Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions: who is covered, what services are covered, and how much of the cost is covered
Health care services
Q4 a)HEALTH CARE SERVICES MALAYSIA VS UK By Wan Awatif
Health care service in UK• Run by the National Health Service (NHS).• Predominantly by the public sector with the funds from general taxation and national insurance contributions.• 11.5 % of the population -supplementary privatemedical insurance.• The NHS is free at the point of delivery.• Charges would be on prescription drugs, ophthalmic services and dental services.• Exemptions, :for children, elderly, and the unemployed.
Health care service in MALAYSIA• Run by 2 system : public and private sector.• Mainly by public sector.• 4 years including 2 years of HO and 2 years government service with public hospitals = public sector.• Public covers ; hospitals, health centre, 1M clinic.• Private sector = mainly in urban areas.
MALAYSIA UKSECTOR Public/government NHS private privateTo whom: Public: Malaysian citizen (subsidize) NHS : permanent Foreigners (need to be paid) residents which covered Private : individually, fee-service scotland, northern island, wales and englandFunding Government :subsidies NHS : general taxation, Private : insurance or own fund government - Profit oriented Private :insurance **NHS – provider & purchaserGPs Private sector Primary care which is governed by the NHS. Could be for free or patient need to pay under insurance.MO/specialist Majority in public sector Most of them would work Some in private with the NHS
MALAYSIA UKPrimary care Majority -Health clinic as it Done by the GPs – under cheaper and more facilities NHS >>> free of charge. GP – expensive, lack of -Able to do more facilities investigation as it is being paid by the NHS **referrals **referralsforeigners Foreigners employed are Foreigners can benefit from charged with different rates the NHS provided that they hold a valid visa issued for a minimum duration of 6 monthsTransport cost Transport costs are not covered for people with low covered incomePayment Payments in government Co-payments are according clinics are standardized to specific age groupGovernment budgets Every year Budgets on NHS 3year cycle
The benefits of NHS• anyone can receive the medical care they need, regardless of their age, circumstances or financial situation• free of charge to most UK residents• receive advice from a pharmacist or the NHS Direct telephone helpline
Care available• Unwell>>> the medical practitioner >> offer the treatment options• Eg:. Can choose which of three local hospitals the pt desire., female or male doctor, or see a practitioner able to speak your native language such as Urdu and request a home or water birth.
Fig. 6 Life expectancy at birth (both sexes) compared -2002 Infant Mortality Rate Under 5 mortality Rate(per 1000 live birth) (per 1000 live birth) 2002 2002MAL 8 MAL 8UK 5 UK 7 Table 6. Comparison of mortality indicators of selected nations.(source: UNDP 2004