
 
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)piyush yadav
 
Schottky diode working and applications
Schottky diode working and applicationsSchottky diode working and applications
Schottky diode working and applicationselprocus
 
Benefits of LED Lighting
Benefits of LED LightingBenefits of LED Lighting
Benefits of LED LightingSagnik Das
 
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvani
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvaniPin photodiode.pptx ashvani
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvaniAshvani Shukla
 
Solar Cells versus Photodiode
Solar Cells versus PhotodiodeSolar Cells versus Photodiode
Solar Cells versus PhotodiodeAbdullaziz Tagawy
 
Led presentation
Led presentationLed presentation
Led presentationAB Amit
 
Diode v i characteristic
Diode v i characteristicDiode v i characteristic
Diode v i characteristicUnsa Shakir
 
LED-Light Emitting Diode
LED-Light Emitting DiodeLED-Light Emitting Diode
LED-Light Emitting DiodeAon Ali Jaffery
 
Digital storage ocilloscope
Digital storage ocilloscopeDigital storage ocilloscope
Digital storage ocilloscopekajal8899
 

What's hot (20)

Light emitting diode(LED)
Light emitting diode(LED)Light emitting diode(LED)
Light emitting diode(LED)
 
Light Emitting Diode(LED)
Light Emitting Diode(LED)Light Emitting Diode(LED)
Light Emitting Diode(LED)
 
OLED technology Seminar Ppt
OLED technology Seminar PptOLED technology Seminar Ppt
OLED technology Seminar Ppt
 
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Light Emitting Diode (LED)Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
 
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)
 
Led ppt
Led ppt Led ppt
Led ppt
 
Tunnel diode
Tunnel diodeTunnel diode
Tunnel diode
 
Paper battery
Paper batteryPaper battery
Paper battery
 
Schottky diode working and applications
Schottky diode working and applicationsSchottky diode working and applications
Schottky diode working and applications
 
Benefits of LED Lighting
Benefits of LED LightingBenefits of LED Lighting
Benefits of LED Lighting
 
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvani
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvaniPin photodiode.pptx ashvani
Pin photodiode.pptx ashvani
 
Mosfet
MosfetMosfet
Mosfet
 
Solar Cells versus Photodiode
Solar Cells versus PhotodiodeSolar Cells versus Photodiode
Solar Cells versus Photodiode
 
Pn junction diode
Pn junction diodePn junction diode
Pn junction diode
 
Silicon control rectifier
Silicon control rectifierSilicon control rectifier
Silicon control rectifier
 
Led presentation
Led presentationLed presentation
Led presentation
 
Diode v i characteristic
Diode v i characteristicDiode v i characteristic
Diode v i characteristic
 
LED-Light Emitting Diode
LED-Light Emitting DiodeLED-Light Emitting Diode
LED-Light Emitting Diode
 
Digital storage ocilloscope
Digital storage ocilloscopeDigital storage ocilloscope
Digital storage ocilloscope
 
Schottky diode
Schottky diodeSchottky diode
Schottky diode
 

Viewers also liked

The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf Slough
The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf SloughThe Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf Slough
The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf SloughDarcy Velazquez
 
Water Treatment Process (Screening)
Water Treatment Process (Screening)Water Treatment Process (Screening)
Water Treatment Process (Screening)Zairul Zaiky
 
Waste water treatment
Waste water treatmentWaste water treatment
Waste water treatmentKumar
 
Wastewater treatment
Wastewater treatmentWastewater treatment
Wastewater treatmentRanjan Das
 
Waste Water Treatment Process Presentation
Waste Water Treatment Process PresentationWaste Water Treatment Process Presentation
Waste Water Treatment Process PresentationAshish Kakadia
 
water treatment slides
water treatment slideswater treatment slides
water treatment slidesAnand Keshri
 
28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt
28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt
28737268 waste-water-treatment-pptabhiiii4558
 
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..snehalmenon92
 
Waste water treatment processes
Waste water treatment processesWaste water treatment processes
Waste water treatment processesAshish Agarwal
 

Viewers also liked (10)

