So you want to make your own nation?• What will you need?• Brainstorm with your group. People Government structure Economic structure Military Land Money Experience Education
What do different governments value?• Totalitarianism• Communism• Dictatorship• Democracy• Oligarchy• Monarchy• Theocracy• Fascism
Section 1Government PhilosophyYour goal: Understand where the ideas of modern government came from.
Section 1.aInfluencesWhere did modern government get its ideas?How would you start a government from scratch? What models do you know? Parents School Utopia TV Movies
Quick Vocab• Common Law• Natural Rights• Social Contract Let’s do this• Direct Democracy together.• Due Process of Law• Separation of Powers• Checks and Balances
Influence:Ancient GreeceThings work because of fixed laws. (They do not change.)• Plato – Wrote The Republic – About a perfectly governed society – Who should rule? • Not the rich THE WISE • Not the powerful
Influence:Ancient Greece• Aristotle – Wrote Politics – Government is natural Do you agree? Could we live without government?
Influence:Ancient RomeRevolution 309 BC• Romans overthrew king – Set up a republic (representative government) – Set up different branches to governmentTwelve Tables• WRITTEN law• Much more reliable
Influence:Judeo-ChristianJudaism, Islam and Christianity have contributed to modern government philosophy• Duty of the individual• Worth of the individual• Equality of the individual Duty Worth Equality
Influence:Judeo-ChristianJewish beliefs• Humans have the ability to choose between good and evil.• Humans have the responsibility to choose good. What part of this is good for governments?
Influence:Judeo-ChristianChristian beliefs• Humans should love their neighbors.• Equality of all human beings. What part of this is good for governments?
Influence:Judeo-ChristianIslamic beliefs• Brotherhood of all people.• Tolerance of different groups. What part of this is good for governments?
Influence:EnlightenmentEnlightenment (mid-1700s)• The Age of Reason• Period of new ideas about science and art and government.• Emphasized natural rights and the value of reason.
Influence:EnlightenmentThomas Hobbes• The best government is an absolute monarchy because people are selfish.• Relinquish all freedom and submit yourself to one all powerful ruler.
Influence:EnlightenmentJohn Locke• All people are born free and equal• Natural rights The job of government – Life is to protect – Liberty these rights. – Property
Influence:EnlightenmentVoltaire• Tolerance of others• Reason to solve problems (THINK!)• Freedom of religion• Freedom of speech
Influence:EnlightenmentBaron de Montesquieu• Separation of powers keeps a government balanced (checks and balances)
Influence:EnlightenmentJean Jacques Rousseau• Civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness.• The best government is direct democracy.• Social Contract – People must give up some freedom for the greater good of society
Influence:EnlightenmentCesare Beccaria• We have laws and punishments to keep order not to avenge crimes• “the punishment should fit the crime”• Cruelty/torture should never be used
Influence:Scientific RevolutionScientific Revolution (1500s-1700s)• Developed the Scientific Method – Observe – Question – Form hypotheses – Experiment Humans do not need to rely on their mind alone to discover the answers to questions.
Influence:Scientific RevolutionWhat are some other ways to figure things out? – How do you KNOW what is true? – Brainstorm some ideas of different methods. – Pair and share with your neighbor.
Influence:Scientific RevolutionWhy is the Scientific Revolution important?This new way of thinking brought about major social, economic and cultural changes.
Section 1.bDocumentsWhat are the most influential documents about government?Which ones do you already know about? Brainstorm Pair and Share
Section 1.bDocumentsThe following slides are some of the most influential documents in modern government.
Document:Twelve Tables451 BCLaw was written down.Key idea:Written law is more reliable.
Document:Ten Commandments1300 BCLaws given by GodKey ideas:Laws come from God.People should be moral.
Document:Magna Carta 1215 AD English Parliament forced King John to sign it. Key ideas: The king has limited power. Individuals have a right to due process of law.
Document:English Bill of Rights1689 ADEnglish Parliament wrote it to say what a ruler could not do.Key ideas:Laws are fixed.Right to freedom of speech.No taxation without representation.
Document:Declaration of Independence 1776 AD United States writes it to separate from the government of England. Key ideas: Citizens have a right to overthrow an unjust ruler.
Document:US Constitution1787 ADUnited States writes it to define the structure and ideals of the government.Key ideas:Separation of powers, representatives, checks and balances, due process of law, natural rights, equality of people.
Document:US Bill of Rights1788 ADUnited States adds to the Constitution to guarantee rights of citizens.Key ideas:Freedom of speech, assembly, press, and religion.
Document:Declaration of the Rights of Man andthe Citizen1789 ADFrench National Assembly wrote a statement of ideals for the French RevolutionKey ideas:Men are born and remain free in equal rights to liberty, property, security and no oppression.
Section 2The Industrial RevolutionYour goal: Understand how invention led to social and economic progress worldwide.
Section 2.a Don’tProgress take notes. JustWas the world making progress? listen.What is progress?How can we tell whether we are making progress or just changing?
(2.a.i) Progress:AgricultureThe industrial revolution began with agriculture.Agriculture - Technology – Power – BOOM!The world was industrialized.
Crop Rotation• This is scientific farming.• Different crops have different needs.• Result: – Healthier plants – Less disease – More to eat!
(2.a.ii) Progress:TechnologyBenefits of technology:New tools to do old jobs better• What is better? – Quicker – Cheaper to produce – Better quality• More time to spend on other things• More money to spend on other things
Textiles• What are textiles?• Where did cotton come from?• How was it turned from a plant into something more useful?
Cotton gin • His cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton.
Don’t take notes. Just Transcontinental Railroad listen.• The transcontinental railroad made travel across the United States faster, cheaper and more efficient.
What are some benefits?• Better agriculture• Better textiles• Better power• Better transportation
Transportation benefits• Affordable industrial growth• New jobs• Helped other industries• People move around more
• Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. It communicated using a series of beeps (Morse code).
The Light Bulb • 1879 • Thomas Edison improved someone else’s invention. • The light bulb allowed factories to work at night. • More Work!How could this affect the world economically, socially and culturally?
The Light Bulb How could this affect the world economically, socially and culturally?
Phonograph How could this 1877 affect the world Thomas Edison economically, socially and culturally?
Motion picture camera• 1895 How could this affect the world economically, socially and culturally?
(2.a.v) Progress:UrbanizationUrbanization is the process in which rural populations move to urban areas. RURAL URBAN
What’s the difference?• Rural – Living out in the country – Do everything for yourself – Agricultural economy• Urban – Living in the city – Do one thing for your job – Buy whatever you need – Industrial economy
Why would someone move? RURAL URBAN• Factories – Built near other factories (energy and people)• Electricity 1882 beginning of power stations• Stores ✄Buy what you need instead of making it at home.
How could someone move? RURAL URBAN• Trains, beginning in 1804• Steamboat, beginning in 1807• Automobiles, beginning in 1885 LOTS of people moved.
Where people lived before the Industrial Revolution urban rural
Where people lived after the Industrial Revolution began (1900) urban rural
Where people lived after World War II (1950) urban rural
Where people lived after Obama became president (2008) rural urban
Where people of industrialized nations live (2011) urban rural
Section 2.bEconomy• Shift from agriculture-based economy to industry-based economy• Production is faster• Shift away from a traditional economy. – You must have money! What kind of economy will you choose?
I don’t have any moneytoday. Can I trade you my jacket for this food? Probably not.
(2.b.i) Economy:LaborThe industrial revolution improved production.Better production means more specialization.Factories specialized on specific products.Workers specialized on specific jobs.Specialization: Producing just one thing instead of everything.
Better production means more specialization.I don’t needto Imakestart a will my I can I could I will try I factory that have extraown clothes buy makes or time and grow my anever new own foodbut nothing money now. them in have business green anymore. done this the city. idea. buttons! before!
