Part 4: Human Cost• Your goal:Be able to explain, using examples, why suffering is sometimes deemed acceptable.
What is Human Cost?• The impact of an event on people.• The price in suffering paid to achieve a goal.
Cost Benefit Analysis• Decision-making tool• Compares costs to benefits• Is it worth it?
Cost Benefit AnalysisGoing to the State FairCosts Benefits$12 ticket Fun with friendsUnhealthy food Good foodSunburn Live showsVomit Free exhibitsSore feet Art$20 souvenir t-shirt Goats$20 ride tickets Carnival rides
Acceptable Risk• Understanding what suffering might result• Deciding that the benefits outweigh the costs
Cost Benefit AnalysisDropping the atomic bomb on JapanCosts Benefits
The Nuclear BombThe United States ended World War II bydropping nuclear bombs on Japan. •Where did this idea come from? •What is “nuclear”? •What were its effects?
Where did this idea come from?•Decades of research in physics and chemistry•Not bomb developmentIt all came from the idea thatmatter can produce energy.
2E=mcE = mc², is based on the fact thatthe speed of light, c, is very fast andjust a small amount of mass, m, can release large quantities of energy, E.
Physicists were leaving Europe.Oppenheimer Szilard TellerAmerican Hungarian Jew Hungarian JewEducated in Germany Came to US in 1938 Came to US in 1935 Why?
Physicists were leaving Europe.Why were such great physicists in Europe? Why were they leaving? Why?
Physicists were leaving Europe.Why were such great physicists in Europe? Why were they leaving? •Fascism •Communism •Anti-Semitism Why?
US paid for research.Once it was shown to have the potential to be a significant weapon, the USwas willing to spend lots of money on research.It required LOTS of money, but …•Some country will discover it soon.•It might be Nazi Germany.•We’d rather have it ourselves.
What is “nuclear”?This is an atom. All matter is madeup of atoms. This is a nucleus. Every atom has a very tiny nucleus.
What is “nuclear”?When an atom’s nucleus is hit, itbreaks apart and sends out energy.LOTS of energy This nuclear fission can be a chain reaction.
What is “nuclear”?When an atom’s nucleus is hit, itbreaks apart and sends out energy.LOTS of energy This is a nucleus. Every atom has a very tiny nucleus.
What is “nuclear”?We need energy for everything we do.This is a great, clean way to do it! Oh, … and it also makes a pretty powerful bomb
What is “nuclear”?Two incentives for developing nuclearfission:•A country needs energy.•A country needs weapons.
What did we do?In 1945, the USwas planning aninvasion of Japan:Operation DownfallStarting inOkinawa, it wouldbe long and itwould be bloody.
What did we do?Operation Downfall might cost as many as 1million American casualties.US President Truman wanted to minimizeAmerican casualties.The atomic bomb made that possible.