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Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Presented
by
Jeffery H. Warren, Ph.D., P.E., CSP, C.F.E.I.
Clemson, SC : 4:11 AM- November 11, 1998
Clemson, SC Fire: 11/11/1998
Startup: 2/18/97
Typical Installation
2 by 6 studs
Cement Board
Stainless Steel Sheet
2 by 6 or 2 by 12 Blocking
Clemson, SC
Bent mounting
bracket
Bracket Pre-Fire Position
Held In Place By Pipe
Wall CavityIntact
Durock
Mounting Bracket Detail
Clemson, SC
Mounting Bracket
Clemson, SC
Intact
Sheathing
Fire Origin
Wood Blocking
Clemson, SC- Back of Cheemelter
Extensive Heat
Damage
Clemson, SC
Fire Origin
Blocking Remains
Durock
Trussville, Al Inspection 3/10/99
Startup Date: 3/10/1999
Trussville, Al
Durock
Sheathing
Wood Blocking
Trussville, Al
Niceville, Florida Inspection 3/26/1999
Startup Date: 9/30/97
Heat Damage
Niceville, Florida
Tullahoma, Tennessee Inspection: 4/7/1999
Startup Date: 11/19/1996
Heat Damage
Tullahoma, Tennessee
Tullahoma, Tennessee
Left Most Bolt Hole
Tullahoma, Tennessee
Heat Damage
Tullahoma, Tennessee
Tullahoma, Tennessee
The Warren Group Laboratory
Maximum Temperature Distributions in Wall at Point A
Inside of
Cheese
Melter
Back of
Cheese
Melter
Bolt Head
Location
Betw...
Test 1
• Cheesemelter Operating alone
• Run at Highest Temperature
• Length of run 9 hours 45 minutes
• Maximum Temperatur...
Test 2
• Cheesemelter Operating with Steak Grill/
Hood On
• Run at Highest Temperature 3h 45 min
• Steak Grill Turned Off ...
Test 3
• Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat Fryer/ Hood
On
• Deep Fat Fryer Filled with Water
• Water Boiled at 212 Deg ...
Test 4
• Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat Fryer/ Hood
On
• Deep Fat Fryer Filled with Peanut Oil and Product
• Product...
Test 4 (cont’d)
• Max wall temp at front of 2 by 12 was 307
Deg F
• Max Avg Block Temp was 296 Deg F
Test Stand
Test Stand
Test 5
• Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat
Fryer/ Hood On
• Cheesemelter mounted on Sand
• Temp directly behind stand w...
Summary - Testing
• Cheesemelter 115 deg F
• Cheesemelter and Steak Grill 260 deg F
• Cheesemelter and Deep Fat Fryer 307 ...
Sebring, FL
Fig 28
Lag Bolt Holes
Lag Bolt Holes
104 34A.jpg appendix 12 Report 60093
139_31.jpg
Lag Bolts
100 30A.jpg
147_29.jpg
009_6.jpg
Report 60093
Left Mounting Bracket
Right Mounting
Bracket
Gas Control Valve Knob
Who has the first
question?
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
Low Temperature Ignition of Wood
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Low Temperature Ignition of Wood

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When evaluating a wood fire, temperature is only one factor to consider. An investigator should evaluate the form and condition of the wood as well as the intensity of the fire’s heat source. This slideshow provides photographs from real investigations and outlines the conditions leading to each fire.

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Low Temperature Ignition of Wood