More people try more ideas.• What kind of economy is this? – People try ideas. – Some succeed and get rich. – Some fail and become poor.
(2.b.i) Economy:MarketsMore ideas. More inventions. More products.Problems:1. How are you going to make these products?2. Where are you going to sell these products?A market is anywhere you sell products.
My Idea: Talk, text and surf the internet without saying a word or lifting a finger.
Which location is more likely to invent a Brainphone?
(2.b.ii) Economy:MarketsIf more people are making more things to sell, what additional problem will businesses have? COMPETITION
Section 3ImperialismYour goal: Understand the economic reasons and the cultural impact of European empires.
Section 3.aEconomyEconomic reasons for imperialism:• Businesses need resources• Businesses need labor• Businesses need markets
European nations begin empires.• Africa• Asia Europe• North America spreads to• South America every• Australia continent.Why not Antarctica?
Why couldn’t businesses get those things in Europe?COMPETITION
Section 3.bForeign PolicyDefinition of Foreign Policy: How your nation plans to interact with another nation.What do you want from that nation?What will you do to get it?
What did Europe want?• Resources• Labor• Markets What would Europe do?• Conquer• Enslave• Abuse
Racism• Africa had long been a source of slaves. – Since 1502, slaves were brought to the Americas.• Justified by Social Darwinism – Europe gets to dominate, because it can.
Charles Darwin• Observed changes in animals over time• Small changes helped or hurt an animal’s chance of survival.
Charles Darwin• If a change in an animal gave it an advantage, he called it Natural Selection.
Social Darwinism• Applies to HUMANS• Usually is used to justify inequality.
The first explorers of Africa• Missionaries• Trying to help end slavery• Trying to spread Christianity• Missionary David Livingstone and reporter Henry Stanley – Explored central Africa – “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
Britain and her colonies• Cecil Rhodes, businessman – Britain is the best nation in the world and it is our duty to take over the world. – It is best for the world.
Britain’s foreign policy earns $$• Cecil Rhodes, businessman – Founded DeBeers – The largest diamond company
Berlin Conference• Competition to get African colonies was fierce.• In 1884, European nations met in Germany to divide up Africa. – NO AFRICAN rulers were invited
Imperialism and Economics• Europe took whatever resources Africa had. – Sometimes they paid the Africans.• Europe expected Africans to buy European goods. – They didn’t.• Europe forced Africans to do jobs that helped Europe. – Africans did not need so much rubber or diamonds.
(3.b.ii) Foreign Policy:InfluenceWhat Europe gave the colonies:• Territory boundaries• Capitalism• Industry• Christianity• Government• Education
Why was colonization possible?• Europe had superior weapons. – Maxim machine gun• Europe had superior transportation.• Africans could not unite against the Europeans. – Many different ethnic groups – Many different languages
Europeans were role modelsWhat did Europe teach the colonies?• Territory boundaries• Capitalism• Industry• Christianity• Government• Education
Paternalism• Europeans felt they were like parents to a young civilization.• Colonial government – Provide for needs of Africans – BUT – Do not give them rights
Assimilation• Assimilation – becoming SIMILAR• Assimilation is one thing becoming a small part of something else.• Europe believed that eventually, Africans would become more like Europeans.
Assimilation• Assimilation is one thing becoming a small part of something else.• Europe believed that eventually, Africa ns would become more like Europeans.
Assimilation• Europeans influenced Africans to assimilate to European culture.• Africans adopted – Technology – Clothing – Language – Systems
Cash Crops• A cash crop is agriculture that is only good for selling.• For example: – An entire village spends their entire time specialized to harvest rubber tree sap. – They can sell the sap, but they cannot eat it.
Cash Crops• The danger of cash crops:• What happens when the market for rubber tree sap changes?• What happens if Europe no longer buys their product?• How will the Africans feed themselves?
Clash of Cultures• How are European and African values different?• Should the colonies be grateful to Europe for their influence?