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  1. 1. Terrorism
  2. 2. Terrorists Declare War on America Strike One
  3. 3. Terrorists Declare War on America Strike Two
  4. 4. Terrorists Declare War on America Strike Three
  5. 5. What is Terrorism Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion or ransom. Terrorists often use threats to create fear Among the public, to try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism, and to get immediate publicity for their causes. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) categorizes terrorism in the United States as one of two types-- domestic terrorism or international terrorism. Domestic terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government or population without foreign direction. International terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States or whose activities transcend national boundaries.
  7. 7. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On September 5, 1972, five Arab terrorists wearing track suits climbed a six foot fence surrounding the Olympic Village in Munich, Germany. Once inside, they were met by three others who had gained entrance with credentials. Within 24 hours, eleven Israelis, five terrorists, and a German police officer were dead.
  8. 8. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On October 23, 1983, at 06:22 hours a large delivery truck drove to the Beirut International Airport where the Marine Barracks was located. After turning onto an access road leading to the compound, the driver rushed through a barbed- wire fence, passed between two sentry posts, crashed through the gate, and slammed into the lobby of the barracks. The driver detonated explosives with the power equal to more than 12,000 pounds of TNT. The explosion crumbled the four story building. The Terrorist attack killed 220 United States Marines and 21 other U.S. service members. These 241 U.S. Military personnel were killed as they slept.
  10. 10. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On April 19, 1995 at 0902 hours, a series of explosions devastated the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City in what was by far the deadliest terrorist bombing in U.S. history. Two U.S. Citizens delivered one Ryder truck, loaded with 4800 pounds of Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. 168 men, women, and children were killed.
  11. 11. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On February 29, 1993, a van packed with a 1500 pound urea- nitrate bomb was detonated in the parking garage of the World Trade Center in New York City which resulted in the deaths of six people and injured one thousand due to toxic smoke. The bomb left a crater 200 by 100 feet wide and five stories deep. The World Trade Center became established as a prime target and was the second largest building in the world housing 100,000 workers and visitors each day
  12. 12. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On March 19, 1995 Monday morning rush hour in Tokyo Terrorist released Sarin nerve gas in the subway . This cowardly attack killed 5 and injured 565
  13. 13. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On May 13, 1995 Terrorists detonated a pipe bomb in the Tokyo airport, fortunately no injuries occurred. On July 27 1996 An unknown Terrorist placed a knapsack bomb in the Olympic Park in Atlanta GA, This cowardly attack killed two and injured 111 Olympic attendees.
  14. 14. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On October 12, 2000 USS Cole set in to Aden harbor for a routine fuel stop. Cole completed mooring at 09:30. Refueling started at 10:30. At 11:18 local time (08:18 UTC), a small craft approached the port side of the destroyer, and an explosion occurred, putting a 40-by-40-foot (12 m-by- 12 m) gash in the ships port side. Seventeen sailors were killed and 39 others were injured in the blast. The attack was the deadliest against a US Naval vessel since the Iraqi attack on the USS Stark (FFG-31) on May 17th, 1987
  15. 15. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On September 11, 2001 The nerve center of the nations military burst into flames and a portion of one side of the five- sided structure collapsed when a plane struck in midmorning. Secondary explosions were reported in the aftermath of the attack and great billows of smoke drifted skyward toward the Potomac River and the city beyond. The unprovoked attack killed 125 U.S. citizens of which 64 were passengers on the ill fated flight.
  16. 16. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM On September 11, 2001 a bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City resulted in the deaths of over three thousand workers, visitors and emergency response personnel who responded to assist the injured. The bombing resulted in the collapsing of the second largest buildings in the world.
