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warwick business school alumni association magazine: spring 04




               the
     marketing issue
spring 2004
      www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni/nexus.cfm

      4
      6
           Academic Fund for Excellence
           Brands, Identity and the
           Postmodern Consumer
                                              news:
      8
      12
           Super marketing
           Sales and Account
           Management Strategy
                                                                                              VP appointment
      14   Olympic challenge                                                                  International biopharmaceutical company, Cephalon Inc.
      15   Rankings                                                                           appointed WBS alumna Dr Susan Sullman (DLMBA 1986–89),
      16   Project MBA                                                                        as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs – Europe, in July. Susan has
      17   Careers and networking                                                             more than 25 years experience in the pharmaceutical industry,
      18   Event reviews                                                                      working with several multinational companies. In her latest role,
                                                                                              she has responsibility for regulatory affairs throughout Cephalon’s
                                              Dr Susan Sullman




                                                                                              European operations and is located at the company’s UK office in
                                                                                              Guildford. Susan earned her PhD from London University and her
                                                                                              BSc in Microbiology and Biochemistry at Leeds.




      diary
      www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni/forthcoming.cfm
                                              good odds                                                   CBI profiles                   In the Winter issue of In
                                                                                                                                         Business, CBI West Midlands
                                                                                                                                         Councillor Profiles featured
                                                                                                                                         full page interviews with two
                                                                         The Times reported the return to the winner’s circle of         WBS alumni Nick Horler
      SINGAPORE EVENT
                                                                         WBS alumnus David Harding (MSc Marketing                        (DLMBA 1987–91), Powergen’s
      9 March 2004
                                                                         Management 1980–81) on 9 September. Now Chief                   Managing Director, Retail and
      Host: Professor Bob Johnston
                                                                         Executive of William Hill Bookmakers, David gambled             Geoff Percy (EMBA 1985–89),
      BANGKOK EVENT                                                                                                                      Chief Executive, Accantia
                                                                         successfully on a return to profit for the company,
      16 March 2004
                                                                         which joined the stock market in June last year.                Health and Beauty Limited.
      Host: Professor Bob Johnston

      LONDON EVENING SEMINAR
      24 March 2004
      Speakers: Professors Stewart Hodges
      and Mark Salmon
                                              army family new year’s honours
                                                            Second Lieutenant Katherine
      Topic: New research related to
                                                            Allt (MA Organisation Studies        Our congratulations to Monder Ram (MAIR 1988, PhD
      measuring market risk
                                                            2001–02) made news in The
                                                                                                 1992), who was awarded the OBE for services to black
      MIDLANDS REGIONAL EVENT                               Sussex Express as the fourth
      25 March 2004                                                                              and ethnic minority business in the New Year’s
                                                            generation of her family to
      Speaker: Stuart Chambers                                                                   Honours. Now Professor of Small Business at De Montfort University,
                                                            serve in the Army. Her mother
      Topic: SME’s                                                                               and co-ordinator of small business research at DMU Business School,
                                                            was the first woman to
      Venue: tbc                                                                                 Leicester, Monder has extensive experience of working in, researching,
                                                            command a signals corps, her
      BEIJING EVENT                                         Brigadier grandfather was also       and acting as a consultant to ethnic minority businesses. He is
      17 April 2004                                         a Royal Signaller and her            co-author of ‘Managing to Survive – Working Lives in Small Firms’, and
      Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson                           great-grandfather served with        ‘Ethnic Minorities in Business’ and is the only academic to be appointed
      SHANGHAI EVENT                                        the Royal Engineers. Katherine       to the Department of Trade and Industry’s advisory forum on ethnic
      20 April 2004                                         joined the 21st Signal               minority businesses.
      Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson                           Regiment (Air Support).

      HONG KONG EVENT
      24 April 2004
      Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson
                                                       An interview with WBS alumna Louise Liu (FMBA 2000–01)
                                                       appeared in the Hong Kong Economic Times in September.                            keep in touch
                                                       In the article, Louise explains how, when choosing WBS, she                       To get the full benefits of your
      WBS ANNUAL DINNER
      13 May 2004                                      considered course content, ranking reputation and location.                       membership, please check that
      IoD, London                                      Talking about her experience of studying in the UK, she says,                     your details are up to date by
                                                       “The good learning atmosphere helped to develop my                                using our online facility at
      MBA SUMMER BALL
      16 July 2004                                     thinking ability and meeting students from all over the world                     w www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni
      Stratford Moat House                             broadened my horizons, enhancing a better understanding of                        and follow the links for ‘Your
                                                       different cultures.” A view of WBS lecture theatre M1 appeared                    membership’ or by emailing
                                                       alongside the article.                                                            E alumni@wbs.ac.uk



Designed by Parenthesis +44 (0)24 7622 9658
WBS in the news
                                                                                            WBS appeared regularly in international, national
                                                                                            and regional press, magazines and broadcast media
                                                                                            during the last year, increasing slightly over the
                                                                                            previous year’s coverage. An encouraging trend was
                                                                                            that international coverage almost doubled, now
                                                                                            accounting for almost 20% of the total media
                                                                                            coverage. National coverage came in at 54%, and
                                                                                            regional at just over 26%.

                                                                                            Who is it who can take the credit for getting
                                                                                            WBS in the news? Just over half (53%) is achieved
                                                                                            by ongoing teaching and research activity.
                                                                                            This means that just under half is down to alumni

  rise in world rankings for WBS                                                            and current students. WBS is very grateful to the
                                                                                            many alumni and students who are willing to take
  In the Financial Times full-time MBA world rankings published 26 January 2004,            time to talk to journalists and whose achievements
  Warwick Business School has gained a further two places from last year and is now         and honours lead to this coverage.
  placed at 32 in the world. Only two other UK schools were placed higher than WBS,
                                                                                            In addition to the PR activity we also have a
  London and Oxford. Additionally, the WBS Doctoral programme has been confirmed
                                                                                            carefully targeted advertising schedule for the MBA
  as number one in the world.
                                                                                            programme that is both international, eg The
  “We are delighted at our rise in these rankings. It is a deserved recognition of the      Economist and the Financial Times (to fit with our
  quality and efforts of our staff, our current and former students, and our corporate      recruitment fairs) and UK national, eg The Times.
  partners, who have all contributed to this good result,” said Professor Howard            Plus we have a new flexible WBS ad style that is
  Thomas, Dean of WBS.                                                                      being used consistently across programme and
                                                                                            recruitment ads. So you will have seen WBS
                                                                                            promoted in The Times, The Guardian, BizEd and

obituaries                                                                                  The Economist during December for various activities.

It is with great sadness that we report the recent deaths of five WBS alumni.

Dame Sheila McKechnie (MAIR 1970–72) died after a long battle with cancer on
2 January 2004. Sheila was appointed Director of the Consumers’ Association in 1995.
                                                                                              WBS host high level DTI forum
                                                                                              For the second year, WBS Industrial Relations
She was also awarded an OBE in 1995 and created a Dame in 2001.
A detailed obituary for Sheila appears on w www.wbs.ac.uk/news/features                       Research Unit (IRRU) organised and hosted
                                                                                              high level round table discussions on
Jonathan Smout, (FMBA 1998–99), tragically died in a skiing accident whilst on holiday        controversial draft employment legislation at
in France over the Christmas break. Jonathan lived in Leamington Spa and worked at            the request of the Department for Trade and
Barclays on the Westwood Heath site.
                                                                                              Industry (DTI). Professor Paul Marginson,
Asim Humayun (FMBA 1998–99) died in London as a result of a tragic accident on                director of IRRU, chaired the meeting and
23 December 2003. After attending the Warwick MBA as a Chevening Scholar, Asim                Gerry Sutcliffe MP, the DTI minister
returned to Pakistan and became Vice President of AMZ Technologies, Karachi.                  responsible for employment relations,
                                                                                              competition and consumers, outlined the
We have also been notified that Colin Dixon (MA Industrial Relations 1985–86)
                                                                                              government’s approach to the draft
and Lynn Fordham (PG Diploma Business Administration (DL) Class of 1991)
                                                                                              Regulations and heard participants’ views.
died in November 2003.

The staff and alumni of WBS extend deepest sympathy to their families and friends.            Major Award for Warwick Professor
                                                                                              Alyson Warhurst, Professor of Strategy and

outstanding feedback                                                                          International Development at WBS has been
                                                                                              awarded the first European Faculty Pioneer
  A huge thank you to everyone who             Requests for more academic articles have       Award by the European Academy of Business
  responded to our invitation to feedback      been addressed, as this issue features         in Society (EABIS) as part of a global initiative
  on the ‘new look’ Nexus last issue.          articles from two of our new professors
                                                                                              ‘Beyond Grey Pinstripes’ and in conjunction
  As well as much appreciated approbation –    in Marketing, and details of some of the
  a particular favourite was ‘it stands out    current research being carried out at WBS.
                                                                                              with the US-based Aspen Institute and the
                                                                                                                                                    nexus: spring 2004




  from the rest, just like WBS’; we also                                                      World Resources Institute. The award took
                                               So keep that feedback coming, we want to
  received ideas and suggestions for content                                                  place at the 2nd colloquium of EABIS in
                                               hear your views on your magazine.
  and design.                                                                                 Copenhagen, Denmark.
                                               E Pam.Barnes@wbs.ac.uk




                                                                                                                                                    03
a message from the Dean

:                                     Marketing. Nigel was a recent
                                      recipient of the highest academic
                                      degree of DLitt, from Edinburgh
                                      Business School and the
                                      School of Management at
                                      Heriot-Watt University.

                                      In this issue Nigel discusses his
                                                                            Closer to home, we have been
                                                                            addressing the complexity of
                                                                            marketing Warwick Business
                                                                            School for some time. I am
                                                                            pleased to announce that by the
                                                                            time you receive this copy of
                                                                            Nexus we should have appointed
                                                                                                                          reputation of the School as
                                                                                                                          Professor John McGee describes
                                                                                                                          in his article on
                                                                                                                          Surveys & Rankings.