The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf Slough
The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf SloughThe Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf Slough
The Great Phosphorus Mystery at Prairie Wolf Slough
 
Water Treatment Process (Screening)
Water Treatment Process (Screening)Water Treatment Process (Screening)
Water Treatment Process (Screening)
 
Waste water treatment
Waste water treatmentWaste water treatment
Waste water treatment
 
Waste Water Treatment
Waste Water TreatmentWaste Water Treatment
Waste Water Treatment
 
Wastewater treatment
Wastewater treatmentWastewater treatment
Wastewater treatment
 
Waste Water Treatment Process Presentation
Waste Water Treatment Process PresentationWaste Water Treatment Process Presentation
Waste Water Treatment Process Presentation
 
water treatment slides
water treatment slideswater treatment slides
water treatment slides
 
28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt
28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt
28737268 waste-water-treatment-ppt
 
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..
Primary and secondary wastewater treatment..
 
Waste water treatment processes
Waste water treatment processesWaste water treatment processes
Waste water treatment processes
 

Similar to LED's Presentation

ILD presentation slide
ILD presentation slideILD presentation slide
ILD presentation slideDip Roy
 
V.s.arjun led
V.s.arjun ledV.s.arjun led
V.s.arjun ledV S ARJUN
 
basic of led in market
basic of led in marketbasic of led in market
basic of led in marketMathan kumar
 
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khan
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khanOptical source LED by sufiyan a khan
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khanSufiyan Khan
 
Light emitting diode (LED)
Light emitting diode (LED)Light emitting diode (LED)
Light emitting diode (LED)Mohammad Asif
 
Light emitting diode
Light emitting diodeLight emitting diode
Light emitting diodeMohammad Asif
 
Light Emitted Diode (LED)
Light Emitted Diode (LED) Light Emitted Diode (LED)
Light Emitted Diode (LED) Omar Hussein
 
Semiconductors and LEDs
Semiconductors and LEDsSemiconductors and LEDs
Semiconductors and LEDsAkash Ganguly
 
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.ppt
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.pptLight Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.ppt
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.pptISaf3
 

Similar to LED's Presentation (20)

ILD presentation slide
ILD presentation slideILD presentation slide
ILD presentation slide
 
Led
LedLed
Led
 
LEDpresentation1.pptx
LEDpresentation1.pptxLEDpresentation1.pptx
LEDpresentation1.pptx
 
V.s.arjun led
V.s.arjun ledV.s.arjun led
V.s.arjun led
 
basic of led in market
basic of led in marketbasic of led in market
basic of led in market
 
Blue led (1)
Blue led (1)Blue led (1)
Blue led (1)
 
Led ppt vgec ec engineering
Led ppt vgec ec engineeringLed ppt vgec ec engineering
Led ppt vgec ec engineering
 
Types of leds
Types of ledsTypes of leds
Types of leds
 
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khan
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khanOptical source LED by sufiyan a khan
Optical source LED by sufiyan a khan
 
Organic LED's
Organic LED'sOrganic LED's
Organic LED's
 
Light emitting diode (LED)
Light emitting diode (LED)Light emitting diode (LED)
Light emitting diode (LED)
 
Light emitting diode
Light emitting diodeLight emitting diode
Light emitting diode
 
White led
White ledWhite led
White led
 
LED Unit 5
LED Unit 5 LED Unit 5
LED Unit 5
 
Case Study: LED
Case Study: LEDCase Study: LED
Case Study: LED
 
Presentation on White LED
Presentation on White LEDPresentation on White LED
Presentation on White LED
 
Light Emitted Diode (LED)
Light Emitted Diode (LED) Light Emitted Diode (LED)
Light Emitted Diode (LED)
 
Semiconductors and LEDs
Semiconductors and LEDsSemiconductors and LEDs
Semiconductors and LEDs
 
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.ppt
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.pptLight Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.ppt
Light Emitting Diodes.+ organic light emitting diodes.ppt
 
LED JP.ppt
LED  JP.pptLED  JP.ppt
LED JP.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdf
B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdfB111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdf
B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdfKhoiTruong19
 
