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Kreshen's theory on language acquisition

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Stephen Krashen 's Theory on Language Acquisition

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Kreshen's theory on language acquisition

  1. 1. EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING Stephen Kreshen
  2. 2. MODEL IN TERMS OF FIVE HYPOTHESES.  Acquisition-learning hypothesis.  Adult second language learners have two mean for internalizing the target language, which are “acquisition” and “learning”.  Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process of constructing the system of the language. He suggested that we “acquire” the language just like we pick up our first language.
  3. 3.  On the other hand, learning is a process in which learners attend to form, figure out the rules, and aware of their own process.
  4. 4. “fluency in second language performance is due to what we have acquired, not what we have learned.” As a result, I suggested that second language learners should do more acquisition as much as possible in order to achieve the communicative fluency. Otherwise they will be stock with rules learning and too much conscious attention to the form of the language.
  5. 5. … “Learning” can not be “acquisition” and there are no interferences between acquisition and learning.
  6. 6.  The Monitor Hypothesis.  It is a device to monitor or edit the learner’s output. It is supposed to be responsible for editing, making correction consciously.  This is why it is found in the “learning” process not the acquisition.  explicit and intentional learning should be avoided because it may hinder the acquisition process.  Only once fluency established, monitoring and editing should be activated.
  7. 7.  The Natural Order Hypothesis.  We acquire the language rules in a predictable or “natural” order.  I noticed that language features that are the easiest to state are not always the first be acquired. e.g. Adding ‘-s’ to the third person singular verbs is easy to state but many of second language learners fail to apply it in spontaneous conversation.
  8. 8.  The Input Hypothesis.  “Comprehensible input” is the only true cause of second language acquisition.  An important condition for language acquisition to occur is that the learners understand input language that contain structure a bit beyond his current level of competence.
  9. 9.  Based on this hypothesis, it is suggested that the speech should not be taught directly in classrooms. Speech will emerge once the learner has built up enough comprehensible input.
  10. 10.  Affective Filter Hypothesis.  ‘Affective filter’ is a metaphorical barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language even when the appropriate input is available.  “Affect” refers to the feelings, motives, needs, attitudes and emotional states.  The best acquisition will occur in environment where anxiety is low and defensiveness absent. A learner who is tense anxious may ‘filter out’ the input, making it unavailable for acquisition.

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