  17. 17. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM Recent Terrorist Attacks against American Targets Using Car-Bomb Technologies Date Target/Location Delivery/Material TNT equiv (lbs) US EmbassyApr 1983 van 2000 Beirut, Lebanon US Marine BarracksOct 1983 truck, TNT with gas enhancement 12000 Beirut, Lebanon World Trade CenterFeb 1993 van, urea nitrate and hydrogen gas 2000 New York, USA Murrah Federal BldgApr 1995 truck, Ammonium nitrate fuel oil 5000 Oklahoma City, USA Khobar TowersJun 1996 tanker truck, plastic explosive 20000 Dhahran, Saudi Arabia US EmbassyAug 1998 truck, TNT, possibly Semtex 1000 Nairobi, Kenya US EmbassyAug 1998 truck 1000 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Destroyer USS ColeOct 2000 small watercraft, possibly C-4 440 Aden Harbor, Yemen
  18. 18. FACTS ABOUT TERRORISM The Department of Defense estimates that as many as 26 nations may possess chemical agents and/or weapons and an additional 12 may be seeking to develop them. The Central Intelligence Agency reports that at least ten countries are believed to possess or be conducting research on biological agents for weaponization
  19. 19. TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES In the United States, most terrorist incidents have involved small extremist groups who use terrorism to achieve a designated objective. Local, State and Federal law enforcement officials monitor suspected terrorist groups and try to prevent or protect against a suspected attack. Additionally, the U.S. government works with other countries to limit the sources of support for terrorism. The Lessons of 9/11, The attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon conforms to several trends in international terrorism: It was an attack calculated to cause heavy casualties, it involved the use of high jacked vehicles loaded with explosive materials. There is a high probability that the attack was instigated by a government. The attack raises a number of difficult questions: How can the American people in similar situations be protected against further terrorist attacks? Who was really responsible for the attack? And if we can identify who was ultimately responsible, what response, if any, is appropriate? A terrorist attack can take several forms, depending on the technological means available to the terrorist, the nature of the political issue motivating the attack, and the points of weakness of the terrorists target. Bombings have been the most frequently used terrorist method in the United States. Other possibilities includes an attack at transportation facilities, an attack against utilities or other public services or an incident involving chemical or biological agents. Terrorist incidents in this country prior to the September 11, 2001 attack have included bombings of the World Trade Center in New York City, the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. and Mobil Oil corporate headquarters in New York City.
  20. 20. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Despite government success in combating terrorists in various countries, the total volume of terrorist activity worldwide has increased during the last 15 years. The first three years of the 1980s showed an annual increase in international terrorism of approximately 25 percent--twice the rate of increase in the 1970s. Overall, international terrorist activity has increased fourfold since the 1972 Munich incident. Terrorism also is growing bloodier. At the beginning of the 1970s, 80 percent of terrorist operations were directed against property; only 20 percent were directed against people. By the 1980s, approximately half of all attacks were directed against persons. Incidents with fatalities have increased by roughly 20 percent a year, and large-scale indiscriminate attacks have become more common. These trends continued in 1983. The total volume of international terrorist activity for the first eight months of 1983 is about equal to that recorded during the same period of 1982. However, 1983 is much bloodier. Although the percentage of terrorist incidents with fatalities thus far appears only slightly greater, the proportion of incidents with multiple fatalities is much greater. In 1983, more than one person was killed in 59 percent of those incidents with fatalities, whereas the average from 1980 to 1982 was 37 percent.
  21. 21. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM This trend is even more dramatic when we look at the growing number of terrorist incidents involving 10 or more fatalities. There have been 12 of these thus far in 1983, compared with a total of 11 during the previous three years. This trend is confirmed by still another statistic: The number of terrorist attacks directed against ordinary citizens, bystanders who happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time, has increased by 68 percent. As in past years, most of the fatalities are the result of bombings, which in 1983 became more indiscriminate. Terrorists operate with a very limited tactical repertoire. Bombings alone account for roughly half of all terrorist incidents. Six basic tactics comprise 95 percent of the total: bombings, assassinations, armed assaults, kidnappings, barricade and-hostage situations, and hijackings. No terrorist group uses all of them.
  22. 22. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM The terrorists tactical repertoire has for the most part changed little over time. One growing tactic is the car bomb, or as we have seen in Lebanon, truck bombs. Car bombs have been used with devastating effect in recent months in Beirut, London, Paris, and Pretoria. Barricade-and-hostage situations have declined. Seizing hostages at embassies, consulates, and other government buildings was a popular terrorist tactic in the 1970s. But heavy security has made such takeovers more difficult, while no concessions policies and increased willingness to use force to end hostage episodes decreased the probabilities of payoff and increased the risks to the terrorists there were 20 such incidents in 1980, 10 in 1981, and 5 in 1982. Overall, however, terrorist attacks on diplomats and embassies did not decline. Assassinations and bombings simply replaced takeovers.
  23. 23. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM This suggests that security does work in reducing certain tactics, but not in reducing terrorism overall. Terrorists are nimble. If one set of targets is well-protected or one tactic becomes more dangerous, terrorists merely shift their sights or alter their tactics to obviate the security measures. Protection against car bombs may reduce car-bomb incidents; terrorists will do something else instead. While terrorists have demonstrated greater willingness to kill larger numbers of people, they have not for the most part shown themselves to be suicidal. The exceptions appear to be cultural: Shia’a Moslem fanatics; earlier, members of the Japanese Red Army. It seems unlikely that suicidal attacks will gain widespread favor Among the worlds terrorist groups.