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fasteners
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 FastenersSuper Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fasteners
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fastenersfastenersboltss
 
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM Module
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM ModuleWireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM Module
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM ModuleChetan Naik
 
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...drezdzond
 
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaa
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaaHaifa University Student Centre .pptxsaa
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaassuser1cd9c9
 
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refining
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refiningfat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refining
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refiningteddymebratie
 
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)MANICKAVASAHAM G
 
Environmental studies questions &Answers.doc
Environmental studies questions &Answers.docEnvironmental studies questions &Answers.doc
Environmental studies questions &Answers.docbalbheem909
 
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaSDr. Shivashankar
 
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxseminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxGetahunShankoKefeni
 
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptx
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptxELMAR pressure control presentation.pptx
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptxArman572583
 
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdf
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdfForged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdf
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdfVikasKumar11936
 
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingHB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingLeoRaju4
 
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdfLesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdff1002753214
 
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERS
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERSCCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERS
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERSTamil949112
 
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptx
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptxPOST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptx
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptxARUL S
 
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?Marian Marinov
 

Recently uploaded (20)

B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdf
B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdfB111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdf
B111_FTS_2011.06.01 Fuel Tank Safety.pdf
 
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fasteners
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 FastenersSuper Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fasteners
Super Duplex Steel 32750 Fasteners, UNS S32750 Fasteners
 
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM Module
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM ModuleWireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM Module
Wireless module 2 notes vtu 18ec81 GSM Module
 
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. LeborgnePrésentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
 
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...
Chase Commerce Center History Nordberg manufacturing Rexnord Global power com...
 
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaa
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaaHaifa University Student Centre .pptxsaa
Haifa University Student Centre .pptxsaa
 
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refining
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refiningfat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refining
fat and edible oil processsing.ppt, refining
 
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
 
Environmental studies questions &Answers.doc
Environmental studies questions &Answers.docEnvironmental studies questions &Answers.doc
Environmental studies questions &Answers.doc
 
Présentation de F. Joudelat Congrès IIRB février 2024
Présentation de F. Joudelat Congrès IIRB février 2024Présentation de F. Joudelat Congrès IIRB février 2024
Présentation de F. Joudelat Congrès IIRB février 2024
 
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS
21 Scheme_21EC53_MODULE-5_CCN_Dr. ShivaS
 
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxseminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
 
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptx
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptxELMAR pressure control presentation.pptx
ELMAR pressure control presentation.pptx
 
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdf
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdfForged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdf
Forged Fitting Socket Welding Standard- ASME-B16.11-2001.pdf
 
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingHB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
 
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTBPrésentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
 
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdfLesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
 
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERS
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERSCCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERS
CCW332-DIGITAL MARKETING QUESTION BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptx
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptxPOST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptx
POST HARVEST Threshing equipment PPT 2.pptx
 
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?
Microservices: Benefits, drawbacks and are they for me?
 