                                                                                                                          I think that you’ll agree that, as
                                                                                                                          ever, we continue to make exciting
                                                                                                                          progress as one of the world’s
                                                                            to the new position of Director of
                                      research into an area of marketing                                                  foremost business schools. To help
                                                                            Marketing. This role will afford us
                                      that often accounts for the largest                                                 advance WBS’ development, I
                                                                            the ability to not only co-ordinate
                                      proportion of budgets and                                                           would encourage you to contribute
                                                                            our diverse marketing activities
The year 2004 sees a further step     headcount – sales – and discusses                                                   to the Fund for Academic
                                                                            into a coherent strategy for the
change in the breadth and depth       the future evolution of the sales                                                   Excellence, details of which are
                                                                            School but will crucially enable
of our faculty and support staff.     organisation. Richard expands on                                                    provided below. With the support
                                                                            us to raise the awareness of
This is particularly evident in the   the socio-cultural approach of his                                                  from our strong alumni network,
                                                                            Warwick Business School in our
area of Marketing, the theme for      research and in particular, how                                                     the vision for 2004 and beyond
                                                                            target markets.
this edition of Nexus.                people use brands in a                                                              will be accomplished.
                                      postmodern consumer culture.          As part of the overall marketing
Warwick Business School has a                                                                                             I wish you all belated best wishes
                                                                            effort, the strengthening of the
strong reputation for quality both    As well as academic research,                                                       for the year ahead and look
                                                                            Alumni network and your
in its research and teaching of       we hear from senior marketing                                                       forward to meeting you at one
                                                                            participation in events is
Marketing. Therefore in Autumn        practitioners who exemplify the                                                     of our many events throughout
                                                                            extremely important and I would
2003 we strengthened the              greater kudos that marketing now                                                    the year. Thank you for your
                                                                            urge you to attend at least one of
Marketing expertise of the faculty    enjoys in the corporate world at                                                    continued support.
                                                                            the regional or national events
with two new appointments:            senior board level. Tim Mason –
                                                                            this year. If you are a recent MBA
Richard Elliott – Professor of        WBS Advisory Board Member –
                                                                            graduate (less than three years
Marketing & Consumer Research;        shares with us his philosophy as
                                                                            since graduation) you can make
Nigel Piercy – Professor of           Marketing Director at Tesco.
                                                                            an even more direct impact to the             Howard Thomas




the WBS Fund for Academic Excellence
advancing the future of business knowledge
Warwick Business School has developed into a leading European               WBS is already in a unique position within Europe as a leading
business school, with acknowledged excellence in teaching and               business school providing academic excellence spanning the
research. As such, it offers a comprehensive provision of degree            full-line provision of teaching and research. Your gift will help
programmes at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral level.               further WBS’ success and ensure our future.
WBS has also formed significant partnerships with global, national
                                                                            If you are interested in the WBS Fund for Academic Excellence
and local organisations for executive development and research.
                                                                            or would like to make a gift, please contact Ben Plummer,
Those who have studied at Warwick chose WBS for its quality and             Development Executive by emailing E Ben.Plummer@wbs.ac.uk
its teaching and research excellence. We are committed to                   or telephone t +44 (0)24 7652 2813
improving our performance over the next five years to become the
best European Business School. Your continued commitment can
help us achieve this goal.
                                                                              Ben Plummer has recently joined the         University and an institution of academic
                                                                              Dean’s Office at WBS as our Development     excellence that continues to develop from
We are most grateful to those of you who have already supported               Executive. He has moved from the            strength to strength. Additional investment
us, from attending alumni events, to making generous gifts.                   University’s International Office where     will ensure that WBS, and the University at
Building upon this foundation, we are pleased to establish the                he worked as a Liaison Officer.             large, are able to secure their futures as
WBS Fund for Academic Excellence. Through this fund, your                                                                 leading international institutions.
                                                                              “I’m delighted to be joining WBS. Having
                                                                                                                          Combining our current resources with the
contributions can help to enrol and teach the very best students;             studied at Warwick and worked within the
                                                                                                                          generous gifts that our alumni are making
recruit and retain the best academic staff; and to help develop and           main University administration, more than
                                                                                                                          will ensure that WBS’ vision is realised.”
maintain the highest quality facilities.                                      ever I believe Warwick to be a fantastic
hot off the press
Nigel Piercy, Professor in Marketing at WBS,          Fourth edition: Operations Management, Slack,         Members of the Corporate Citizenship Unit have
has recently published Total Integrated Marketing:    Chambers and Johnston. Published                      contributed chapters to Business and Human
Breaking the Bounds of the Function, with             by Financial Times Prentice Hall.                     Rights – Dilemmas and Solutions. Published by
colleagues from Columbia Business School,             This revised and fully updated edition of             Greenleaf. From the inside looking out: a
Mac Hulbert and Noel Capon. Published by              Operations Management by WBS Professors               management perspective on human rights
The Free Press in New York and in the UK by           Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers and Bob                  Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK, and
Kogan Page. The focus of the work is on the           Johnston continues to provide a clear,                Nina Seppala, WBS. Elimination of child labour:
managerial challenges in moving from                  well-structured and comprehensive                     Business and local communities Bahar Ali Kazmi
marketing as a department to marketing as a           treatment of the subject, balancing a logical         and Magnus Macfarlane, WBS.
set of cross-functional and cross-boundary            approach with the insights that come from             w www.greenleaf-publishing.com
processes to deliver superior customer value.         operations practice around the world.
w www.simonsays.com                                   w www.booksites.net/slack                             Howard Davis of the Local Government
                                                                                                            Centre has contributed a chapter on Ethics and
WBS Professor of Finance Lucio Sarno, in              Simulation: The Practice of Model Development and     standards of conduct to the publication: Public
collaboration with Professor Mark P Taylor has        Use, by Stewart Robinson. Publishers John Wiley       Management and Governance edited by Tony
a new publication The Economics of Exchange           & Sons Ltd. Dr Stewart Robinson, Senior               Bovaird and Elke Löffler and published by
Rates, published by Cambridge University Press.       Lecturer in Operational Research, offers guidance     Routledge. He has also just published a report
This publication provides a selective coverage of     through the key stages in a simulation project in     of the Local Government Association’s
the literature on exchange rates, focusing on         terms of both the technical requirements and          ‘Six Commitments’ initiative. Howard led this
developments from within the last fifteen years.      the project management issues surrounding it.         project and the work was undertaken by a small
Clear explanations of theories are offered,           Readers will emerge able to develop appropriate       team from Warwick and Birmingham.
alongside an appraisal of the literature and          valid conceptual models, perform simulation
suggestions for further research and analysis.        experiments, analyse the results and draw
w books.cambridge.org/0521485843.htm                  insightful conclusions. wwww.wileyeurope.com




research news
   This is merely a selection of          close working relationships not       Dr Martin Corbett (Industrial             organisation. Martin’s research
   some of the research contracts         only provide customers with           Relations & Organisational                warns of the dangers of getting
   and programmes recently                better service, but also enhance      Behaviour) has received much              these motivational songs wrong,
   started at WBS:                        employee performance. His new         media coverage for his research on        including derision from
                                          report ‘Delivering Service            the use of music in the corporate         competitors and customers,
   Launched in London in November
                                          Excellence: The View From the         world, including ‘aural branding’         and loss of morale within
   with a keynote address from Lord
                                          Front Line’, explains among other     – the use of an anthem or adapted         the organisation.
   Sainsbury, Under-Secretary of State
                                          things how the mechanic who           pop song to promote an
   at the Department for Trade and
                                          keeps up a constant stream of
   Industry, a new research
                                          repartee while working under the
   programme at WBS is
                                          bonnet of your car may hold the          Research by Dr Scott Dacko,             planning and organisation,
   investigating UK firms’ ability
                                          key to world-class customer              Marketing & Strategic                   leadership skills, and for their
   to adapt to the demands of a
                                          relations. “It all comes down to         Management Group, shows that            written and analytical abilities.
   knowledge-based economy.
                                          the personal touch and a large           Warwick MBA participants up             Scott confirms, “This is the only
   Professor Harry Scarbrough,
                                          part of that is the use of banter.”      their skill levels by over 30% in       study of its kind in the UK.
   who leads the Evolution of
                                          he says. (It’s good to talk!)            vital management competencies.          Given the enormous investment
   Business Knowledge programme,
                                                                                   Scott’s research, now in its            of time, money, and energy that
   warns that the loss of call centre     A research contract worth almost
                                                                                   third year, examines the                goes into studying for the
   and similar jobs to countries such     £1 million has been won by
                                                                                   perceptions of both the full-time       Warwick MBA, it is vital that
   as India will hit the UK low-skill     Professor Jean Hartley and the
                                                                                   participants, and, crucially, of the    we develop our participants’
   sector, and that UK firms will         Local Government Centre to
                                                                                   companies for whom they                 skills to make them the best
   need to be ready to adapt to these     undertake a five year evaluation
                                                                                   undertake their management              leaders and managers of the
   coming changes.                        of the Beacon Council Scheme,
                                                                                   consultancy project.                    future. We are making sure that
                                          to raise standards in local
   Latest research on service                                                                                              both employers and participants
                                          government by identifying                Employers rated initiative as a
                                                                                                                                                               nexus: spring 2004




   management and quality from                                                                                             get the best return on their
                                          innovative and excellent                 particular strength exhibited by
   Professor Bob Johnston                                                                                                  investment in terms of time,
                                          performing councils and helping          our participants, as well as
   (Operations Management) has                                                                                             talent, and money.”
                                          them spread best practice.               marking them highly for
   demonstrated that team-work and




                                                                                                                                                               05
brands, identity and the postmodern

consumer                                                                                        by Richard Elliott
                                                                                                Professor of Marketing
                                                                                                and Consumer Research




 t        he research I have undertaken
          adopts a socio-cultural approach
          which draws on contemporary
          cultural studies, anthropology and
          social theory rather than relying on
 just the cognitive, information-processing
 approach traditionally taken in marketing.
 In particular, I am interested in how
 people use brands in a postmodern
                                                 Central to postmodernism is the recognition
                                                 that the consumer does not make consumption
                                                 choices solely from products’ utilities but
                                                 from also from their symbolic meanings.
                                                 As consumption plays a central role in
                                                 supplying meanings and values for the creation
                                                 and maintenance of the consumer’s personal
                                                 and social world, so advertising is recognised
                                                 as one of the major sources of these symbolic
                                                                                                   Brands can be used by the consumer as
                                                                                                   resources for the symbolic construction
                                                                                                   of the self. The symbolic consumption
                                                                                                   of brands can help establish and communicate
                                                                                                   some of the fundamental cultural categories
                                                                                                   such as social status, gender, age, and such
                                                                                                   cultural values as family, tradition and
                                                                                                   authenticity. But brands can also be used to
                                                                                                   counter some of the threats to the self posed
 consumer culture.                               meanings. These cultural meanings are             by postmodernity, such as fragmentation,
                                                 transferred to brands and it is brands which      loss of meaning and loss of individuality.
                                                 are often used as symbolic resources for the
                                                 construction and maintenance of identity.
Brands, Trust and Fragmentation                    childhood. It seems that there is a ‘sensitive     reading. This openness relates to a lack of
                                                   period effect’ for products, where early           specific narrative direction and explicit
One of the prime features of the postmodern
                                                   childhood and, particularly, adolescence are       meaning context. Instead these open ads
experience is fragmentation, where the
                                                   periods when we are most likely to develop         feature the product and simply evoke a
inherited self-identity of history is no longer
                                                   preferences. Brands that we have lived             positive general response to the ad from the
a stable, secure fact but requires active
                                                   experience with during sensitive periods may       consumer, by using music or imagery for
construction: ‘A self-identity has to be created
                                                   acquire a depth of meaning unattainable by         example. The consumer views the deliberately
and more or less continually reordered against
                                                   brands at later stages in our lives. If we have    ‘open’ ad and because it lacks any strong
the backdrop of shifting experiences of day-to-
                                                   frequent sensual experience, particularly,         intended meaning is empowered to perform
day life and the fragmenting tendencies of
                                                   olfactory experience with brands during            a very strong reading of it. As a result
modern institutions.’ This construction is
                                                   childhood, then at later stages of our lives we    the consumer derives a very personal
achieved partly through developing coherent
                                                   may use them in nostalgic activity, and/or to      interpretation of the ad’s meaning related
narratives of the self and partly through
                                                   restore a sense of security.                       to their own individual life situation
finding opportunities for the investment
                                                                                                      and history.
of trust in institutions other than the            Again, behavioural signification through lived
traditional ones such as the church.               experience with a brand seems by far the most      At this point, in need of the social
                                                   potent source of meaning, but advertising can      confirmation all X’ers crave, the consumer
Brands offer consistency in an ever-changing
                                                   provide a narrative structure for concretising     discusses the meaning of the ad with others
world and this reassurance is a vital element
                                                   these emotional meanings. Hovis bread and          who share the same basic interpretation of
in their added value. As in human social
                                                   Yorkshire tea are both masters at providing        advertising. Thus an advertising literacy event
relationships, from consistency over time
                                                   consumers with a narrative identity that           occurs and the individuals form an
develops predictability, then dependability
                                                   encapsulates both nostalgic reverie and            ‘interpretative community’, not purely by
and eventually trust in the brand. In large
                                                   current life situations. The adolescent            demographic or psychographic factors but by
part, trust in a brand evolves from the
                                                   sensitive period is perfectly captured by Levi’s   their shared interpretation of the meaning of
delivery of consistent benefits over time,
                                                   with their provision of symbolic meaning           the advertisement. These interpretive
that is from lived experience of using a brand.
                                                   through heavy advertising support which            communities have the potential to provide
However, the viscous meaning derived from
                                                   provides teenagers with ‘scripts for living’.      exciting new ways to segment markets and
the mediated experience of advertising can
                                                                                                      build profitable ‘icon brands’.
enhance the consumer’s experience and give
                                                   Mass-Market Brands —
a narrative coherence to it by giving words to
                                                   Individual Meanings
thoughts they ‘may know but can only speak
                                                   The ubiquity of brands in developed
of incompletely’. Volkswagen has captured
                                                   capitalist societies is such that we live in a
perfectly this ability of the brand to replace
other less reliable relationships: ‘If only
                                                   rich ‘brandscape’ from which we must select           profile
                                                   a personal ‘brandspace’ in which to live.
everything in life was as reliable as
                                                   In large part, the creation of personal
a Volkswagen.’                                                                                           Richard Elliott is a visiting
                                                   brandspace will be achieved through the
                                                                                                         professor at ESCP-EAP Paris, ESSEC
Brands and Deep Meaning                            creation of deep meaning and the
                                                                                                         Paris, Université Paris II, and
                                                   development of trust, but brands can also
Brands can acquire deep meaning for                                                                      Thammasat University, Bangkok.
                                                   facilitate the development of personal
consumers by their involvement in the                                                                    He is also Associate Editor of the
                                                   involvement by the encouragement of the
socialisation process, and from then on                                                                  British Journal of Management and
                                                   meaning transfer processes of personal ritual
brands can evoke profound feelings of                                                                    European Editor of the Journal of
                                                   and social interaction.
nostalgia and provide comfort from insecurity.
                                                                                                         Product and Brand Management.
The history of brand use, brand loyalty and        Four ritual activities are important in
intergenerational transfer in families with a      transferring meaning from consumer goods              Richard is very active in his research
recent history of emigration has shown that        to the individual: exchange, possession,              which focuses on the symbolic
certain moments in our lives become powerful       grooming and divestment rituals. Each ritual          meaning of brands, consumer
memories that connect brands, people and           presents an opportunity for the individual to         culture and identity, and the
places and that ‘family brands become part of      affirm, assign or revise the meanings derived         dynamics of brand ecology.
the tool chest in strategies for survival during   from advertising and construct an individual          He has published books on Strategic
critical life passages.’                           meaning for themselves.                               Advertising Management, and
                                                                                                         Interpretive Consumer Research. He has
Consumers have been found to buy brands            The elusive audience of Generation X
that evoke memories of their grandparents,                                                               also published over 100 research
                                                                                                                                                        nexus: spring 2004




