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Evaluation of a high calcium intake on health and physiological parameters in adult dogs

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Concern is growing about the effects of high calcium diets on dogs. This study showed no adverse health effects of high calcium in dog diets as the animals were capable of excreting the excess.Presented at the Waltham International Nutrition Science Symposium, October 2016, Chicago.

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Evaluation of a high calcium intake on health and physiological parameters in adult dogs

  1. 1. Evaluation of a high calcium intake on health and physiological parameters in adult dogs J. Stockman, M. Gilham, D. Allaway, J. Atwal, A. Colyer, R. Haydock, H. Renfrew, B. Dobenecker, E. Kienzle, P. Morris, P. Watson Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  2. 2. iCa PTH 1,25(OH2)D3 GI Ca2+ absorption Osteoclast activity Renal Ca resorption Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 Brito Galvao et al. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2013 Calcium Regulation
  3. 3. Background Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 Mack et al. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2015 X=Y
  4. 4. Background Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 • Lack of adaptation of fecal Ca excretion in response to high intake may result in either a positive Ca balance or an increase in urinary Ca excretion • Under conditions of long term Ca excess, a bioaccumulation of Ca may occur that would present issues to health • However, most studies are of a relatively short duration (<28 d)
  5. 5. Aims Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 1. To evaluate the effect of feeding a diet containing 7.1 g/1000 kcal Ca for 40 weeks on a wide range of health parameters in adult dogs 2. To determine whether dogs are able to regulate calcium balance when fed in excess of Ca requirements
  6. 6. Study design • 18 adult Labrador retrievers, habituated to all trial procedures • All dogs maintained ideal Body Condition Score and body weight within range (+/- 5%) Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 Control Test # Labradors 8 dogs 10 dogs Age (y) 3.0 (2.5-4.4) 3.4 (2.5-7.4) Body weight (kg) 26.5 (22.5-29.0) 27.4 (21.0-32.0)
  7. 7. Diets Control Test Calcium (g/1000 kcal) 1.7 7.1 Phosphorus (g/1000 kcal) 1.1 4.5 Ca:P 1.6 1.6 Vitamin D (IU/1000 kcal) 208 200 Sodium (g/1000 kcal) 1.2 1.1 Protein (g/1000 kcal) 72 80 Fat (g/1000 kcal) 32 35 Base Excess (Meq/Kg) 175 175 Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 • Two complete and balanced dry extruded diets were formulated and manufactured using similar ingredients and ratios
  8. 8. Study Timeline n=18 Control diet n=10 Test Diet n=8 Control Diet Ca 1.7 g/1000 kcal; Ca:P=1.6 Ca 7.1 g/1000 kcal; Ca:P=1.6 Wk 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  9. 9. Measures • Health parameters: Complete blood count & biochemistry, ventrodorsal and right lateral recumbent radiographs and ultrasound scans • Urinary/renal parameters: including iohexol clearance, creatinine, urine relative super saturation • Bone health parameters: Bone ALP, serum cross laps, DXA • Related hormones: PTH, vitamin D metabolites • Mineral balance and diet digestibility: calculated through 5 day fecal and urine collection, along with dietary intake data Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  10. 10. Results: General health • 17/18 dogs completed the study successfully; 1 dog from the test group was removed due to unrelated reasons on week 24 • All other dogs remained in apparent good health throughout • No evidence of soft tissue mineralization • No evidence of skeletal pathology • No urolithiasis
  11. 11. Results: Kidney function Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 mean ± 95% CI p < 0.05
  12. 12. Results: Bone turnover markers Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 mean ± 95% CI
  13. 13. Results: Calcium regulation Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 µ mean ± 95% CI
  14. 14. Results: Calcium balance Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 mean ± 95% CI
  15. 15. Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 Results: Digestibility coefficients mean ± 95% CI p < 0.05
  16. 16. Discussion • No evidence of any health related changes as a result of a high calcium intake • Calcium balance was stable throughout the study, suggesting dogs are capable of adapting fecal Ca excretion in response to intakes above requirements • Reduced dry matter digestibility was apparent with the high Ca diet • Considerations: – Single breed; a second study has recently completed to confirm these findings – Different Ca:P ratios or calcium sources were not evaluated Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  17. 17. Conclusions & Context Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016 • The present study demonstrates that Ca intakes of up to 7.1 g/1000 kcal are well tolerated over a period of 40 weeks, with no adverse effects that could be attributed to the diet or to a high mineral intake • These data provide evidence that adult dogs are able to tolerate higher Ca intakes than puppies, and this will enable more precise recommendations for Ca safe upper limit in adult dogs
  18. 18. Results: Body weight and caloric intake Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  19. 19. Results: DXA Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  20. 20. Results: Renal & urinary health parameters Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  21. 21. Results: Digestibility coefficients Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016
  22. 22. Results: ionized calcium Proprietary information: Not to be reproduced or distributed without the express consent of Mars Inc. ©Mars 2016

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