LED's Presentation

  • 1. Sam Higginbottom Institutes of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences Presentation on Light Emitting Diodes B.Sc. (PMCS) Department of Physics Faculty of Science Sam Higginbottom Institutes of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences Allahabad-211007 Submitted To: Submitted By: Mr. Vivek Kumar Singh Ravi Shankar Yadav(13BSPMCA043) Department of Physics Mohd. Vaseem Akaram(13BSPMCA014) Faculty of Science Arun Kumar Pal(13BSPMCA042) SHIATS Allahabad Bijendra Kushwaha(13BSPMCA048) 1
  • 2.  Introduction  History  Construction of LED  Working  Colors & Materials  Types  Comparison  Applications  Advantages & Disadvantages Light Emitting Diodes 2
  • 3. • LED is an acronym for Light Emitting Diode. • A Light Emitting Diode(LED) is a two LED semiconductor light source. • It is a P N Junction diode. • Which emits light when activated by a suitable voltage is applied to the leads. Introduction 3
  • 4. History 1907 - H.J. Round discovered electroluminescence when using silicon carbide and a cats whisker. London, United Kingdom 1920s - Oleg V. Losev studied the phenomena of light emitting diodes in radio sets. His first work on 'LEDs' involved a report on light emission from SiC. Saint Petersburg, Russia 1961 - James R. Biard. "Bob" Biard and Gary Pittman developed the Infrared LED at Texas instruments. This was the first modern LED. Dallas, Texas Inventors 4
  • 5. Inventors 1972 - Herbert Maruska and Jacques Pankove develop the violet LED using Mg-doped GaN films. RCA Labs , New Jersey 1976 - Thomas P. Pearsall develops special high brightness LEDs for fiber optic use. This improves communications technology worldwide. Paris, France 1962 - Nick Holonyack Jr. develops the red LED, the first LED of visible light. He used GaAsP (Gallium Arsenide Phosphide) on a GaAs substrate. General Electric. Syracuse, New York 5
  • 6. Inventors Isamu Akasaki Nagoya University, Japan Hiroshi Amano Nagoya University, Japan Shuji Nakamura University of California Santa Barbara, USA For the invention of efficient blue light emitting diodes which has enabled bright & energy saving white light source. Nobel Prize Winner 6
  • 7. • The LED consist of a chip of semiconductor material doped with impurities to create a P N junction. • The chips are mounted in a reflecting tray order to increase the light output. • The contacts are made on the cathode side by means of conductive adhesive and on the anode side via gold wire to the lead frame. • The plastic case encloses the chip area of the lead frame. Construction of LED 7
  • 8. N Type • This type of semiconductor is obtained when a Pentavalent material like Arsenic(as)is added to pure silicon crystal. • Each Arsenic(As) atom forms covalent bonds with the surrounding four germanium atoms with the help of four of its five electrons. • The fifth electron is superfluous and is loosely bound to the Arsenic(As) atom 8
  • 9. P Type • This type of semiconductor is obtained when a trivalent material like boron is added to pure silicon crystal. • The three valence electrons of boron atom form covalent bonds with four surrounding silicon atoms but one bond is left incomplete and gives rise to a hole . • Thus, boron which is called an acceptor impurity causes as many positive holes in a silicon crystal as there are boron atoms thereby producing a P-type 9
  • 10. Working • Wen the negative end of a circuit is hooked up to the N-type layer and the positive end is hooked up with P-type layer than electron and holes start moving. • If you try to run current the other way, with the P-type side connected to the negative end of the circuit and the N-type side connected to the positive end, current will not flow. • No current flows across the junction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction. 10
  • 11. • When current flows across a diode • Negative electrons move one way and positive holes move the other way LED: How It Works 11
  • 12. • The wholes exist at a lower energy level than the free electrons • Therefore when a free electrons falls it losses energy LED: How It Works 12
  • 13. • This energy is emitted in a form of a photon, which causes light • The color of the light is determined by the fall of the electron and hence energy level of the photon LED: How It Works 13
  • 14. Colors Colors Name Wavelength Range(nm) Typical Efficiency(lm/W) Red 620 - 645 72 Red –Orange 610 - 620 98 Green 520 - 550 93 Cyan 490 - 520 75 Blue 460 - 490 37 Efficiency & Operational Parameter 14
  • 15. LEDs are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted. Types of LEDs 15
  • 16.  Traditional Inorganic LEDs  Multi Color LED • Bi-color • Try-color  Organic LED  Miniature  High power Different size of LEDs : 8 mm, 5 mm and 3 mm, Modern high-power LEDs such as those used for lighting and backlighting are generally found in Surface Mount Technology (SMT) (not shown here) Some main types is given below; Types of LEDs 16