                                                   may be encouraged to actively interpret
often through the smell which instantly                                                                  papers in many and various journals.
                                                   advertising by using deliberately ‘weak’
returned them to the time and place of their       advertising texts which encourage ‘strong’




                                                                                                                                                        07
super
marketing
Tim Mason
Marketing Director, Tesco
t         esco reigns supreme in the battle
          of the supermarket giants.
          Warwick alumnus Tim Mason,
          Marketing Director, provides a
          unique insight into the strategy
that keeps Tesco ahead of the rest.

“The most important thing is that the
business is genuinely customer focused
                                               the manager. It is all about feeling
                                               empowered and learning life skills. Helping
                                               people to understand they can choose the
                                               attitude that they bring to work, which
                                               they are finding incredibly helpful in
                                               managing both work and personal life.”

                                               To obtain direct feedback from customers,
                                               Tesco also host Customer Question Times,
                                                                                              behind Tesco’s continued commitment to
                                                                                              this method of creating more value for
                                                                                              customers. “We trialled Clubcard for a long
                                                                                              time and basically what we found was that
                                                                                              people enjoy using it. Previous to this, we
                                                                                              were talking about an industry that didn’t
                                                                                              know the names and addresses of people
                                                                                              who spend thousands of pounds in their
                                                                                              stores. This means, in fact that you don’t
and then that it actually does something       where customers are invited into their
                                                                                              know very much about the business that
about what it learns about its customers.      local store to talk to store managers and
                                                                                              you run. We would find it unthinkable to
What we say at Tesco is that our job is to     head office managers about what their
                                                                                              operate without this information today
create value for our customers, to earn        shopping experience in that store. Tim
                                                                                              because it enables us to do a much better
their lifetime loyalty,” affirms Tim.          says, “What you find out is that customers
                                                                                              job for our customers.”
To achieve this Tesco abide by the ethos:      say exactly what the staff say to you
‘nobody tries harder for their customers’      because the customers tell them (the staff),   Tim quotes an example: “About 18 months
and ‘treat people in the way that we like      for example, when there is no bread or         ago, we launched a range of ‘Free From’
to be treated.”                                products have been moved. This goes back       products, for people with lactose or wheat
                                               to treating people how we would like to be     intolerance. It did reasonably but not
In a service industry, it is vital to know
                                               treated ourselves. When members of staff       fantastically well. So we said, let’s just have
what both customers and staff are thinking
                                               tell us something is wrong, we need to         a look at who is buying these products,
and make sure something is done
                                               act on it.”                                    whether new or existing customers and
about it. So it is most important to
                                                                                              whether they are spending more or less
maximise staff feedback and one of the
                                               “To be good at marketing is to                 with us. What we found was that quite a
things Tesco take very seriously is face to
face communication.
                                               understand customers and what                  lot of people purchasing this range were
                                                                                              new customers and that existing customers
Tim explains one of the current initiatives,
                                               they want.”
                                                                                              were spending significantly more. So if you
which is proving extremely successful, “We     Higher quality market research and the         did not have a store card and therefore
have a programme going on in stores at the     development of their loyalty Clubcard,         access to customer buying information,
moment called ‘Living Service’, which aims     ensure Tesco has the information about the     you could make the decision to stop
at getting all levels of people working in     shopping habits of its customers necessary     selling some slow-moving lines.”
stores to work together to improve the         to achieve its marketing goal. “To be good
                                                                                              Just how much information Tesco knows
customer service in the business. One of       at marketing is to understand customers
                                                                                              about the contents of its customers
                                                                                                                                                nexus: spring 2004




the things it has definitely achieved is to    and what they want,” Tim emphasises.
                                                                                              shopping trolley becomes clear when
make the store more free flowing in terms
                                               As some rivals opted out of customer           Clubcard holders receive the money off
of communication and to encourage
                                               loyalty schemes, Tim explains the thinking     vouchers with their quarterly statement,
people from the frontline to grab hold of


                                                                                                                                                09
super marketing continued:                                                        profile
                                                                                                   Tim is a keen supporter of WBS. He is
many of which relate to items they               Eight years ago, Tesco was the first              a member of the Advisory Board and
purchase on a regular basis. The statement       company in the UK to provide internet             came to campus in January to speak at
is addressed personally, with a message          shopping, which has proved a fantastic            a WBS Forum.
from Tim in his role as Clubcard Director.       success. They took a purely pragmatic             A keen rugby player, Tim played for the
                                                 approach by using their stores rather than        University in his first and second year.
Sustainable competitive advantage lies in
                                                 warehouses and their staff rather than the        From Warwick he went to Unilever as a
customer retention by constantly meeting
                                                 robots used by others. This enabled the           trainee, joining Tesco three years later,
their needs. Tesco is now about much more
                                                 building of a business for virtually no           where he held a number of positions
than groceries, as can be seen by the vast
                                                 capital outlay and the business is still          before being appointed Marketing and
array of products in the Clubcard deals
                                                 growing at an incredible rate. Taking more        E-Commerce Director, Tesco plc, with
scheme, from Air Miles to leisure breaks,
                                                 than 110,000 orders per week, Tesco.com           responsibility for Property and Ireland
for which vouchers can be exchanged,
                                                 is the world’s largest on-line grocery            in 1995. He also has responsibility for
increasing their value to the customer.
                                                 retailer. The service covers 96% of the UK        Tesco’s Personal Finance and Telecoms
Moving on to advertising, Tim maintains,         population and also operates in South             business. Tim featured in the September
“Retailers relatively speaking do not spend      Korea, the Republic of Ireland and as             issue of Marketing under the headline
as much money as other industries on             Groceryworks on the West Coast of                 ‘Marketers who have made it to the Top.’
advertising.” He then points out that the        America. For the six months up to August
key criteria are accessibility to a modern,      2003 sales grew by 32% with profits of
                                                                                                   Tesco — Facts and Figures
clean local store, staffed by well-trained       £11 million. Tesco made almost the same
                                                                                                   Tesco plc operates in 13 countries,
and committed, local people.                     profit in the first six months of 2003 as it
                                                                                                   including the UK, employing 300,000
                                                 did in the whole of 2002.
“Actually we do a bit of advertising,” Tim                                                         staff across 1,245 stores. The group looks
adds. “or us it is very important that our       According to Tim, “Tesco is certainly the         after almost 32 million customers per
advertising is likeable. In the case of our      most profitable e-grocer in the world by a        week, who generate annual sales of £15
TV advertising, that it makes you laugh or       long way. Internet shopping is a business         billion. In their interim statement of
smile. There is no doubt that the ‘Dotty’        we manage a lot better for having had the         results for the 24 weeks ended 9 August
TV ad campaign is very popular. You see          loyalty card. dot.com is about managing           2003, pre-tax profit increased by 21.3%
Dotty you know it is Tesco.” Prunella            customers as individuals. Supermarkets are        on 2002 with sales enjoying a 17% uplift
Scales plays Dotty with Jane Horrocks as         essentially self-service but we have been         in the same period.
her long-suffering daughter in the long-         learning to look at customers as                  w www.tesco.com/corporateinfo/
running campaign by top ad agency Lowe.          individuals and have been able to build           Tesco has stores in Ireland, Czech
‘Every little helps’ is the slogan that          that learning and thinking into our               Republic, Hungary, Poland, Turkey,
denotes Tesco, it features on all the            dot.com business.”                                Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Taiwan,
advertising and the Clubcard, signifying                                                           Japan and Malaysia.
value for money and a caring organisation.




glowing report
   Congratulations to Annie Frères (BSc International   Paris, she found herself designing a database and
   Business 1999–2003), who won the Association         producing the company export newsletter.
   of Business School’s undergraduate award and         Her fluent French proved invaluable in the PR
   a £3,000 prize in their 2003 Awards for Business     work she carried out for the launch of the
   and Management Students, sponsored by The            Jennifer Lopez range, Glow by JLo.
   Guardian. In the finals of the National Business     “The prize money has come in very useful for
   Awards she came a close second in the UK             fundraising and buying the kit I need for my trip
   Business Student of the Year Competition.            to Chile with Raleigh International”, reports
   A Belgian brought up in Germany, Annie did her       Annie. “I’ll be working on conservation and
                                                                                                              Annie Frères




   international baccalaureate in Oxford before         environmental projects in the national parks,
   choosing WBS. During her work placement in the       as well as improving the infrastructure in remote
   export department of cosmetics giant Coty in         villages by building community halls.”
As a director and an MBA,
      you are just a short step
        from qualifying as a
    Chartered Director
              The IoD and WBS Alumni Association
            are offering a special opportunity for you
                  to qualify as a Chartered Director,
           the professional qualification for directors.



           CIS strongly supports the Chartered Director programme, which provides
           a ’gold’ standard in director training and development. When voting on
    the election of directors and assessing candidates’ suitability, we shall take
    a very positive view of those who have achieved Chartered Director status.
    CIS, founded in 1867, have 4.5 million customers and over £20 billion of investments




                           Call us now to find out more
                                                                                           nexus: summer 2003




    ARE YOU QUALIFIED TO BE A DIRECTOR?


T   020 7766 8842      E   chartered.director@iod.com       W   www.iod.com/chartered
                                        Quote ref: wbs03                                   19
sales and account management

strategy
great potential for
research and
management impact
by Nigel Piercy
Professor of Marketing




m                any approaches to how
                 we teach and research
                 marketing tend to
                 ignore the fact that the
                 largest area of
employment in marketing is the sales
function, and for many companies sales
and account management costs vastly
outweigh resources devoted to other more
                                             In fact, the potential for innovative and
                                             insightful research activities in this large
                                             but neglected area of economic activity is
                                             huge. It is also an area where there is
                                             substantial management interest in
                                             research findings that enhance
                                             understanding of the factors driving
                                             effectiveness in the sales organization.
                                             In an era where business strategy
                                                                                            However, cynical observers might suggest
                                                                                            that the time has passed for the sales
                                                                                            organization – perhaps the only real
                                                                                            interest is how rapidly sales operations can
                                                                                            be downsized. Certainly, there is a scenario
                                                                                            where the role of the traditional sales
                                                                                            organization appears doomed. The figure
                                                                                            below identifies this scenario. As direct
                                                                                            sales channels and Internet initiatives
visible areas of marketing.                  emphasizes new forms of buyer-seller           provide more effective ways to handle
                                             relationship and partnering, it follows that   customers with low service and
Correspondingly, the amount of research
                                             there is intense interest in managing sales    relationship requirements, and key
attention given to the sales area by major
                                             operations to deliver superior customer        account management structures handle
business schools has been very limited,
                                             value, not simply to take and process          the most important customers, there
and sales rarely features prominently in
                                             orders from customers.                         seems indeed to be a shrinking domain
how marketing is taught.
                                                                                            for the traditional sales organization.
effectiveness – but often not the               Together these research programmes are
       LARGE
                                                ➡                               stereotypical behaviour and characteristics     building into a major challenge to
                                                                                associated with the traditional salesforce.     conventional management approaches
                                                          Key/Global                                                            in the sales organization. That challenge
                                                           account              Sales management – in conventional sales
                                     The shrinking                                                                              suggests the need for managers to address
                     ➡
                                                         management
                                                             ➡
 Customer Sales                        domain for                               organizations, sales management focuses
 Level/Potential                     the traditional                                                                            a quite different agenda to that of the past
                         Direct
                                      salesforce?                               on commanding and scorekeeping, while
                       channels/                                                                                                in seeking effective buyer-seller
                    internet-based                                              the research indicates that in the most
                         sales                                                                                                  relationships in the new environment

                                      ➡
                                                                                effective sales organizations managers
                                                                                                                                they face. The transformation of the sales
                                                                                devote substantial efforts to managing
       SMALL                                                                                                                    organization from order taking to the
                   LOW      Customer Service/Relationship Requirements   HIGH
                                                                                salesperson behaviours, i.e. monitoring,
                                                                                                                                management of customer relationships in
                                                                                directing, evaluating and rewarding
                                                                                                                                a global setting demands quite different
                                                                                activities, not simply crude control against
Certainly there have been a number of                                                                                           approaches to managing sales operations.
                                                                                outcomes. The move from outcome-based
prominent traditional salesforce closures
                                                                                to behaviour-based sales management             We plan to focus research efforts on these
and downsizing in many sectors like
                                                                                control strategy is controversial, but the      issues through the formation of a new
financial services. But the paradox is that
                                                                                research suggests numerous gains, and           research unit at WBS – Sales and Account
at leading Internet companies like Dell
                                                                                sometimes surprising benefits, for those        Management Strategy (SAMS) – to
Computers, the view is that the Web does
                                                                                who pursue this direction.                      continue the stream of research studies
not remove the need for salespeople – it
                                                                                                                                listed above and to extend them.
frees them to sell and manage customer                                          Sales compensation systems – there is
                                                                                                                                International collaborators exist in
relationships, which is what they were                                          widespread belief in the need for financial
                                                                                                                                business schools in the US, Europe,
there to do in the first place.                                                 incentives to achieve superior salesperson
                                                                                                                                Australia, as well as the UK. The potential
                                                                                performance, usually in the form of
However, as the function of the traditional                                                                                     for SAMS extends to a manager and
                                                                                volume-based commission. Our research
sales organization moves from order                                                                                             company network as a framework for the
                                                                                suggests very weak links between financial
taking to the more complex role of                                                                                              dissemination of research results and a
                                                                                incentivization and performance. When
managing customer relationships, there                                                                                          means to identify productive and relevant
                                                                                customer relationship-building matters,
is an urgent need for new knowledge and                                                                                         new research directions.
                                                                                effective sales control strategy requires
understanding about the factors
                                                                                more than volume-based commission.              It really does seem time that sales and
impacting effectiveness in this new
                                                                                                                                account management came in from the
business scenario. For this reason, our                                         International comparisons – companies
                                                                                                                                cold. As the largest employer of people in
current research projects address issues                                        in the US and Europe have tended to
                                                                                                                                marketing and one of the most expensive
like the following:                                                             export their sales management
                                                                                                                                parts of marketing, the sales area is
                                                                                approaches into international operations.
Salesperson performance – traditionally                                                                                         overdue for systematic research attention
                                                                                Our multi-country research suggests
salespeople have been evaluated in terms                                                                                        and an established place in the business
                                                                                that culture and tradition in many
of outcomes (sales, share of customer,                                                                                          school curriculum.
                                                                                overseas markets mandates different
costs, and so on), but research indicates
                                                                                management approaches to achieve sales
that it is salesperson behaviours of several
                                                                                organization effectiveness.
kinds that drive outcomes and




profile
       Prior to joining WBS, Nigel was Professor of Strategic                                            He is currently working with international collaborators
       Marketing and Head of the Marketing Group at Cranfield                                            on various research projects related to sales organisation
       School of Management, and previously held the Sir Julian                                          effectiveness and the sales/marketing interface. Piercy has
       Hodge Chair in Marketing and Strategy at Cardiff University.                                      published sixteen books and over 200 articles and papers in
       He has been a Vice Chair of the American Marketing                                                management literature globally. He is author of Market-Led
       Association’s Marketing Strategy Special Interest Group, and                                      Strategic Change: A Guide To Transforming the Process of Going
       a Vice Chair of the Academy of Marketing Science in the US.                                       to Market (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), and is
                                                                                                                                                                               nexus: spring 2004




                                                                                                         co-author with David W Cravens of Strategic Marketing
       His research interests span several areas related to the
                                                                                                         (McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002).
       development and implementation of marketing strategy.




                                                                                                                                                                               13
strategy                                                                            olympic challenge
from
scratch




                                                                                                                                    Vassilis Lazaris
              WBS alumna Michelle         internal and external                     August 2004 will see Athens hosting the Games
              Sartorio (FMBA              communications within an                  of the XXVIII Olympiad. Planning for this momentous
               1999–2000) discusses       organisation like this. Most other        event began back in 1999 and Vassilis Lazaris (FMBA
               the challenges she         countries only have one British           1995–96) plays a vital role in the organisation.
faces in her new role as Marketing        Council office! We always analyse
                                                                                    Vassilis joined the Planning Division of the Organising
Communications Manager for                the experience of other offices
British Council, Brazil.
                                                                                    Committee Games of Athens in 1999. From September
                                          before taking a strategic decision:
                                                                                    1999 to March 2001 he covered the key position of
                                          I’ve found myself asking for
“Having had three hectic but                                                        General Manager for Security for the Games. Planning
                                          research documents from British
fantastic years working in Marketing                                                began in earnest in March 2000, and the final pieces
                                          Council, India and for online
within the Telecommunications                                                       are now in place to ensure safety and security for all at
                                          newsletters from Singapore.’
sector, at Portugal Telecom, then                                                   the event.
Intelig Telecomunicações,                 Another challenge Michelle
I was attracted to this particular post   recognises is the diversity of themes     Vassilis explains, “The role involves co-operation
because of the challenge of creating      and areas British Council wants to        with the security community here and abroad.
a marketing communications                promote. “From music and arts             This includes the CIA, FBI, British, French, and Israeli
strategy from scratch working with        events to missions of State Secretaries   security services, among others. They have been able
the Head of Comunications to              to the UK, it is always hard to           to offer advice on potential risks and help my
define our targets. British Council,      determine priorities and find the         fact finding.”
Brazil is only just now starting to       right way to promote each of them,
                                                                                    Elements that Vassilis had to consider include planning
appreciate marketing                      considering we want always to use
                                                                                    and policy issues such as disaster and crowd control,
communications as a tool to leverage      an integrated marketing and
                                                                                    communications, intelligence, and co-operation, as well
its works,” explains Michelle.            communications strategy for
                                                                                    as security measures and administration and support.
                                          each event.”
The aim of British Council, Brazil is                                               He said, “We took a structured approach, linking each
to build lasting relationships between    However, Michelle is confident in         stage from policy to procedure and working
Brazil and the UK. It works to            her team and her secret weapons:          collaboratively with all relevant authorities.”
connect people and learning               “Hopefully the communications
                                                                                    He continued, “The committee have created a
opportunities from both countries.        team in Brazil and I will build a
According to Michelle, “My main                                                     masterplan, not for world domination, but to cover
                                          well-structured and operational
responsibility is to define and                                                     audit for human resources and technology, budget,
                                          communications plan. My Kotler
manage national communications            book, WBS online Business Source          timelines, detailed actions etc as well as tactical elements
strategy in order to increase British     Premier journals, and MBA                 such as risk assessments and procedure design. We’ve
Council’s exposure to its wide range      Marketing folders, are all standing       had to cover both internal and external security
of stakeholders and customer, or          me in good stead!” she confirms.          issues too.”
‘target groups’, as defined by the                                                  Vassilis was able to draw heavily upon the business
organisation. These groups include                                                  strategy he learnt at WBS. “I started with Peter Doyle’s
British Council, UK, as well as                                                     voice ringing in my ears ‘what do you need to formulate
strategic partners such as governors,
                                                                                    strategy?’ I remembered his advice about the importance
professors, artists, alumni, and
                                                                                    of good intelligence and getting hold of it. Vassilis
students interested in studying
                                                                                    combined this approach with military tactics learnt
in the UK.”
                                                                                    from textbooks – another of his passions. Thanks to
Expanding on the main challenges                                                    WBS and military planning, come 13 August 2004 8pm
of her new role, she says, “There’s a                                               we’ll be ready!” he confirms.
huge geographic distance between
                                            Michelle Sartorio