  24. 24. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Terrorist attacks are directed almost exclusively against civilian targets. Fewer than 10 percent of the incidents in Rands chronology of international terrorism were directed against the military or police. American citizens and facilities are-the most frequent targets in international terrorism, figuring in 29 percent of all incidents. About 30 percent of these have been directed against the U.S. military.
  25. 25. A NEW ERA OF CONFLICT A growing number of governments themselves are using terrorist tactics, employing terrorist groups, or exploiting terrorist incidents as a mode of surrogate warfare. These governments see in terrorism a useful capability, a "weapons system," a cheap means of waging war. Terrorists fill a need. Modern conventional war is increasingly impractical. It is too destructive. It is too expensive. World and sometimes domestic opinion impose constraints. Terrorists offer a possible alternative to open armed conflict. For some nations unable to mount a conventional military challenge--for example, Libya versus the United States--terrorism is the only alternative, an "equalizer."
  26. 26. A NEW ERA OF CONFLICT We may be on the threshold of an era of armed conflict in which limited conventional warfare, classic guerrilla warfare, and international terrorism will coexist, with both government and sub national entities employing them individually, interchangeably, sequentially, or simultaneously, as well as being required to combat them. In many respects, the future face of war is reflected in the course of armed conflict in Lebanon since the early 1970s. Warfare in that country has continued on all three levels- conventional war, guerrilla warfare, and terrorism. It involves regular armies, guerrillas, private militias, and terrorist gunmen, some of whom are openly assisted or covertly sponsored by foreign states, by political or religious factions, and even by other terrorist groups.
  27. 27. A NEW ERA OF CONFLICT Warfare in the future may be less destructive than that in the first half of the twentieth century, but also less coherent. Warfare will cease to be finite. The distinction between war and peace will dissolve. Nominal peace is likely to be filled with continuing confrontations and crises. Armed conflict will not be confined by national frontiers. Local belligerents will mobilize foreign patrons. Terrorists will attack foreign targets both at home and abroad. The United States will be compelled to maintain capabilities for defending against and, with the exception of terrorism, waging all three modes of armed conflict.
  28. 28. THE PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION On the preventive side, the United States needs to devote more attention to the physical security of its personnel, facilities, and weapons, as well as to improve the reporting and analysis of information on terrorist threats and actions. Physical protection against terrorism, however, poses a number of problems. First, terrorist groups are hard to predict, hard to penetrate. It is mainly a matter of human intelligence. There is a high noise level of threats, few of which materialize, few of which can be ignored. The U.S. Marines in Lebanon had received over a hundred bomb threats or warnings of possible terrorist bombings prior to the destruction of the Marine Headquarters. Moreover, there is a basic asymmetry. Terrorists can attack anything, anywhere, anytime. Governments cannot protect everything, everywhere, all the time. It is a certainty that terrorists will attack the least defended target. It is a virtual certainty that there will always be a vulnerable target.
  29. 29. THE PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL PROTECTION Physical protection against every conceivable kind of terrorist attack would become enormously costly, in both manpower and money. The U.S. Department of State currently spends 15 percent of its budget on security. Over 2,000 man-hours are devoted annually to the protection of U.S. diplomats abroad, at a cost of $200 million. Allocations for security are determined not by the strength of the opponent but by the number of targets to be protected against even a comparatively weak adversary. At a certain point, the requirements of physical protection can not only divert manpower from the primary mission, but can render those defended incapable of performing their primary mission.
  30. 30. BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICALWEAPONS Biological agents are infectious microbes or toxins used to produce illness or death in people, animals or plants. Biological agents can be dispersed as aerosols or airborne particles. Terrorists may use biological agents to contaminate food or water because they are extremely difficult to detect. Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops. Some chemical agents are odorless and tasteless and are difficult to detect. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed effect (several hours to several days). Biological and chemical weapons have been used primarily to terrorize an unprotected civilian population and not as a weapon of war. This is because of fear of retaliation and the likelihood that the agent would contaminate the battlefield for a long period of time. The Persian Gulf War in 1991 and other confrontations in the Middle East were causes for concern in the United States regarding the possibility of chemical or biological warfare. While no incidents occurred, there remains a concern that such weapons could be involved in an accident or be used by terrorists. More information on Bioterrorism preparedness and response is available online from the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Disease Control.
  31. 31. U.S. Counterterrorism Policy First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals; Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes; Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. Fourth, bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance.
