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  1. 1. Ionic shafts were taller than Doricones. This makes the columns lookslender. They also had flutes, which arelines carved into them from top to bottom.The shafts also had a specialcharacteristic: entasis, which is a littlebulge in the columns make the columnslook straight, even at a distance [becausesince you would see the building fromeye level, the shafts would appear to getnarrower as they rise, so this bulgemakes up for that - so it looks straight toyour eye but it really isnt !] . The frieze isplain. The bases were large and lookedlike a set of stacked rings. Ionic capitalsconsist of a scrolls above the shaft. TheIonic style is a little more decorative thanthe Doric.
  2. 2. Ionic The Temple of Athena Nike in Athens, shown above, is one of the most famous Ionic buildings in the world. It is located on the Acropolis, very close to the Parthenon (shown in the Doric section above).
  3. 3. Ionic
  4. 4. CorinthianThe Corinthian order is themost decorative and isusually the one most modernpeople like best. Corinthianalso uses entasis to makethe shafts look straight. TheCorinthian capitals haveflowers and leaves below asmall scroll. The shaft hasflutes and the base is like theIonian. Unlike the Doric andIonian cornices, which are ata slant, the Corinthian roofsare flat.
  5. 5. Corinthian The Temple of the Sybil in Rome is a good example of the Corinthian order. The Romans used the Corinthian order much more than did the Greeks.
  6. 6. Corinthian
  7. 7. Molding Types: •Crown and Cornice •Cove •Chair-Rail •Panel •Baseboard •Molding with Lighting
  8. 8. Crown MoldingCrown molding is the most popular type of cornice molding.Crown generally refers to the types of single-piece moldingsthat are installed on the angle to their adjoining surface. Crownmoldings have a profiles that project out on the ceiling anddown on the wall and gives a rich appearance to a room.As its name suggests, crown molding serves as an ornamentalcapping to walls, cabinets, and built-in furniture. Crownmolding also used as a decorative support for horizontalarchitectural elements like decorative ledges and shelves.Adding decorative crown molding to the relatively simple roomprovides a certain character that the room would not haveotherwise. Many complex looking crown molding profilesconsist of the series of simple moldings installed together toachieve a finished appearance. Crown moldings are also usedin combination with other moldings to add details to thefireplace mantels and shelves. Click in following link to learnabout crown molding installation
  9. 9. installing crown molding1) Cut the first piece squareTo achieve a mitered look withcorners that are seldom perfectlysquare, run the first piece of crownmolding tightly into the corner.Cope-cut the second piece in theshape of the profile of the molding,so it can butt neatly against theface of the first piece2. Make a miter cutUse a deep miter box and a fine-toothedbacksaw to make a cut that reveals theprofile of the molding. Position the moldingso that it is upside down in the miter box.The face of the molding that goes againstthe ceiling will be on the bottom of the miterbox. Remember, for inside corners, thebottom of the crown molding will be thelongest edge.
  10. 10. 3) Cope the profileIf the mitered cut is correct, youll beable to see the profile of the molding.Cut away the excess wood along theback side of the molding with acoping saw. Err on the side ofremoving too much rather than toolittle; only the outermost edge of thecoped molding will be seen 4. Fine-tune your cut Use a utility knife to remove any excess material you missed with the coping saw. Be careful that you do not cut into the exposed face of the molding. Hold the piece in place to test the fit. Take it down and do more carving if necessary.
  11. 11. 5.) Plan each jointMap out the job so that one end ofeach piece of crown molding alwayswill be cut straight and one end will bemitered and coped. Use butt joints forlong runs. Save the most visible partsof the job for last, when youve honedyour coping skills.6a. Nail in placeIf the molding runs perpendicular tothe ceiling joists, determine thelocation of the joists. Drill pilotholes to keep the molding fromsplitting. As you attach the molding,tack it in place with a few nails. Takea good look at the positioningbefore completing the nailing.
  12. 12. 6b. Or add a nailerTo provide a solid nailingarea where the joists runparallel to the crownmolding, cut a beveled faceon a 2x2, as shown. Cut the2x2 to length and screw it tothe wall so its in the cornerof the ceiling and the wall.The 2x2 provides a surface,at the proper angle, to whichyou can nail the molding.
  13. 13. Cornice molding is placed on thetop, where the wall meets the ceiling.Even a single piece of cornicemolding will add an entirely newdimension to a room. Cornicemolding creates s decorativetransition between walls and ceilingand works especially well in a roomswith high ceilings.The term "cornice" describes one-piece molding installed along the topif the wall or above the window. Thesame treatment made from multiplepieces of molding called build-upcornice. Moldings for cornice come intwo main types: dramatic crownmolding that is frequently combinedwith other molding styles for anopulent look.
  14. 14. Cornice molding
  15. 15. Cove MoldingCove molding is very similar to the crown molding. Application andfunction of cove molding identical to the crown molding. The differencebetween the two in in the profile. Cove molding has a concave profile(bended inwards), while line of the crown molding profiles bendsoutwards.Sophisticated cove molding that eliminates the ceiling line creating acurved transition. Wonderful selection of decorative cove moldingavailable in variety of styles and sizes for installation in the rooms withhigh as well as with low ceilings. Traditionally, cove and crown moldingreflected the type and functional use of the rooms they decorated
  16. 16. Cove Molding
  17. 17. Chair-Rail MoldingA chair-rail molding divides wallhorizontally, usually about threefeet above the floor. Chair rails,which protect walls in areas subjectto damage by chair backs, havenosing that give way to curved andbeveled surfaces that taper back tothe wall.Chair-rail molding was originallydesigned to prevent the tops of thechair backs from denting or marringthe wall and was used to protectwalls from damage. For this reasonchair-rail molding traditionallylocated about 30 to 33 inchesabove the floor and wrap aroundthe perimeter of the room.
  18. 18. Decorative chair-rail molding often serves as a cap for awainscoting or wood paneling. Considered decorative by todaysstandards, chair rail molding adds a feeling of detail and charm tothe walls and lends continuality to a room by unifying it.