the five British Council offices in                                                 For further information regarding the
Brazil, a country with continental                                                  Athens Olympic Games visit
proportions and differences, so                                                     w www.olympic.org/uk/games/athens/
there are difficulties in aligning
the best course
 Gary Jackson was one of the first 12 students     PGA required someone to manage and                 but, apart from commercial market
 to undertake the MA in Organisation Studies       develop their business management training         research, it seems to be little studied.
 when it was launched in 1996. As a mature         programmes, I applied. Fortunately, my             So he has two questions:
 student, he sacrificed a year’s earnings as a     qualifications, background in business
                                                                                                      1) Does anyone know of any academic
 Business Lecturer in further education to help    education and my love of sport were just
                                                                                                      studies into any aspect of the golf business?
 enhance his career prospects. Not only did he     what the PGA wanted and I duly started the
 enjoy the course immensely and learn a great      job in August 2002 (5 weeks before the Ryder       2) Is anyone interested in doing research
 deal, his decision eventually resulted in his     Cup – but that’s another story!).”                 into the golf business?
 career taking an unexpected turn.                                                                    If you wish to respond to either question,
                                                   Gary is now responsible for managing the
 Gary explains, “Mention the Belfry to most        business training of 1000 trainee golf             then Gary would be delighted to hear from
 sport-minded people and they instantly            professionals, 50 students on the Applied Golf     you. Please email e alumni @wbs.ac.uk
 associate it with some of the greatest            Management Studies degree in conjunction           in the first instance.
 moments in Ryder Cup history. The deeds           with Birmingham University and contributing
 of Christy O’Connor Jnr, Sam Torrance,            to the development of a Continuous
 Paul McGinley et al will be etched on the         Professional Development programme for             For further
 memories of European golf fans forever.           over 5000 golf professionals working in over       information
 What most people probably don’t realise is        50 countries. (And no, he doesn’t have much        regarding the
 that the Belfry is also the Headquarters of the   time to play golf!).                               PGA and the
 Professional Golfers’ Association and houses                                                         National Training
                                                   One of the things Gary has discovered in his
 the National Training Academy. I was only                                                            Academy visit
                                                   year in the job is that the golf business seems
 vaguely aware of this fact as a result of some                                                       w www.pga.info
                                                   to be sadly under-researched. It is estimated
 students I had taught but, when I saw the
                                                   that worldwide the industry is worth $60bn




rankings:
 The Financial Times published
                               by Professor Howard Thomas, Dean of WBS and
                               Professor John McGee, Associate Dean, MBA Programmes
                                       schools relate to criteria that      of making further progress.             the questions in the survey
 its rankings of full-time MBA         the FT regards as indicative of      We are especially concerned to          must be answered for your
 programmes in January 2004 and        quality, namely proportion of        improve our position on the             response to be valid. This does
 of executive MBA programmes in        women faculty, the international     executive MBA rankings (for us          mean being explicit about data
 October 2003. Warwick Business        character of the school in terms     this means the Evening and              that is both personal and
 School has been steadily              of curriculum, students,             Modular MBA programmes)                 confidential. But please be
 improving on its rankings over        faculty and governing body,          where we believe that the               reassured that the FT guards the
 the last four years. We are now       and research.                        fundamental quality of the              data very carefully and does not
 ranked 32nd in the world, 9th                                              programmes is not adequately            under any circumstances release
                                       At WBS, we take rankings very
 in Europe, and 3rd in the UK for                                           reflected in the current ranking.       it to third parties.
                                       seriously. We all know that all
 full-time programmes and 35th
 in the world, 9th in Europe, and
                                       rankings schemes have problems       What can you do to help?                You may also be contacted by
                                       and difficulties and that the                                                other publications that conduct
 5th in the UK for executive                                                We would very much appreciate
                                       diversity of business schools and                                            rankings, for instance, The Wall
 MBA programmes.                                                            your help in contributing to the
                                       their market positioning cannot                                              Street Journal, The Economist,
                                                                            FT surveys. You will be surveyed
 The Financial Times uses a set of     be fully captured by a common                                                Forbes, and Business Week.
                                                                            three years after graduation and
 key indicators that it believes       set of criteria. However, rankings                                           Not all of these rely on alumni
                                                                            your responses will be retained
 demonstrate a high quality MBA        do reflect some important                                                    surveys to the same degree as
                                                                            over three years of surveys in a
 programme. These indicators can       characteristics of MBA education                                             the FT but we do urge you to
                                                                            moving three year average.
 be divided into two broad classes.    the most obvious one being the                                               respond when asked.
 The first is based on surveys of      employability of its graduates.      It is very important that we
                                                                                                                    Rankings may be imperfect and
 business school alumni. The           Rankings should not and do not       have a high response rate to the
                                                                                                                    indeed different rankings
 second is based on returns from       drive our fundamental strategy       FT surveys. To give a truly
                                                                                                                    measure very different attributes
 business schools about the nature     but they do have an important        representative picture we should
                                                                                                                    of business schools. But they do
 of the school, its programmes         effect on external perceptions of    achieve a 75% response rate from
                                                                                                                    impact directly on the School’s
 and its faculty. The alumni           WBS and to some extent on            our alumni. This enables the
                                                                                                                    reputation and the reputation of
 survey is by a questionnaire that     morale in the school and in the      surveys to pick up both the range
                                                                                                                    its graduates in employment
 covers salary data and other          alumni body. We have been            of salaries and their rate of
                                                                                                                                                        nexus: spring 2004




                                                                                                                    markets. Therefore we hope that
 career related information.           pleased by our progress up the       increase over time. At present the
                                                                                                                    you will be able to join with us
 This accounts in total for about      FTMBA rankings over the last         response rate is only 45%. It is
                                                                                                                    in advancing all our reputations.
 50% of a school’s final ‘score’.      four years (moving upwards by        also important to realise that all
 The returns made direct from the      25 places) but feel we are capable