  32. 32. What Terrorist Look for Terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or after an attack such as international airports, large cities, major international events, resorts, and high-profile landmarks.
  33. 33. CONCLUSIONS Security against terrorist attacks must be a factor in planning any Security operation. Situations such as U.S. involvement in the Middle East the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. Deployment of troops in Europe, and South East Asia are all likely to provoke terrorist actions against Americans there or elsewhere. Emphasizing a point made earlier, security operations need to be precisely defined.
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS The collection and analysis of intelligence about terrorism can and should be improved in order to better anticipate terrorist attacks, accurately assign culpability for those attacks, and develop appropriate countermeasures and responses. It takes years to develop this kind of intelligence. Meanwhile, in situations like that in Iran, and Israel it may be useful to consider augmenting U.S. forces with area experts. They could be drawn from the military services, civilian government agencies, the reserves, or civilian institutions. Military options in response to terrorism are few. Constraints are inevitable, and in some cases, U.S. interests are best served by not responding at all. Terrorist attacks cannot be permitted to determine U.S. foreign policy, directly or indirectly. We have to try to invent additional low-cost responses that keep terrorist attacks from forcing the United States to escalate militarily, which in some cases may be exactly what terrorists hope to achieve. These responses may involve special or conventional operations.
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS Regular security and military forces, as presently organized and trained, may not be adequately prepared to operate in terrorist environments. The armed forces will have to learn to do this, as they had to learn to operate in jungle environments. In the meantime, it may be useful to consider augmenting regular forces in high-risk areas with units whose training may make them better prepared to anticipate and deal with terrorist threats. It would be a mistake, however, to consign the problems of terrorism exclusively to Special Forces. Even in a world of growing terrorism, specialized antiterrorist units with no other mission may be underemployed, and the remainder of the armed forces will be left without adequate preparation. The entire armed forces must be able to confront diverse modes of conflict, including terrorism.
  36. 36. In Closing Terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or after an attack such as international airports, large cities, major international events, resorts, and high-profile landmarks. Learn about the different types of terrorist weapons including explosives, kidnappings, hijackings, arson, and shootings. Prepare to deal with a terrorist incident by adapting many of the same techniques used to prepare for other crises. Be alert and aware of the surrounding area. The very nature of terrorism suggests that there may be little or no warning. Take precautions when traveling. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behavior. Do not accept packages from strangers. Do not leave luggage unattended. Learn where emergency exits are located. Think ahead about how to evacuate a building, subway or congested public area in a hurry. Learn where staircases are located. Notice your immediate surroundings. Be aware of heavy or breakable objects that could move, fall or break in an explosion.
  37. 37. In Closing Preparing for a Building Explosion The use of explosives by terrorists can result in collapsed buildings and fires. People who live or work in a multi-level building can do the following: Review emergency evacuation procedures. Know where fire exits are located. Keep fire extinguishers in working order. Know where they are located, and how to use them. Learn first aid. Contact the local chapter of the American Red Cross for additional information. Keep the following items in a designated place on each floor of the building. Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries Several flashlights and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Several hard hats Fluorescent tape to rope off dangerous areas
  38. 38. SUMMARY The attack on America conforms to several trends in international terrorism: The volume of terrorist activity has increased in the last 15 years, terrorism has grown bloodier, and there is increasing use of terrorism by governments. We may be on the threshold of an era in which limited conventional war, classic guerrilla warfare, and international terrorism will coexist, with both governments and sub national entities employing them individually, interchangeably, sequentially, or simultaneously. As a result, the United States will be compelled to maintain capabilities for defending against and, with the exception of terrorism, waging all three modes of conflict. Physical protection against terrorism poses a number of challenges. Terrorist groups are hard to predict and hard to penetrate. Whereas they can attack anything, anywhere, anytime, governments cannot protect everything, everywhere, all the time. Physical protection is costly and can not only divert manpower from the primary mission, but can render those defended incapable of performing primary missions.
  39. 39. SUMMARY Security against terrorism must be a planning factor in any security or military operation. The collection and analysis of intelligence about terrorism can and should be improved to better anticipate terrorist attacks, accurately assign culpability, and develop appropriate countermeasures. There is a need to invent additional low-cost responses that keep terrorist attacks from forcing the United States to escalate militarily. Regular security forces may not be adequately prepared to operate in terrorist environments, and they will have to learn to do this. It would be a mistake to consign the problems of terrorism to Special Forces only; the entire security forces must be able to confront diverse modes of conflict, including terrorism.
  40. 40. Questions and Answers