Amount of energy required to raise thetemperature of one kilogram of water by onedegree at one atmospheric pressure. Caloric needs can be calculated by following Formula: Up to 10 kg, 100 kcal/kg 11-20 kg, 1000 kcal+50 kcal/kg for each kg above 10kg Above 20 kg, 1500 kcal+20 kcal/kg for each kg above 20kg
Age Calories / kg / dayInfants 1101-3 years 1004-6 years 907-9 years 8010-12 years 7013-15 years 60
• 50-55 % • 30-35% • 10-15% Fats ProteinsCarbohydrates • 4 kcal/g • 9 kcal/g • 4 kcal/g • Stored as • Form • Supplies glycogen integral essential and non- in liver part of essential and cell amino acids muscles membran needed for e protein synthesis • Serve as for tissue vehicles growth and for replacement Vitamins
1) Feed according to the expected weight.2) Give 110 Kcal/kg body weight per day.3) Give 5 oz/kg milk feeding per day.4) Water requirement is 150 ml/kg/day.5) Milk should not be diluted after 12 weeks of age.6) No sugar should be added to the bottle feed especially if the baby is also breast fed.7) Weaning foods should be started at 4-6 months of age.
Introducing food other than milk is called weaning. When solid foods are introduced, single ingredient foods should be chosen and started one at a time at weekly intervals. Infants should be weaned at 4-6 months of age because their neuromuscular development has advanced sufficiently so that solid foods can be swallowed. By 8-12 months, infants accepts finely chopped foods, and likelihood of choking is decreased. At one year, child requires 3 meals/day with two snacks in between.
Feeding of an infantInitially give Mashed bananaAt 4-5 months Cereals as rusks, toast or bread6 months Vegetables like potato7 months Egg yolk, minced meat, suji, etc.At 1 year Child should eat the same food which is cooked for rest of the family but avoid chilies and spices
Recipe 1o Contains approx. 100 calories.o Get milk (3 oz) and Sugar (1 TSF).o Add it to 1 TSF of any of the following (Suji, Custard, Rice, Dalia).o Boil it for few minutes and keep stirring. Recipe 2o It contains approx. 300 calories.o Get milk (8 oz) and sugar (2 TSF).o Add 2 table spoonful of Suji, Rice, or Dalia.o Brown the cereals and add milk and sugar and cup of water cook on low fire for further few minutes.
• Vitamins and minerals are important micronutrients which are essential for normal growth and development.• They MUST be taken in the diet because the body either cannot synthesize them or insufficient amounts are synthesized for its needs.
• Classified into two groups: • Vitamin A Fat • Vitamin D soluble vitamins • Vitamin E • Vitamin K • Vitamin B complex • Thiamin (B1) Water • Riboflavin (B2) soluble • Pyridoxine (B6) vitamins • Cobalamin (B12) • Folic acid • Vitamin C
• Guidelines for usage of Vitamin A Age Vitamin A dose 6-12 months 100,000 units 1-5 years 200,000 units • Found in yellow and green parts of the plants and are especially abundant in carrots. • Also present in milk products and eggs Satisfactory source is breast milk and cow’s milk. • It strengthens immune system, maintains integrity of epithelial surfaces, and ensures adequate structure and function in vision system.
• Requirement: 400 IU/day• Cholecalciferol (D3) is formed in skin by the action of UV light on 7-dehydrocholesterol.• Ergochalciferol (D2) is found in plants after irradiation.• Found in Fish liver oil, Vitamin D fortified milk and margarine, Exposure to sunlight.• Regulates absorption and deposition of Calcium and Phosphorus by affecting permeability of intestinal membrane.• Causes bone resorption.• Regulates level of serum alkaline phosphatase which causes calcium phosphate deposition in teeth and bones.
• A fat soluble vitamin which acts as an antioxidant and involved in nucleic acid metabolism.• Found in germ oils of various seeds, green leafy vegetables, Nuts, Legumes.• Minimize oxidation of carotene, vitamin A and linoleic acid. It also stabilizes membranes.
• Participates in oxidative phosphorylation.• Found in green leafy vegetables and Liver.• Help in prothrombin formation.• Several coagulation factors are Vitamin K dependent. Vitamin B12• Found in animal products such as fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheese.• Essential for maturation of RBC’s in bone marrow.• Transfers one-carbon units in purine and labile methyl group metabolism.
• Found in green vegetables , liver, nuts, cereals, cheese, fruits, yeast, beans, peas.• Concerned with formation and metabolism of one-carbon units.• Participates in synthesis of purines, pyrimidines, nucleoproteins, and methyl groups.
• Found in fruits (citrus fruits), and vegetables.• Causes integrity and maintenance of intracellular material.• Facilitates absorption of iron.• Metabolism of tyrosine to phenylalanine.
• Young children are more susceptible to iron deficiency as a result of an increased iron requirement related to rapid growth during first 2 years of life and relatively low iron content in most infant diets.• A good dietary iron source is strained meat. It can be introduced after 6 months of age.
• Required for synthesis of thyroid hormone, which in turn are needed for regulation of metabolic activities of all cells throughout life. They are also required to ensure normal growth, especially of brain.• Risk associated with this deficiency is decreased by iodizing the edible salt.