                                                                                                                                                        15
Nexus Spring 2004
Nexus Spring 2004
Nexus Spring 2004
Nexus Spring 2004
Nexus Spring 2004

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Nexus Spring 2004

  • 1. warwick business school alumni association magazine: spring 04 the marketing issue
  • 2. spring 2004 www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni/nexus.cfm 4 6 Academic Fund for Excellence Brands, Identity and the Postmodern Consumer news: 8 12 Super marketing Sales and Account Management Strategy VP appointment 14 Olympic challenge International biopharmaceutical company, Cephalon Inc. 15 Rankings appointed WBS alumna Dr Susan Sullman (DLMBA 1986–89), 16 Project MBA as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs – Europe, in July. Susan has 17 Careers and networking more than 25 years experience in the pharmaceutical industry, 18 Event reviews working with several multinational companies. In her latest role, she has responsibility for regulatory affairs throughout Cephalon’s Dr Susan Sullman European operations and is located at the company’s UK office in Guildford. Susan earned her PhD from London University and her BSc in Microbiology and Biochemistry at Leeds. diary www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni/forthcoming.cfm good odds CBI profiles In the Winter issue of In Business, CBI West Midlands Councillor Profiles featured full page interviews with two The Times reported the return to the winner’s circle of WBS alumni Nick Horler SINGAPORE EVENT WBS alumnus David Harding (MSc Marketing (DLMBA 1987–91), Powergen’s 9 March 2004 Management 1980–81) on 9 September. Now Chief Managing Director, Retail and Host: Professor Bob Johnston Executive of William Hill Bookmakers, David gambled Geoff Percy (EMBA 1985–89), BANGKOK EVENT Chief Executive, Accantia successfully on a return to profit for the company, 16 March 2004 which joined the stock market in June last year. Health and Beauty Limited. Host: Professor Bob Johnston LONDON EVENING SEMINAR 24 March 2004 Speakers: Professors Stewart Hodges and Mark Salmon army family new year’s honours Second Lieutenant Katherine Topic: New research related to Allt (MA Organisation Studies Our congratulations to Monder Ram (MAIR 1988, PhD measuring market risk 2001–02) made news in The 1992), who was awarded the OBE for services to black MIDLANDS REGIONAL EVENT Sussex Express as the fourth 25 March 2004 and ethnic minority business in the New Year’s generation of her family to Speaker: Stuart Chambers Honours. Now Professor of Small Business at De Montfort University, serve in the Army. Her mother Topic: SME’s and co-ordinator of small business research at DMU Business School, was the first woman to Venue: tbc Leicester, Monder has extensive experience of working in, researching, command a signals corps, her BEIJING EVENT Brigadier grandfather was also and acting as a consultant to ethnic minority businesses. He is 17 April 2004 a Royal Signaller and her co-author of ‘Managing to Survive – Working Lives in Small Firms’, and Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson great-grandfather served with ‘Ethnic Minorities in Business’ and is the only academic to be appointed SHANGHAI EVENT the Royal Engineers. Katherine to the Department of Trade and Industry’s advisory forum on ethnic 20 April 2004 joined the 21st Signal minority businesses. Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson Regiment (Air Support). HONG KONG EVENT 24 April 2004 Speaker: Dr Simon Collinson An interview with WBS alumna Louise Liu (FMBA 2000–01) appeared in the Hong Kong Economic Times in September. keep in touch In the article, Louise explains how, when choosing WBS, she To get the full benefits of your WBS ANNUAL DINNER 13 May 2004 considered course content, ranking reputation and location. membership, please check that IoD, London Talking about her experience of studying in the UK, she says, your details are up to date by “The good learning atmosphere helped to develop my using our online facility at MBA SUMMER BALL 16 July 2004 thinking ability and meeting students from all over the world w www.wbs.ac.uk/alumni Stratford Moat House broadened my horizons, enhancing a better understanding of and follow the links for ‘Your different cultures.” A view of WBS lecture theatre M1 appeared membership’ or by emailing alongside the article. E alumni@wbs.ac.uk Designed by Parenthesis +44 (0)24 7622 9658
  • 3. WBS in the news WBS appeared regularly in international, national and regional press, magazines and broadcast media during the last year, increasing slightly over the previous year’s coverage. An encouraging trend was that international coverage almost doubled, now accounting for almost 20% of the total media coverage. National coverage came in at 54%, and regional at just over 26%. Who is it who can take the credit for getting WBS in the news? Just over half (53%) is achieved by ongoing teaching and research activity. This means that just under half is down to alumni rise in world rankings for WBS and current students. WBS is very grateful to the many alumni and students who are willing to take In the Financial Times full-time MBA world rankings published 26 January 2004, time to talk to journalists and whose achievements Warwick Business School has gained a further two places from last year and is now and honours lead to this coverage. placed at 32 in the world. Only two other UK schools were placed higher than WBS, In addition to the PR activity we also have a London and Oxford. Additionally, the WBS Doctoral programme has been confirmed carefully targeted advertising schedule for the MBA as number one in the world. programme that is both international, eg The “We are delighted at our rise in these rankings. It is a deserved recognition of the Economist and the Financial Times (to fit with our quality and efforts of our staff, our current and former students, and our corporate recruitment fairs) and UK national, eg The Times. partners, who have all contributed to this good result,” said Professor Howard Plus we have a new flexible WBS ad style that is Thomas, Dean of WBS. being used consistently across programme and recruitment ads. So you will have seen WBS promoted in The Times, The Guardian, BizEd and obituaries The Economist during December for various activities. It is with great sadness that we report the recent deaths of five WBS alumni. Dame Sheila McKechnie (MAIR 1970–72) died after a long battle with cancer on 2 January 2004. Sheila was appointed Director of the Consumers’ Association in 1995. WBS host high level DTI forum For the second year, WBS Industrial Relations She was also awarded an OBE in 1995 and created a Dame in 2001. A detailed obituary for Sheila appears on w www.wbs.ac.uk/news/features Research Unit (IRRU) organised and hosted high level round table discussions on Jonathan Smout, (FMBA 1998–99), tragically died in a skiing accident whilst on holiday controversial draft employment legislation at in France over the Christmas break. Jonathan lived in Leamington Spa and worked at the request of the Department for Trade and Barclays on the Westwood Heath site. Industry (DTI). Professor Paul Marginson, Asim Humayun (FMBA 1998–99) died in London as a result of a tragic accident on director of IRRU, chaired the meeting and 23 December 2003. After attending the Warwick MBA as a Chevening Scholar, Asim Gerry Sutcliffe MP, the DTI minister returned to Pakistan and became Vice President of AMZ Technologies, Karachi. responsible for employment relations, competition and consumers, outlined the We have also been notified that Colin Dixon (MA Industrial Relations 1985–86) government’s approach to the draft and Lynn Fordham (PG Diploma Business Administration (DL) Class of 1991) Regulations and heard participants’ views. died in November 2003. The staff and alumni of WBS extend deepest sympathy to their families and friends. Major Award for Warwick Professor Alyson Warhurst, Professor of Strategy and outstanding feedback International Development at WBS has been awarded the first European Faculty Pioneer A huge thank you to everyone who Requests for more academic articles have Award by the European Academy of Business responded to our invitation to feedback been addressed, as this issue features in Society (EABIS) as part of a global initiative on the ‘new look’ Nexus last issue. articles from two of our new professors ‘Beyond Grey Pinstripes’ and in conjunction As well as much appreciated approbation – in Marketing, and details of some of the a particular favourite was ‘it stands out current research being carried out at WBS. with the US-based Aspen Institute and the nexus: spring 2004 from the rest, just like WBS’; we also World Resources Institute. The award took So keep that feedback coming, we want to received ideas and suggestions for content place at the 2nd colloquium of EABIS in hear your views on your magazine. and design. Copenhagen, Denmark. E Pam.Barnes@wbs.ac.uk 03
  • 4. a message from the Dean : Marketing. Nigel was a recent recipient of the highest academic degree of DLitt, from Edinburgh Business School and the School of Management at Heriot-Watt University. In this issue Nigel discusses his Closer to home, we have been addressing the complexity of marketing Warwick Business School for some time. I am pleased to announce that by the time you receive this copy of Nexus we should have appointed reputation of the School as Professor John McGee describes in his article on Surveys & Rankings. I think that you’ll agree that, as ever, we continue to make exciting progress as one of the world’s to the new position of Director of research into an area of marketing foremost business schools. To help Marketing. This role will afford us that often accounts for the largest advance WBS’ development, I the ability to not only co-ordinate proportion of budgets and would encourage you to contribute our diverse marketing activities The year 2004 sees a further step headcount – sales – and discusses to the Fund for Academic into a coherent strategy for the change in the breadth and depth the future evolution of the sales Excellence, details of which are School but will crucially enable of our faculty and support staff. organisation. Richard expands on provided below. With the support us to raise the awareness of This is particularly evident in the the socio-cultural approach of his from our strong alumni network, Warwick Business School in our area of Marketing, the theme for research and in particular, how the vision for 2004 and beyond target markets. this edition of Nexus. people use brands in a will be accomplished. postmodern consumer culture. As part of the overall marketing Warwick Business School has a I wish you all belated best wishes effort, the strengthening of the strong reputation for quality both As well as academic research, for the year ahead and look Alumni network and your in its research and teaching of we hear from senior marketing forward to meeting you at one participation in events is Marketing. Therefore in Autumn practitioners who exemplify the of our many events throughout extremely important and I would 2003 we strengthened the greater kudos that marketing now the year. Thank you for your urge you to attend at least one of Marketing expertise of the faculty enjoys in the corporate world at continued support. the regional or national events with two new appointments: senior board level. Tim Mason – this year. If you are a recent MBA Richard Elliott – Professor of WBS Advisory Board Member – graduate (less than three years Marketing & Consumer Research; shares with us his philosophy as since graduation) you can make Nigel Piercy – Professor of Marketing Director at Tesco. an even more direct impact to the Howard Thomas the WBS Fund for Academic Excellence advancing the future of business knowledge Warwick Business School has developed into a leading European WBS is already in a unique position within Europe as a leading business school, with acknowledged excellence in teaching and business school providing academic excellence spanning the research. As such, it offers a comprehensive provision of degree full-line provision of teaching and research. Your gift will help programmes at undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral level. further WBS’ success and ensure our future. WBS has also formed significant partnerships with global, national If you are interested in the WBS Fund for Academic Excellence and local organisations for executive development and research. or would like to make a gift, please contact Ben Plummer, Those who have studied at Warwick chose WBS for its quality and Development Executive by emailing E Ben.Plummer@wbs.ac.uk its teaching and research excellence. We are committed to or telephone t +44 (0)24 7652 2813 improving our performance over the next five years to become the best European Business School. Your continued commitment can help us achieve this goal. Ben Plummer has recently joined the University and an institution of academic Dean’s Office at WBS as our Development excellence that continues to develop from We are most grateful to those of you who have already supported Executive. He has moved from the strength to strength. Additional investment us, from attending alumni events, to making generous gifts. University’s International Office where will ensure that WBS, and the University at Building upon this foundation, we are pleased to establish the he worked as a Liaison Officer. large, are able to secure their futures as WBS Fund for Academic Excellence. Through this fund, your leading international institutions. “I’m delighted to be joining WBS. Having Combining our current resources with the contributions can help to enrol and teach the very best students; studied at Warwick and worked within the generous gifts that our alumni are making recruit and retain the best academic staff; and to help develop and main University administration, more than will ensure that WBS’ vision is realised.” maintain the highest quality facilities. ever I believe Warwick to be a fantastic
  • 5. hot off the press Nigel Piercy, Professor in Marketing at WBS, Fourth edition: Operations Management, Slack, Members of the Corporate Citizenship Unit have has recently published Total Integrated Marketing: Chambers and Johnston. Published contributed chapters to Business and Human Breaking the Bounds of the Function, with by Financial Times Prentice Hall. Rights – Dilemmas and Solutions. Published by colleagues from Columbia Business School, This revised and fully updated edition of Greenleaf. From the inside looking out: a Mac Hulbert and Noel Capon. Published by Operations Management by WBS Professors management perspective on human rights The Free Press in New York and in the UK by Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers and Bob Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK, and Kogan Page. The focus of the work is on the Johnston continues to provide a clear, Nina Seppala, WBS. Elimination of child labour: managerial challenges in moving from well-structured and comprehensive Business and local communities Bahar Ali Kazmi marketing as a department to marketing as a treatment of the subject, balancing a logical and Magnus Macfarlane, WBS. set of cross-functional and cross-boundary approach with the insights that come from w www.greenleaf-publishing.com processes to deliver superior customer value. operations practice around the world. w www.simonsays.com w www.booksites.net/slack Howard Davis of the Local Government Centre has contributed a chapter on Ethics and WBS Professor of Finance Lucio Sarno, in Simulation: The Practice of Model Development and standards of conduct to the publication: Public collaboration with Professor Mark P Taylor has Use, by Stewart Robinson. Publishers John Wiley Management and Governance edited by Tony a new publication The Economics of Exchange & Sons Ltd. Dr Stewart Robinson, Senior Bovaird and Elke Löffler and published by Rates, published by Cambridge University Press. Lecturer in Operational Research, offers guidance Routledge. He has also just published a report This publication provides a selective coverage of through the key stages in a simulation project in of the Local Government Association’s the literature on exchange rates, focusing on terms of both the technical requirements and ‘Six Commitments’ initiative. Howard led this developments from within the last fifteen years. the project management issues surrounding it. project and the work was undertaken by a small Clear explanations of theories are offered, Readers will emerge able to develop appropriate team from Warwick and Birmingham. alongside an appraisal of the literature and valid conceptual models, perform simulation suggestions for further research and analysis. experiments, analyse the results and draw w books.cambridge.org/0521485843.htm insightful conclusions. wwww.wileyeurope.com research news This is merely a selection of close working relationships not Dr Martin Corbett (Industrial organisation. Martin’s research some of the research contracts only provide customers with Relations & Organisational warns of the dangers of getting and programmes recently better service, but also enhance Behaviour) has received much these motivational songs wrong, started at WBS: employee performance. His new media coverage for his research on including derision from report ‘Delivering Service the use of music in the corporate competitors and customers, Launched in London in November Excellence: The View From the world, including ‘aural branding’ and loss of morale within with a keynote address from Lord Front Line’, explains among other – the use of an anthem or adapted the organisation. Sainsbury, Under-Secretary of State things how the mechanic who pop song to promote an at the Department for Trade and keeps up a constant stream of Industry, a new research repartee while working under the programme at WBS is bonnet of your car may hold the Research by Dr Scott Dacko, planning and organisation, investigating UK firms’ ability key to world-class customer Marketing & Strategic leadership skills, and for their to adapt to the demands of a relations. “It all comes down to Management Group, shows that written and analytical abilities. knowledge-based economy. the personal touch and a large Warwick MBA participants up Scott confirms, “This is the only Professor Harry Scarbrough, part of that is the use of banter.” their skill levels by over 30% in study of its kind in the UK. who leads the Evolution of he says. (It’s good to talk!) vital management competencies. Given the enormous investment Business Knowledge programme, Scott’s research, now in its of time, money, and energy that warns that the loss of call centre A research contract worth almost third year, examines the goes into studying for the and similar jobs to countries such £1 million has been won by perceptions of both the full-time Warwick MBA, it is vital that as India will hit the UK low-skill Professor Jean Hartley and the participants, and, crucially, of the we develop our participants’ sector, and that UK firms will Local Government Centre to companies for whom they skills to make them the best need to be ready to adapt to these undertake a five year evaluation undertake their management leaders and managers of the coming changes. of the Beacon Council Scheme, consultancy project. future. We are making sure that to raise standards in local Latest research on service both employers and participants government by identifying Employers rated initiative as a nexus: spring 2004 management and quality from get the best return on their innovative and excellent particular strength exhibited by Professor Bob Johnston investment in terms of time, performing councils and helping our participants, as well as (Operations Management) has talent, and money.” them spread best practice. marking them highly for demonstrated that team-work and 05
  • 6. brands, identity and the postmodern consumer by Richard Elliott Professor of Marketing and Consumer Research t he research I have undertaken adopts a socio-cultural approach which draws on contemporary cultural studies, anthropology and social theory rather than relying on just the cognitive, information-processing approach traditionally taken in marketing. In particular, I am interested in how people use brands in a postmodern Central to postmodernism is the recognition that the consumer does not make consumption choices solely from products’ utilities but from also from their symbolic meanings. As consumption plays a central role in supplying meanings and values for the creation and maintenance of the consumer’s personal and social world, so advertising is recognised as one of the major sources of these symbolic Brands can be used by the consumer as resources for the symbolic construction of the self. The symbolic consumption of brands can help establish and communicate some of the fundamental cultural categories such as social status, gender, age, and such cultural values as family, tradition and authenticity. But brands can also be used to counter some of the threats to the self posed consumer culture. meanings. These cultural meanings are by postmodernity, such as fragmentation, transferred to brands and it is brands which loss of meaning and loss of individuality. are often used as symbolic resources for the construction and maintenance of identity.
  • 7. Brands, Trust and Fragmentation childhood. It seems that there is a ‘sensitive reading. This openness relates to a lack of period effect’ for products, where early specific narrative direction and explicit One of the prime features of the postmodern childhood and, particularly, adolescence are meaning context. Instead these open ads experience is fragmentation, where the periods when we are most likely to develop feature the product and simply evoke a inherited self-identity of history is no longer preferences. Brands that we have lived positive general response to the ad from the a stable, secure fact but requires active experience with during sensitive periods may consumer, by using music or imagery for construction: ‘A self-identity has to be created acquire a depth of meaning unattainable by example. The consumer views the deliberately and more or less continually reordered against brands at later stages in our lives. If we have ‘open’ ad and because it lacks any strong the backdrop of shifting experiences of day-to- frequent sensual experience, particularly, intended meaning is empowered to perform day life and the fragmenting tendencies of olfactory experience with brands during a very strong reading of it. As a result modern institutions.’ This construction is childhood, then at later stages of our lives we the consumer derives a very personal achieved partly through developing coherent may use them in nostalgic activity, and/or to interpretation of the ad’s meaning related narratives of the self and partly through restore a sense of security. to their own individual life situation finding opportunities for the investment and history. of trust in institutions other than the Again, behavioural signification through lived traditional ones such as the church. experience with a brand seems by far the most At this point, in need of the social potent source of meaning, but advertising can confirmation all X’ers crave, the consumer Brands offer consistency in an ever-changing provide a narrative structure for concretising discusses the meaning of the ad with others world and this reassurance is a vital element these emotional meanings. Hovis bread and who share the same basic interpretation of in their added value. As in human social Yorkshire tea are both masters at providing advertising. Thus an advertising literacy event relationships, from consistency over time consumers with a narrative identity that occurs and the individuals form an develops predictability, then dependability encapsulates both nostalgic reverie and ‘interpretative community’, not purely by and eventually trust in the brand. In large current life situations. The adolescent demographic or psychographic factors but by part, trust in a brand evolves from the sensitive period is perfectly captured by Levi’s their shared interpretation of the meaning of delivery of consistent benefits over time, with their provision of symbolic meaning the advertisement. These interpretive that is from lived experience of using a brand. through heavy advertising support which communities have the potential to provide However, the viscous meaning derived from provides teenagers with ‘scripts for living’. exciting new ways to segment markets and the mediated experience of advertising can build profitable ‘icon brands’. enhance the consumer’s experience and give Mass-Market Brands — a narrative coherence to it by giving words to Individual Meanings thoughts they ‘may know but can only speak The ubiquity of brands in developed of incompletely’. Volkswagen has captured capitalist societies is such that we live in a perfectly this ability of the brand to replace other less reliable relationships: ‘If only rich ‘brandscape’ from which we must select profile a personal ‘brandspace’ in which to live. everything in life was as reliable as In large part, the creation of personal a Volkswagen.’ Richard Elliott is a visiting brandspace will be achieved through the professor at ESCP-EAP Paris, ESSEC Brands and Deep Meaning creation of deep meaning and the Paris, Université Paris II, and development of trust, but brands can also Brands can acquire deep meaning for Thammasat University, Bangkok. facilitate the development of personal consumers by their involvement in the He is also Associate Editor of the involvement by the encouragement of the socialisation process, and from then on British Journal of Management and meaning transfer processes of personal ritual brands can evoke profound feelings of European Editor of the Journal of and social interaction. nostalgia and provide comfort from insecurity. Product and Brand Management. The history of brand use, brand loyalty and Four ritual activities are important in intergenerational transfer in families with a transferring meaning from consumer goods Richard is very active in his research recent history of emigration has shown that to the individual: exchange, possession, which focuses on the symbolic certain moments in our lives become powerful grooming and divestment rituals. Each ritual meaning of brands, consumer memories that connect brands, people and presents an opportunity for the individual to culture and identity, and the places and that ‘family brands become part of affirm, assign or revise the meanings derived dynamics of brand ecology. the tool chest in strategies for survival during from advertising and construct an individual He has published books on Strategic critical life passages.’ meaning for themselves. Advertising Management, and Interpretive Consumer Research. He has Consumers have been found to buy brands The elusive audience of Generation X that evoke memories of their grandparents, also published over 100 research nexus: spring 2004 may be encouraged to actively interpret often through the smell which instantly papers in many and various journals. advertising by using deliberately ‘weak’ returned them to the time and place of their advertising texts which encourage ‘strong’ 07
  • 9. t esco reigns supreme in the battle of the supermarket giants. Warwick alumnus Tim Mason, Marketing Director, provides a unique insight into the strategy that keeps Tesco ahead of the rest. “The most important thing is that the business is genuinely customer focused the manager. It is all about feeling empowered and learning life skills. Helping people to understand they can choose the attitude that they bring to work, which they are finding incredibly helpful in managing both work and personal life.” To obtain direct feedback from customers, Tesco also host Customer Question Times, behind Tesco’s continued commitment to this method of creating more value for customers. “We trialled Clubcard for a long time and basically what we found was that people enjoy using it. Previous to this, we were talking about an industry that didn’t know the names and addresses of people who spend thousands of pounds in their stores. This means, in fact that you don’t and then that it actually does something where customers are invited into their know very much about the business that about what it learns about its customers. local store to talk to store managers and you run. We would find it unthinkable to What we say at Tesco is that our job is to head office managers about what their operate without this information today create value for our customers, to earn shopping experience in that store. Tim because it enables us to do a much better their lifetime loyalty,” affirms Tim. says, “What you find out is that customers job for our customers.” To achieve this Tesco abide by the ethos: say exactly what the staff say to you ‘nobody tries harder for their customers’ because the customers tell them (the staff), Tim quotes an example: “About 18 months and ‘treat people in the way that we like for example, when there is no bread or ago, we launched a range of ‘Free From’ to be treated.” products have been moved. This goes back products, for people with lactose or wheat to treating people how we would like to be intolerance. It did reasonably but not In a service industry, it is vital to know treated ourselves. When members of staff fantastically well. So we said, let’s just have what both customers and staff are thinking tell us something is wrong, we need to a look at who is buying these products, and make sure something is done act on it.” whether new or existing customers and about it. So it is most important to whether they are spending more or less maximise staff feedback and one of the “To be good at marketing is to with us. What we found was that quite a things Tesco take very seriously is face to face communication. understand customers and what lot of people purchasing this range were new customers and that existing customers Tim explains one of the current initiatives, they want.” were spending significantly more. So if you which is proving extremely successful, “We Higher quality market research and the did not have a store card and therefore have a programme going on in stores at the development of their loyalty Clubcard, access to customer buying information, moment called ‘Living Service’, which aims ensure Tesco has the information about the you could make the decision to stop at getting all levels of people working in shopping habits of its customers necessary selling some slow-moving lines.” stores to work together to improve the to achieve its marketing goal. “To be good Just how much information Tesco knows customer service in the business. One of at marketing is to understand customers about the contents of its customers nexus: spring 2004 the things it has definitely achieved is to and what they want,” Tim emphasises. shopping trolley becomes clear when make the store more free flowing in terms As some rivals opted out of customer Clubcard holders receive the money off of communication and to encourage loyalty schemes, Tim explains the thinking vouchers with their quarterly statement, people from the frontline to grab hold of 09
  • 10. super marketing continued: profile Tim is a keen supporter of WBS. He is many of which relate to items they Eight years ago, Tesco was the first a member of the Advisory Board and purchase on a regular basis. The statement company in the UK to provide internet came to campus in January to speak at is addressed personally, with a message shopping, which has proved a fantastic a WBS Forum. from Tim in his role as Clubcard Director. success. They took a purely pragmatic A keen rugby player, Tim played for the approach by using their stores rather than University in his first and second year. Sustainable competitive advantage lies in warehouses and their staff rather than the From Warwick he went to Unilever as a customer retention by constantly meeting robots used by others. This enabled the trainee, joining Tesco three years later, their needs. Tesco is now about much more building of a business for virtually no where he held a number of positions than groceries, as can be seen by the vast capital outlay and the business is still before being appointed Marketing and array of products in the Clubcard deals growing at an incredible rate. Taking more E-Commerce Director, Tesco plc, with scheme, from Air Miles to leisure breaks, than 110,000 orders per week, Tesco.com responsibility for Property and Ireland for which vouchers can be exchanged, is the world’s largest on-line grocery in 1995. He also has responsibility for increasing their value to the customer. retailer. The service covers 96% of the UK Tesco’s Personal Finance and Telecoms Moving on to advertising, Tim maintains, population and also operates in South business. Tim featured in the September “Retailers relatively speaking do not spend Korea, the Republic of Ireland and as issue of Marketing under the headline as much money as other industries on Groceryworks on the West Coast of ‘Marketers who have made it to the Top.’ advertising.” He then points out that the America. For the six months up to August key criteria are accessibility to a modern, 2003 sales grew by 32% with profits of Tesco — Facts and Figures clean local store, staffed by well-trained £11 million. Tesco made almost the same Tesco plc operates in 13 countries, and committed, local people. profit in the first six months of 2003 as it including the UK, employing 300,000 did in the whole of 2002. “Actually we do a bit of advertising,” Tim staff across 1,245 stores. The group looks adds. “or us it is very important that our According to Tim, “Tesco is certainly the after almost 32 million customers per advertising is likeable. In the case of our most profitable e-grocer in the world by a week, who generate annual sales of £15 TV advertising, that it makes you laugh or long way. Internet shopping is a business billion. In their interim statement of smile. There is no doubt that the ‘Dotty’ we manage a lot better for having had the results for the 24 weeks ended 9 August TV ad campaign is very popular. You see loyalty card. dot.com is about managing 2003, pre-tax profit increased by 21.3% Dotty you know it is Tesco.” Prunella customers as individuals. Supermarkets are on 2002 with sales enjoying a 17% uplift Scales plays Dotty with Jane Horrocks as essentially self-service but we have been in the same period. her long-suffering daughter in the long- learning to look at customers as w www.tesco.com/corporateinfo/ running campaign by top ad agency Lowe. individuals and have been able to build Tesco has stores in Ireland, Czech ‘Every little helps’ is the slogan that that learning and thinking into our Republic, Hungary, Poland, Turkey, denotes Tesco, it features on all the dot.com business.” Slovakia, South Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, advertising and the Clubcard, signifying Japan and Malaysia. value for money and a caring organisation. glowing report Congratulations to Annie Frères (BSc International Paris, she found herself designing a database and Business 1999–2003), who won the Association producing the company export newsletter. of Business School’s undergraduate award and Her fluent French proved invaluable in the PR a £3,000 prize in their 2003 Awards for Business work she carried out for the launch of the and Management Students, sponsored by The Jennifer Lopez range, Glow by JLo. Guardian. In the finals of the National Business “The prize money has come in very useful for Awards she came a close second in the UK fundraising and buying the kit I need for my trip Business Student of the Year Competition. to Chile with Raleigh International”, reports A Belgian brought up in Germany, Annie did her Annie. “I’ll be working on conservation and Annie Frères international baccalaureate in Oxford before environmental projects in the national parks, choosing WBS. During her work placement in the as well as improving the infrastructure in remote export department of cosmetics giant Coty in villages by building community halls.”