  1. 1. Low Temperature Ignition of Wood Presented by Jeffery H. Warren, Ph.D., P.E., CSP, C.F.E.I.
  2. 2. Clemson, SC : 4:11 AM- November 11, 1998
  3. 3. Clemson, SC Fire: 11/11/1998 Startup: 2/18/97
  4. 4. Typical Installation 2 by 6 studs Cement Board Stainless Steel Sheet 2 by 6 or 2 by 12 Blocking
  5. 5. Clemson, SC Bent mounting bracket Bracket Pre-Fire Position Held In Place By Pipe Wall CavityIntact Durock
  6. 6. Mounting Bracket Detail
  7. 7. Clemson, SC Mounting Bracket
  8. 8. Clemson, SC Intact Sheathing Fire Origin Wood Blocking
  9. 9. Clemson, SC- Back of Cheemelter Extensive Heat Damage
  10. 10. Clemson, SC Fire Origin Blocking Remains Durock
  11. 11. Trussville, Al Inspection 3/10/99 Startup Date: 3/10/1999
  12. 12. Trussville, Al Durock Sheathing Wood Blocking
  13. 13. Trussville, Al
  14. 14. Niceville, Florida Inspection 3/26/1999 Startup Date: 9/30/97 Heat Damage
  15. 15. Niceville, Florida
  16. 16. Tullahoma, Tennessee Inspection: 4/7/1999 Startup Date: 11/19/1996 Heat Damage
  17. 17. Tullahoma, Tennessee
  18. 18. Tullahoma, Tennessee Left Most Bolt Hole
  19. 19. Tullahoma, Tennessee Heat Damage
  20. 20. Tullahoma, Tennessee
  21. 21. Tullahoma, Tennessee
  22. 22. The Warren Group Laboratory
  23. 23. Maximum Temperature Distributions in Wall at Point A Inside of Cheese Melter Back of Cheese Melter Bolt Head Location Betw een Stainless Steel & Duroc Front of 2 x 12 Wood Blocking Back of 2 x 12 Wood Blocking Interior Surface of Back Wall Panel Location in Wall TemperatureF Test 1: Cheese Melter Test 2: Cheese Melter & Steak Grill Test 3: Cheese Melter & Fryer w ith Water Test 4: Cheese Melter & Fryer w ith Grease
  24. 24. Test 1 • Cheesemelter Operating alone • Run at Highest Temperature • Length of run 9 hours 45 minutes • Maximum Temperature at Front of 2 by 12 Blocking • 115 Deg F
  25. 25. Test 2 • Cheesemelter Operating with Steak Grill/ Hood On • Run at Highest Temperature 3h 45 min • Steak Grill Turned Off with Hood On 1 h • Hood off, Cheesemelter on 3 hr • Max Temp at Front of 2 by 12 Blocking- 265 Deg F • Max average Temperature in Block- 256 Deg F
  26. 26. Test 3 • Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat Fryer/ Hood On • Deep Fat Fryer Filled with Water • Water Boiled at 212 Deg F • Deep Fat Fryer High Temp Sensor Never hit 375 Deg F Temp Setting • Gas Burner Ran Continuously 1 hr 45 min • Max Temp 370 Deg F • Unrealistic
  27. 27. Test 4 • Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat Fryer/ Hood On • Deep Fat Fryer Filled with Peanut Oil and Product • Product Frozen Chicken Breasts, shrimp, scallops and French Fries • Test Run 7 h 45 min • Temps up and down depending on Product • More Often with 2.5 lbs fries every 4 min and 4 chicken breast cooking over 10 minutes
  28. 28. Test 4 (cont’d) • Max wall temp at front of 2 by 12 was 307 Deg F • Max Avg Block Temp was 296 Deg F
  29. 29. Test Stand
  30. 30. Test Stand
  31. 31. Test 5 • Cheesemelter Operating with Deep Fat Fryer/ Hood On • Cheesemelter mounted on Sand • Temp directly behind stand was 253 F
  32. 32. Summary - Testing • Cheesemelter 115 deg F • Cheesemelter and Steak Grill 260 deg F • Cheesemelter and Deep Fat Fryer 307 deg F
  33. 33. Sebring, FL
  34. 34. Fig 28
  35. 35. Lag Bolt Holes Lag Bolt Holes 104 34A.jpg appendix 12 Report 60093
  36. 36. 139_31.jpg Lag Bolts
  37. 37. 100 30A.jpg
  38. 38. 147_29.jpg
  39. 39. 009_6.jpg
  40. 40. Report 60093 Left Mounting Bracket Right Mounting Bracket Gas Control Valve Knob
  41. 41. Who has the first question?

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