MODEL IN TERMS OF FIVE
Adult second language learners have two mean for
internalizing the target language, which are
“acquisition” and “learning”.
Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive
process of constructing the system of the
language. He suggested that we “acquire” the
language just like we pick up our first language.
On the other hand, learning is a process in which
learners attend to form, figure out the rules, and
aware of their own process.
“fluency in second language performance is due to
what we have acquired, not what we have learned.”
As a result, I suggested that second language
learners should do more acquisition as much as
possible in order to achieve the communicative
fluency. Otherwise they will be stock with rules
learning and too much conscious attention to the form
of the language.
… “Learning” can not be “acquisition” and there are no
interferences between acquisition and learning.
The Monitor Hypothesis.
It is a device to monitor or edit the learner’s output. It
is supposed to be responsible for editing, making
This is why it is found in the “learning” process not
explicit and intentional learning should be avoided
because it may hinder the acquisition process.
Only once fluency established, monitoring and editing
should be activated.
The Natural Order Hypothesis.
We acquire the language rules in a predictable or
I noticed that language features that are the easiest
to state are not always the first be acquired.
Adding ‘-s’ to the third person singular verbs is easy to
state but many of second language learners fail to
apply it in spontaneous conversation.
The Input Hypothesis.
“Comprehensible input” is the only true cause of
second language acquisition.
An important condition for language acquisition to
occur is that the learners understand input language
that contain structure a bit beyond his current level
Based on this hypothesis, it is suggested that the
speech should not be taught directly in
classrooms. Speech will emerge once the learner
has built up enough comprehensible input.
Affective Filter Hypothesis.
‘Affective filter’ is a metaphorical barrier that prevents
learners from acquiring language even when the
appropriate input is available.
“Affect” refers to the feelings, motives, needs, attitudes and
The best acquisition will occur in environment where
anxiety is low and defensiveness absent. A learner who is
tense anxious may ‘filter out’ the input, making it
unavailable for acquisition.