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Teenage pregnancy seminar


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my slides presentation on women's health seminar

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Teenage pregnancy seminar

  2. 2. Introduction Definition by World Health Organisation (WHO, 2006) :teenaged or underaged girl (usually within the ages of 13–19) becoming pregnant. 3rd National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006:,1. the mean age at first sexual intercourse for males was 24.8 years old and for females was 22.8 years.2. most Malaysians had their first sex at a much later age; aged 15 to 24 were indeed sexually active3. the percentage young people who were sexually active has increased over the years.
  3. 3. • girls’ first sexual activity occurs during late adolescence – between the ages of 15 and 19 years.• Female adolescents - exposed to unwanted pregnancy, STD and long-term mental and physical health consequences.
  4. 4. Epidemiology In 2006, 750,000 women younger than 20 became pregnant. The pregnancy rate was 71.5 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15–19 The teenage birthrate in 2006 was 41.9 births per 1,000 women. This was 32% lower than the peak rate of 61.8, reached in 1991, but 4% higher than in 2005.U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions:National and State Trends and Trends by Raceand Ethnicity, 2010 by Guttmacher Institute
  5. 5. In MALAYSIA• 92% of the adolescents -unmarried.• Majority :late adolescence -16 to 19 years (73.1%)• urban areas (73.1%)• low income families (53.8%)• Schools dropouts (69.3% )A STUDY ON PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS RESIDING IN AGOVERNMENT HOME: COMMON CHARACTERISTICSAND THEIR VIEWS ON THE PREGNANCYPS Tan et al., by official journal of academy of familyphysicians, Malaysia., 2012.
  6. 6. Reasons why female adolescent end up in unwanted pregnancy1) Few young women use a contraceptive in 1st sexual experience.2) lack of information and skills/Less educated3) access to contraception is limited by their own4) reproductive health-care services for married women of reproductive age (developing countries )5) live in poverty/ rural areas
  7. 7. The EFFECTS of teenage pregnancy15% of total maternal deathsworldwide, and 26% in Africa, International Journal of Public Healthoccur among adolescents Research Special Issue,2011
  8. 8. Abandoned babies• Pak,J (2010): 100 babies being abandoned each year, of which most are deceased by the time they are found. Many young people are lack of education to make safe decisions about sexual health.
  9. 9. Ways to overcome abandoned babies1) prevention, equipping girls with the education, knowledge and skills to prevent pregnancy occurring.2) support, by providing services to support both female and male teenagers who find themselves struggles to cope with an unexpected pregnancy.
  10. 10. Malaysia vs UK
  11. 11. How is Malaysia dealing with this issue?• In 2010, first ‘baby hatch’ a place where mothers can safely and anonymously leave their unwanted child.• The state of Malacca opened a school for teenage mothers, ‘Sekolah Harapan, Rumah Harapan’ (school of hope, house of hope).
  12. 12. Recommendations1. life skills based health education- making right decisions2. support services for adolescents, -non-judgmental counseling on what options are available to them.3. engage with family members .
  13. 13. Solutions1) increase access to contraceptive information and services, sex educations2) skilled antenatal and childbirth care3) special sensitivity in dealing with adolescent girls: service providers4) support : well prepared for birth and birth-related emergencies5) cover complications and emergencies during childbirth***Early marriages, adolescent and young pregnancies for the Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly to be held in May 2012
  14. 14. MALAYSIA
  15. 15. Illegal abortion
  16. 16. Definition means the end of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive. It may be either spontaneous — when it is also known as miscarriage — or induced, when it is a deliberate termination of pregnancy. illegal abortion may be self-induced, induced by someone who is not a physician or not acting under her or his supervision, or induced by a physician under conditions that violate state laws governing abortions.United States Centersfor Disease Control andPrevention (CDC)
  18. 18. Incidence in ASIA
  19. 19. • Abortion Act of 1967:Circumstances under which abortion is allowed under this act: Continuance of pregnancy >> risk of life to pregnant women > than if termination of pregnancy Continuance of pregnancy >> risk of injury to physical or mental health of pregnant women Continuance of pregnancy >> risk of injury to physical/mental health of existing children Substantial risk that if the child were born it would suffer from physical/mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped
  20. 20. • In Malaysia, abortion is permitted under The Penal Code Amendment Act (Section 312, 1989)• under Syariah laws and according to the fatwa ,the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia’s website:1. makruh (not encouraged) for up to 40 days,2. harus (permissible) for up to 120 days if there is fetal impairment or is a threat to the woman’s life3. haram (forbidden) beyond 120 days except to save the life of the mother.
  21. 21. Common Grounds on Which Abortion is Permitted Worldwide• To save woman’s life• To preserve physical health• To preserve mental health• Rape or incest• Fetal impairment
  22. 22. Most Important Reason Given for Terminating an Unwanted Pregnancy
  23. 23. Unsafe abortion
  24. 24. Epidemiology• The World Health Organization estimates that in Asia in 2008, :12% of all maternal deaths (17,000) were due to unsafe abortion.• About 2.3 million women in the region are hospitalized annually for treatment of complications from unsafe abortion
  25. 25. Source: Guttmacher Institute, 2009.
  26. 26. CausesBankole A, Singh S, Haas T. Reasons why women have inducedabortions: evidence from 27 countries. Int Fam Plann Perspect 1998;24: 117–27.
  27. 27. modern contraception :- reduced the need for induced abortion- Unmarried, young women >> difficulty in obtaining contraception >> unsafe abortion. Westoff CF. Recent trends in abortion and contraception in 12 countries. DHS Analytical Studies, No 8. Calverton, MD, ORC Macro, 2005.
  28. 28. • 50% of unsafe abortion cases need medical attention .• delay or decide not to seek medical care.• This is because:1) In a lot of countries (illegal abortion) where it is illegal to have abortions performed, the women who go to the hospital for help will be reported to the local law authorities subject to arrest and spending time in jail.2) The medical staff often refuses to help and will even harass women about their botched abortion.
  29. 29. Complications of unsafe abortion
  30. 30. Abortion Statistics, Facts About Abortion I 600,000 maternal deaths occur each year. Seventy thousand (70,000) of those maternal deaths are from the complications of unsafe abortion which represents 12 to 13% percent of maternal deaths
  31. 31. •Quoted from Tun Dr. Siti Hasmah MohdAli : "The best way to prevent unsafeabortions is to prevent unintended orunwanted pregnancies. We have toaddress family planning, provide educationon dangers of unsafe abortions and post-abortion counselling" (source: The Star, 10October 2003).
  32. 32. What are the implementations to overcome this problem?
  33. 33. References• Teenage Pregnancy and Its Health Implications, Greta Hayward, International Journal of Public Health Research Special Issue 2011, pp (100-102)• Women and health : todays evidence tomorrows agenda.• Facts on Abortion in Asia, Guttmacher Institute• Addressing the Unmet need for fAmily PlAnning Among the yoUng PeoPle in mAlAysiA, by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mary Huang Soo LeeMs L in a government home• Teenage pregnancies and abortions in Malaysia | Malaysian Parenting an•• Teenage pregnancies and abortions in Malaysia | Malaysian Parenting and Motherhood advice