  • 11. As a director and an MBA, you are just a short step from qualifying as a Chartered Director The IoD and WBS Alumni Association are offering a special opportunity for you to qualify as a Chartered Director, the professional qualification for directors. CIS strongly supports the Chartered Director programme, which provides a ’gold’ standard in director training and development. When voting on the election of directors and assessing candidates’ suitability, we shall take a very positive view of those who have achieved Chartered Director status. CIS, founded in 1867, have 4.5 million customers and over £20 billion of investments Call us now to find out more nexus: summer 2003 ARE YOU QUALIFIED TO BE A DIRECTOR? T 020 7766 8842 E chartered.director@iod.com W www.iod.com/chartered Quote ref: wbs03 19
  • 12. sales and account management strategy great potential for research and management impact by Nigel Piercy Professor of Marketing m any approaches to how we teach and research marketing tend to ignore the fact that the largest area of employment in marketing is the sales function, and for many companies sales and account management costs vastly outweigh resources devoted to other more In fact, the potential for innovative and insightful research activities in this large but neglected area of economic activity is huge. It is also an area where there is substantial management interest in research findings that enhance understanding of the factors driving effectiveness in the sales organization. In an era where business strategy However, cynical observers might suggest that the time has passed for the sales organization – perhaps the only real interest is how rapidly sales operations can be downsized. Certainly, there is a scenario where the role of the traditional sales organization appears doomed. The figure below identifies this scenario. As direct sales channels and Internet initiatives visible areas of marketing. emphasizes new forms of buyer-seller provide more effective ways to handle relationship and partnering, it follows that customers with low service and Correspondingly, the amount of research there is intense interest in managing sales relationship requirements, and key attention given to the sales area by major operations to deliver superior customer account management structures handle business schools has been very limited, value, not simply to take and process the most important customers, there and sales rarely features prominently in orders from customers. seems indeed to be a shrinking domain how marketing is taught. for the traditional sales organization.
  • 13. effectiveness – but often not the Together these research programmes are LARGE ➡ stereotypical behaviour and characteristics building into a major challenge to associated with the traditional salesforce. conventional management approaches Key/Global in the sales organization. That challenge account Sales management – in conventional sales The shrinking suggests the need for managers to address ➡ management ➡ Customer Sales domain for organizations, sales management focuses Level/Potential the traditional a quite different agenda to that of the past Direct salesforce? on commanding and scorekeeping, while channels/ in seeking effective buyer-seller internet-based the research indicates that in the most sales relationships in the new environment ➡ effective sales organizations managers they face. The transformation of the sales devote substantial efforts to managing SMALL organization from order taking to the LOW Customer Service/Relationship Requirements HIGH salesperson behaviours, i.e. monitoring, management of customer relationships in directing, evaluating and rewarding a global setting demands quite different activities, not simply crude control against Certainly there have been a number of approaches to managing sales operations. outcomes. The move from outcome-based prominent traditional salesforce closures to behaviour-based sales management We plan to focus research efforts on these and downsizing in many sectors like control strategy is controversial, but the issues through the formation of a new financial services. But the paradox is that research suggests numerous gains, and research unit at WBS – Sales and Account at leading Internet companies like Dell sometimes surprising benefits, for those Management Strategy (SAMS) – to Computers, the view is that the Web does who pursue this direction. continue the stream of research studies not remove the need for salespeople – it listed above and to extend them. frees them to sell and manage customer Sales compensation systems – there is International collaborators exist in relationships, which is what they were widespread belief in the need for financial business schools in the US, Europe, there to do in the first place. incentives to achieve superior salesperson Australia, as well as the UK. The potential performance, usually in the form of However, as the function of the traditional for SAMS extends to a manager and volume-based commission. Our research sales organization moves from order company network as a framework for the suggests very weak links between financial taking to the more complex role of dissemination of research results and a incentivization and performance. When managing customer relationships, there means to identify productive and relevant customer relationship-building matters, is an urgent need for new knowledge and new research directions. effective sales control strategy requires understanding about the factors more than volume-based commission. It really does seem time that sales and impacting effectiveness in this new account management came in from the business scenario. For this reason, our International comparisons – companies cold. As the largest employer of people in current research projects address issues in the US and Europe have tended to marketing and one of the most expensive like the following: export their sales management parts of marketing, the sales area is approaches into international operations. Salesperson performance – traditionally overdue for systematic research attention Our multi-country research suggests salespeople have been evaluated in terms and an established place in the business that culture and tradition in many of outcomes (sales, share of customer, school curriculum. overseas markets mandates different costs, and so on), but research indicates management approaches to achieve sales that it is salesperson behaviours of several organization effectiveness. kinds that drive outcomes and profile Prior to joining WBS, Nigel was Professor of Strategic He is currently working with international collaborators Marketing and Head of the Marketing Group at Cranfield on various research projects related to sales organisation School of Management, and previously held the Sir Julian effectiveness and the sales/marketing interface. Piercy has Hodge Chair in Marketing and Strategy at Cardiff University. published sixteen books and over 200 articles and papers in He has been a Vice Chair of the American Marketing management literature globally. He is author of Market-Led Association’s Marketing Strategy Special Interest Group, and Strategic Change: A Guide To Transforming the Process of Going a Vice Chair of the Academy of Marketing Science in the US. to Market (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), and is nexus: spring 2004 co-author with David W Cravens of Strategic Marketing His research interests span several areas related to the (McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002). development and implementation of marketing strategy. 13
  • 14. strategy olympic challenge from scratch Vassilis Lazaris WBS alumna Michelle internal and external August 2004 will see Athens hosting the Games Sartorio (FMBA communications within an of the XXVIII Olympiad. Planning for this momentous 1999–2000) discusses organisation like this. Most other event began back in 1999 and Vassilis Lazaris (FMBA the challenges she countries only have one British 1995–96) plays a vital role in the organisation. faces in her new role as Marketing Council office! We always analyse Vassilis joined the Planning Division of the Organising Communications Manager for the experience of other offices British Council, Brazil. Committee Games of Athens in 1999. From September before taking a strategic decision: 1999 to March 2001 he covered the key position of I’ve found myself asking for “Having had three hectic but General Manager for Security for the Games. Planning research documents from British fantastic years working in Marketing began in earnest in March 2000, and the final pieces Council, India and for online within the Telecommunications are now in place to ensure safety and security for all at newsletters from Singapore.’ sector, at Portugal Telecom, then the event. Intelig Telecomunicações, Another challenge Michelle I was attracted to this particular post recognises is the diversity of themes Vassilis explains, “The role involves co-operation because of the challenge of creating and areas British Council wants to with the security community here and abroad. a marketing communications promote. “From music and arts This includes the CIA, FBI, British, French, and Israeli strategy from scratch working with events to missions of State Secretaries security services, among others. They have been able the Head of Comunications to to the UK, it is always hard to to offer advice on potential risks and help my define our targets. British Council, determine priorities and find the fact finding.” Brazil is only just now starting to right way to promote each of them, Elements that Vassilis had to consider include planning appreciate marketing considering we want always to use and policy issues such as disaster and crowd control, communications as a tool to leverage an integrated marketing and communications, intelligence, and co-operation, as well its works,” explains Michelle. communications strategy for as security measures and administration and support. each event.” The aim of British Council, Brazil is He said, “We took a structured approach, linking each to build lasting relationships between However, Michelle is confident in stage from policy to procedure and working Brazil and the UK. It works to her team and her secret weapons: collaboratively with all relevant authorities.” connect people and learning “Hopefully the communications He continued, “The committee have created a opportunities from both countries. team in Brazil and I will build a According to Michelle, “My main masterplan, not for world domination, but to cover well-structured and operational responsibility is to define and audit for human resources and technology, budget, communications plan. My Kotler manage national communications book, WBS online Business Source timelines, detailed actions etc as well as tactical elements strategy in order to increase British Premier journals, and MBA such as risk assessments and procedure design. We’ve Council’s exposure to its wide range Marketing folders, are all standing had to cover both internal and external security of stakeholders and customer, or me in good stead!” she confirms. issues too.” ‘target groups’, as defined by the Vassilis was able to draw heavily upon the business organisation. These groups include strategy he learnt at WBS. “I started with Peter Doyle’s British Council, UK, as well as voice ringing in my ears ‘what do you need to formulate strategic partners such as governors, strategy?’ I remembered his advice about the importance professors, artists, alumni, and of good intelligence and getting hold of it. Vassilis students interested in studying combined this approach with military tactics learnt in the UK.” from textbooks – another of his passions. Thanks to Expanding on the main challenges WBS and military planning, come 13 August 2004 8pm of her new role, she says, “There’s a we’ll be ready!” he confirms. huge geographic distance between Michelle Sartorio the five British Council offices in For further information regarding the Brazil, a country with continental Athens Olympic Games visit proportions and differences, so w www.olympic.org/uk/games/athens/ there are difficulties in aligning
  • 15. the best course Gary Jackson was one of the first 12 students PGA required someone to manage and but, apart from commercial market to undertake the MA in Organisation Studies develop their business management training research, it seems to be little studied. when it was launched in 1996. As a mature programmes, I applied. Fortunately, my So he has two questions: student, he sacrificed a year’s earnings as a qualifications, background in business 1) Does anyone know of any academic Business Lecturer in further education to help education and my love of sport were just studies into any aspect of the golf business? enhance his career prospects. Not only did he what the PGA wanted and I duly started the enjoy the course immensely and learn a great job in August 2002 (5 weeks before the Ryder 2) Is anyone interested in doing research deal, his decision eventually resulted in his Cup – but that’s another story!).” into the golf business? career taking an unexpected turn. If you wish to respond to either question, Gary is now responsible for managing the Gary explains, “Mention the Belfry to most business training of 1000 trainee golf then Gary would be delighted to hear from sport-minded people and they instantly professionals, 50 students on the Applied Golf you. Please email e alumni @wbs.ac.uk associate it with some of the greatest Management Studies degree in conjunction in the first instance. moments in Ryder Cup history. The deeds with Birmingham University and contributing of Christy O’Connor Jnr, Sam Torrance, to the development of a Continuous Paul McGinley et al will be etched on the Professional Development programme for For further memories of European golf fans forever. over 5000 golf professionals working in over information What most people probably don’t realise is 50 countries. (And no, he doesn’t have much regarding the that the Belfry is also the Headquarters of the time to play golf!). PGA and the Professional Golfers’ Association and houses National Training One of the things Gary has discovered in his the National Training Academy. I was only Academy visit year in the job is that the golf business seems vaguely aware of this fact as a result of some w www.pga.info to be sadly under-researched. It is estimated students I had taught but, when I saw the that worldwide the industry is worth $60bn rankings: The Financial Times published by Professor Howard Thomas, Dean of WBS and Professor John McGee, Associate Dean, MBA Programmes schools relate to criteria that of making further progress. the questions in the survey its rankings of full-time MBA the FT regards as indicative of We are especially concerned to must be answered for your programmes in January 2004 and quality, namely proportion of improve our position on the response to be valid. This does of executive MBA programmes in women faculty, the international executive MBA rankings (for us mean being explicit about data October 2003. Warwick Business character of the school in terms this means the Evening and that is both personal and School has been steadily of curriculum, students, Modular MBA programmes) confidential. But please be improving on its rankings over faculty and governing body, where we believe that the reassured that the FT guards the the last four years. We are now and research. fundamental quality of the data very carefully and does not ranked 32nd in the world, 9th programmes is not adequately under any circumstances release At WBS, we take rankings very in Europe, and 3rd in the UK for reflected in the current ranking. it to third parties. seriously. We all know that all full-time programmes and 35th in the world, 9th in Europe, and rankings schemes have problems What can you do to help? You may also be contacted by and difficulties and that the other publications that conduct 5th in the UK for executive We would very much appreciate diversity of business schools and rankings, for instance, The Wall MBA programmes. your help in contributing to the their market positioning cannot Street Journal, The Economist, FT surveys. You will be surveyed The Financial Times uses a set of be fully captured by a common Forbes, and Business Week. three years after graduation and key indicators that it believes set of criteria. However, rankings Not all of these rely on alumni your responses will be retained demonstrate a high quality MBA do reflect some important surveys to the same degree as over three years of surveys in a programme. These indicators can characteristics of MBA education the FT but we do urge you to moving three year average. be divided into two broad classes. the most obvious one being the respond when asked. The first is based on surveys of employability of its graduates. It is very important that we Rankings may be imperfect and business school alumni. The Rankings should not and do not have a high response rate to the indeed different rankings second is based on returns from drive our fundamental strategy FT surveys. To give a truly measure very different attributes business schools about the nature but they do have an important representative picture we should of business schools. But they do of the school, its programmes effect on external perceptions of achieve a 75% response rate from impact directly on the School’s and its faculty. The alumni WBS and to some extent on our alumni. This enables the reputation and the reputation of survey is by a questionnaire that morale in the school and in the surveys to pick up both the range its graduates in employment covers salary data and other alumni body. We have been of salaries and their rate of nexus: spring 2004 markets. Therefore we hope that career related information. pleased by our progress up the increase over time. At present the you will be able to join with us This accounts in total for about FTMBA rankings over the last response rate is only 45%. It is in advancing all our reputations. 50% of a school’s final ‘score’. four years (moving upwards by also important to realise that all The returns made direct from the 25 places) but feel we are capable 15