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Impact hardness test

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https://pursuitengineering.blogspot.com/2016/12/impact-test-difference-between-charpy.html

Impact Testing involves the sudden and dynamic application of the load. Parts such as shafts, bolts, anvils and dies are examples of items subjected to impact loading.

Impact test is defined as the resistance of a material to rapidly sudden applied loads.

Toughness is a property, which is capacity of a material to resist fracture, (crack propagation), when subjected to impact. The machine measures the amount of energy absorbed by the specimen for the rapture

Published in: Engineering

Impact hardness test

  1. 1. Impact Hardness Test https://pursuitengineering.blogspot.com/2016/12/impact-test-difference-between-charpy.html
  2. 2. Theory  Impact Testing involves the sudden and dynamic application of the load. Parts such as shafts, bolts, anvils and dies are examples of items subjected to impact loading.  Impact test is defined as the resistance of a material to rapidly sudden applied loads.  Toughness is a property, which is capacity of a material to resist fracture, (crack propagation), when subjected to impact. The machine measures the amount of energy absorbed by the specimen for the rapture  Joules Unit is the amount of energy absorbed can give an indication of the toughness of a material. It can classify the different types of materials into either brittle or ductile materials.
  3. 3. Two basic types of impact testing 1) Charpy impact test The specimen is supported as a simple beam with the load applied at the center. The position of latching tube is set to 140° The specimen is supported horizontally from two sides 2) The Izod test The specimen is supported as a cantilever beam. The position of latching tube is set to90°
  4. 4. Howtomeasureabsorbedenergy  The load is applied as an impact from a hammer that is released from position h1  The pendulum with a knife edge strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch.  The pendulum continues its swing, rising to a maximum height h2', which is lower than h1.  The energy is calculated from the difference in initial and final heights of the swinging pendulum. Impact energy (toughness) from the test is related to the area under the total stress-strain curve
  5. 5. Procedure  Select the test (Charpy/Izod)  Select and fit the respective striker in the hammer, first tighten the screws of the wedge and then of strikers  Fix the latching tube to corresponding position (for Charpy 140° position and for Izod90° position)  Place a specimen on the support of the block  Bring the striker (hammer) closely to specimen and tough it lightly with the specimen  Pointer when touched to its carrier should read 300 J line for Charpy and 170J for Izod. Otherwise correct it by losing and tighten the screw of the pointer carrier  Remove the specimen. Latch the hammer. Place the pointer as 300 J for Charpy and170 J for Izod  Release the hammer. Hold back the releasing lever  The pointer will show the frictional losses. This reading should be less than 1.5 joules for Charpy and 0.8 for Izod  Thus the machine is ready for the test
  6. 6. Conducting the test a) Charpy test  Place the specimen onto the support with notch facing backside ofthe striking direction  Using the setting gauge. Center the notch in between the anvils  Place the pointer to read 300 J. latch the hammer4) Release the hammer. The pointer will indicate the amount of energy consumed by the specimen. b) Izod test  Place the specimen onto the support with notch facing forwards the direction of striker of the striking direction.  Using the setting gauge, center the notch to the reference level  Face the pointer to read 170 J. latches the hammer  Release the hammer. The pointer will indicate the amount of energy consumed by the specimen for its rupture
  7. 7. Fracture surface  Highly ductile fracture: specimen neck down to a point  Moderator ductile fracture: rough plastic deformation  Brittle fracture without any plastic deformation
  8. 8. DifferencebetweenIzodandCharpy Test  Position of Specimen In the Izod method, the test material was placed in a vertical position, while in the Charpy method, the test material was placed horizontally.  Position of Notch The notch in the Izod test is facing the striker, fastened in a pendulum, while in the Charpy test, the notch is positioned away from the striker.  Types of Notch In the Charpy method, there are two kinds of notches, the V-notch and the U-notch, while in the Izod method; there is only one kind of notch.  Hammer Type Hammer which use as striker is different in both test Izod use Farming hammer as striker where as Charpy use Ball Pin hammer as striker
  9. 9.  Specimen Dimensions Even if you are testing the same material the test specimens have different dimensions for each test. The basic Izod test specimen is 75 x 10 x 10mm (2.95" x 0.394" x 0.394"); the basic Charpy test specimen is 55 x 10 x 10mm (2.165" x 0.394" x 0.394")  Striker Position In Izod test the striker swings downward, hitting the test material in the middle, at the bottom of its swing, and is Left free at top In Charpy test the striker hits the center of the test material, behind a machined notch. The notch is positioned away from the striker, fastened in a pendulum  Purpose of Each test Izod test is also used to evaluate the materials for overall hardiness. It’s not applicable to compound materials because of the influence of complicated and inconsistent failure modes. In Charpy Test higher speeds and collision energy could be achieved in a Vertical style fall .This method proved to be reliable, and gave qualitative collision data.
  10. 10. Error source  Use sensors to measure resistance of air so that we could calculate the energy losses by friction more accurate.  Try to place the centre of the notch on the specimen to be at the centre of the impacting load.  The data collected should be taken carefully vertically so that to minimize the error from reading it.  Using modern testing equipments that use digital readers and load amplifiers to reach the most accurate data.
  11. 11. Precautions  Keep away from the machine during the impact test.  The test piece has to be carefully kept so that area of impact is minimized.  When the pendulum hammer is loaded at maximum position make sure that it is latched

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