2. Health care service in UK
• Run by the National Health Service (NHS).
• Predominantly by the public sector with the funds from
general taxation and national insurance contributions.
• 11.5 % of the population -supplementary private
• The NHS is free at the point of delivery.
• Charges would be on prescription drugs, ophthalmic services
and dental services.
• Exemptions, :for children, elderly, and the unemployed.
5. Health care service in MALAYSIA
• Run by 2 system : public and private sector.
• Mainly by public sector.
• 4 years including 2 years of HO and 2 years
government service with public hospitals =
• Public covers ; hospitals, health centre, 1M
• Private sector = mainly in urban areas.
6. MALAYSIA UK
SECTOR Public/government NHS
To whom: Public: Malaysian citizen (subsidize) NHS : permanent
Foreigners (need to be paid) residents which covered
Private : individually, fee-service scotland, northern island,
wales and england
Funding Government :subsidies NHS : general taxation,
Private : insurance or own fund government
- Profit oriented Private :insurance
**NHS – provider &
GPs Private sector Primary care which is
governed by the NHS.
Could be for free or
patient need to pay under
MO/specialist Majority in public sector Most of them would work
Some in private with the NHS
7. MALAYSIA UK
Primary care Majority -Health clinic as it Done by the GPs – under
cheaper and more facilities NHS >>> free of charge.
GP – expensive, lack of -Able to do more
facilities investigation as it is being
paid by the NHS
foreigners Foreigners employed are Foreigners can benefit from
charged with different rates the NHS provided that they
hold a valid visa issued for a
minimum duration of 6
Transport cost Transport costs are not covered for people with low
Payment Payments in government Co-payments are according
clinics are standardized to specific age group
Government budgets Every year Budgets on NHS 3year cycle
9. The benefits of NHS
• anyone can receive the medical care they
need, regardless of their age, circumstances
or financial situation
• free of charge to most UK residents
• receive advice from a pharmacist or the NHS
Direct telephone helpline
10. Care available
• Unwell>>> the medical practitioner >> offer
the treatment options
• Eg:. Can choose which of three local hospitals
the pt desire., female or male doctor, or see a
practitioner able to speak your native
language such as Urdu and request a home or
11. Fig. 6 Life expectancy at birth (both sexes) compared -2002
Infant Mortality Rate Under 5 mortality Rate
(per 1000 live birth) (per 1000 live birth)
MAL 8 MAL 8
UK 5 UK 7
Table 6. Comparison of mortality indicators of selected nations.
(source: UNDP 2004
Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions: who is covered, what services are covered, and how much of the cost is covered