  • 17. • This type of LEDs manufactured from inorganic materials. • Some of the more widely used are compound semiconductor such as Aluminum Gallium Arsenide(AlGaAr), Gallium Arsenide Phosphide(GaArP), and many more. Traditional Inorganic LEDs 17
  • 18. • Two different LED emitters in one case. There are two types of these. • One type consists of two dies connected to the same two color types of light. • Current flow in one direction emits one color, and current in the opposite direction emits the other color. Multi Color LED 18 Bi-color
  • 19. • The OLED mostly used display technology computer monitors, television , mobile phone Screen etc. Organic Light Emitting Diode(OLED) 19
  • 20. Organic Light Emitting Diode(OLED) • The semiconductor in an OLED is organic which means it contains carbon. • The OLED uses one of two polymer or small molecule. 20
  • 21. • 1.9 to 2.1V for Red, Orange & Yellow. • 3.0 to 3.4V for Green & Blue. • 2.9 to 4.2V for Violet, Pink, Purple & White. Miniature Miniature surface mount LEDs in most common sizes. They can much smaller than a traditional 5mm lamp Type LED. 21
  • 22. High power 22 For example, the CREE XP-G series LED achieved 105 lm/W in 2009, while Nichia released the 19 series with a typical efficacy of 140 lm/W in 2010.
  • 23. LED CFL HALOGEN Life 25,000 Hrs. 10,000 Hrs. 1,000 Hrs. Watts 7 Watts 13 Watts 43 Watts Cost per bulb** $11.98 $4.98 $1.98 KWh used over 25,000 175 KWh 325 KWh 1,075 Bulbs needed for 25,000 Hrs. 1 Bulb 2.5 bulb 25 bulb 25,000 KWh cost*** $21.00 $39.00 $129.00 Total Cost for 25,000 Hrs. $32.95 $51.45 $178.50 * All information USA Government. **Cost based on single bulb price at our local Electronic store. Your local prices differ. ***This information 2013 , different from present time. Comparison* 23
  • 25. • Indicators and signals • Lighting • Data communication and other signaling LED uses fall into Three main categories Applications 25
  • 26. The low energy consumption , low maintenance and small size of LEDs has LED to uses as status indicators and displays on a variety of equipment and installations. the are used as stadium airports and railway stations, trains, buses, trams, and ferries etc. Indicators and signals 26
  • 27. LEDs are now used commonly in all market areas from commercial to home use: standard lighting, stage, theatrical, architectural, and public installations, and wherever artificial light is used. Lighting 27
  • 29. • Light can be used to transmit data and analog signals. • Listening device in many theaters and similar spaces use arrays of infrared LEDs to send sound to listeners receivers. • Light-emitting diodes are used to send data over many types of fiber optics cable, from digital audio the very high bandwidth fiber links that form the internet backbone. Data communication and other signaling 29
  • 30. • Efficiency: LEDs emit more lumens per watt than incandescent light bulbs. The efficiency of LED lighting fixtures is not affected by shape and size, unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes. • Color: LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. Easily available many colors. • Size: LEDs can be very small smaller than 2 mm Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages 30
  • 31. • On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond • Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps that fail faster when High- intensity discharge lamps that require a long time before restarting. • Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer. • Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner. Advantages 31
  • 32. • High initial price : LEDs are currently more expensive, price per lumen. In 2012, the cost per thousand lumens was about $6. The price was expected to reach in 2013 $2/kilolumen and March 2014 $1. • Light Quality: Most cool-white LEDs have spectra that differ significant from a black body radiator like the sun or an incident light. • Temperature dependence: Driving the LED hard in high ambient temperatures may result to overheating of the led package ,eventually leading to device failure. • Voltage sensitivity: • Non reparation: Disadvantages 32
  • 33. • https://www.lightingdesignlab.com/introduction-leds • http://www.manfrotto.com/led-lights#.VTHPT9KUcww • http://www.aliexpress.com/store/product/Bracelet-Design-Future-Blue-LED-Wrist- Watch-Purple-1600056/1113793_1793977026.html • http://web.mit.edu/invent/a-winners/a-holonyak.html • http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962ApPhL...1...82H • http://www.edisontechcenter.org/LED.htm • http://www.edisontechcenter.org/LED.html#oleds • www.radio-electronics.com/info/data/semicond/leds-light-emitting-diodes/led- types.php • http://www.osram-os.com/osram_os/en/products/product-catlog/led-light- emitting-diodes/index.jsp • www.electrodragon.com • http://www.sefworld.org/pdf/Comparison_between_LED_CFL_Bulb.pdf References 33
  • 34. Thank You! For Your Attention! 34