Heart diagrams and notes


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Heart diagrams and notes

  1. 1. Frog’s Heartheart,
  2. 2. organ that serves as a pump to circulate the blood. It may be a straighttube, as in spiders and annelid worms, or a somewhat more elaboratestructure with one or more receiving chambers (atria) and a main pumpingchamber (ventricle), as in mollusks. In fishes the heart is a folded tube, withthree or four enlarged areas that correspond to the chambers in themammalian heart. In animals with lungs—amphibians, reptiles, birds, andmammals—the heart shows various stages of evolution from a single to adouble pump that circulates blood (1) to the lungs and (2) to the body ... (100of 992 wo human’s heart
  3. 3. bird’s heartcrocodile frog
  4. 4. fishFrogs have three-chambered hearts and fish have two-chamberedhearts. Therefore, the heart of frogs (or amphibians) are moreefficient and there is less mixing of oxygenated blood anddeoxygenated blood.frog is an amphibian; fish is a water organism.both are from twohabitats, they have two different types of modifications, in fish, it iscalled branchial heart as it pumps only to gills and a venous heartas only de-oxygenated blood flows through itAn amphibian heart only has three chambers, true, but this doesnot necessarily mean it is less efficient. amphibians also utilizecutaneous respiration, so they are oxygenating blood through theirskin as well as their lungs. Essentially, they have oxygenated bloodand deoxygenated blood mixing at the base (the connection point)of their left and right atria, which then empty into the ventricle, andis pumped throughout the body. They dont need the four-chambered heart to keep O2 and de-O2 blood separate (the so-called more efficient heart) because they have a more surface areaby which to absorb oxygen.How Do The Aorta Of A FrogAnd Human Differ?By: Tina TwitoBreak Studios Contributing WriterHave you ever thought to yourself, "How do the aorta of a frog and
  5. 5. human differ?" To best understand the difference between theaorta of a frog and that of a human you first need to look at basicdifferences in their hearts.The most obvious difference between anuran (the group thatincludes frogs and toads) and human hearts is the number ofchambers. A frogs heart has three chambers while humans havefour. While both types of hearts have two atriums for bloodcollection, the three-chambered heart has only one ventricle tosend it back out into the body. So, in a three-chambered heart,oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood enter the sameventricle. To keep them from mixing too much, frog hearts havespecialized ridges to help sort the blood out and direct it to theright place: the lungs or the body. There is some mixing though, soits not as efficient as the four-chambered model (with twoventricles) that keeps the blood from mixing in the first place.So where does the aorta come into all this? And how is the aorta ofa frog different from that of a human? All aorta serve the samepurpose: to take oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. Theaorta of humans is a singular body with five segments, including au-shaped arch towards the top .In fish there are two aorta: the ventral aorta that carries blood tothe gills, and a separate dorsal aorta that carries the blood to thebody. This works well with a fishs two chambered heart. Whileamphibians, including frogs, have a more complicated heartstructure, they retain a connecting vessel so that the aorta has twoparallel arches. (It forms a "heart" around their heart.) In the end,that second arch is the main difference between the aorta of a frogand a human. The second major difference would be the quality ofoxygenated blood that is being carried in the aorta. As mentionedbefore, the blood on the human aorta will be richer.Even earthworms, which dont have hearts, have aortic arches. Itsreally fascinating to note that as we move to "higher" species welose more of the aortic arches we share in the embryologicalstage. Its easy to see why the study of the aorta of differentanimals is so important to scientists as they study the patterns thatconnect us all. Sources: