Origins of us govt part 1 & 2


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Origins of us govt part 1 & 2

  1. 1. Origins of AmericanOrigins of American GovernmentGovernment Where did we get the idea for theWhere did we get the idea for the government we have today?government we have today?
  2. 2. There are 5 parts to this unit.There are 5 parts to this unit. 1.1. Political HeritagePolitical Heritage 2.2. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government 3.3. Trouble StartsTrouble Starts 4.4. ConfederationConfederation 5.5. ConstitutionConstitution
  3. 3. Part 1: Political HeritagePart 1: Political Heritage  Your goal: Be able toYour goal: Be able to describe how thedescribe how the government of the earlygovernment of the early United States wasUnited States was established.established.
  4. 4. English Political HeritageEnglish Political Heritage  Limited GovernmentLimited Government  Representative GovernmentRepresentative Government  Written ConstitutionsWritten Constitutions  Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers
  5. 5. English Political HeritageEnglish Political Heritage  Limited GovernmentLimited Government  Magna Carta - 1215Magna Carta - 1215  Creation of ParliamentCreation of Parliament  House of Lords - late 1200’House of Lords - late 1200’ss  Petition of RightsPetition of Rights  Parliament - 1628Parliament - 1628  English Bill of RightsEnglish Bill of Rights  1689 - List of rights1689 - List of rights  Representative GovernmentRepresentative Government (Parliament)(Parliament)  House of CommonsHouse of Commons  New Political Ideas about rightsNew Political Ideas about rights  Hobbes and LockeHobbes and Locke
  6. 6. Magna CartaMagna Carta  In 1215, King John ofIn 1215, King John of England was forcedEngland was forced to sign theto sign the MagnaMagna Carta.Carta.  This was a list ofThis was a list of limitations for thelimitations for the king.king.
  7. 7.  TheThe Magna CartaMagna Carta established the ideaestablished the idea ofof limited governmentlimited government – the power of the– the power of the monarch was limited,monarch was limited, notnot absolute.absolute.
  8. 8. Petition of RightPetition of Right  1625, Charles I took the1625, Charles I took the English throne.English throne.  He dissolved Parliament,He dissolved Parliament, housed soldiers in privatehoused soldiers in private homes, and placed somehomes, and placed some areas under martial law.areas under martial law.
  9. 9. Petition of RightPetition of Right  1628, King Charles I1628, King Charles I needed money, so heneeded money, so he called Parliament backcalled Parliament back into session.into session.
  10. 10. Petition of RightPetition of Right  Parliament was fed up with Charles I &Parliament was fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signedrefused to give him money unless signed thethe Petition of Right in 1628:in 1628:  King could not jail people without aKing could not jail people without a good reasongood reason  King could not make taxes withoutKing could not make taxes without Parliament's approvalParliament's approval  King could not keep his soldiers inKing could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use armypeoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetimeto maintain order during peacetime
  11. 11. William and MaryWilliam and Mary  1688, William III and1688, William III and Mary II came to theMary II came to the English throne.English throne.  They agreed to ruleThey agreed to rule withwith Parliament andParliament and Parliament passed theParliament passed the English Bill of Rights –English Bill of Rights – important to the Americanimportant to the American colonies.colonies.
  12. 12. English Bill of RightsEnglish Bill of Rights  1688, the1688, the English Bill of RightsEnglish Bill of Rights  Set clear limits on monarchsSet clear limits on monarchs  Monarchs do not have absoluteMonarchs do not have absolute powerpower  Monarchs ruleMonarchs rule withwith ParliamentParliament  Monarchs cannot interfere withMonarchs cannot interfere with elections or debateselections or debates  Citizens have right of petition, fairCitizens have right of petition, fair and speedy trial; no cruel or unusualand speedy trial; no cruel or unusual punishments or excessive fines andpunishments or excessive fines and bail.bail.
  13. 13. The colonies beginThe colonies begin  In 1607, the EnglishIn 1607, the English settled Jamestown,settled Jamestown, VirginiaVirginia  The idea of limitedThe idea of limited government hadgovernment had become part of thebecome part of the English system.English system.
  14. 14. The colonies beginThe colonies begin  American colonistsAmerican colonists believed inbelieved in representativerepresentative democracydemocracy
  15. 15. Enlightenment WritersEnlightenment Writers  Hobbes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and John LockeHobbes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and John Locke wrote about Social contract.wrote about Social contract.  Social contract: Agreeing to follow laws andSocial contract: Agreeing to follow laws and accept duties to be part of the society.accept duties to be part of the society. Jean-Jacque Rousseau Give me freedom of speech, and I promise I wont abuse it by yelling all the time. Like – Comment – 10 minutes ago
  16. 16. John LockeJohn Locke  John Locke took socialJohn Locke took social contract a step further. .contract a step further. . John Locke People are born with rights to life, liberty, and property. To keep these rights, they willingly contract to give power to a government. When government fails to preserve those rights, people have the right to break the contract and REVOLT!! Like – Comment – 20 minutes ago
  17. 17. Part 2: Colonial GovernmentPart 2: Colonial Government  Your goal: Be able toYour goal: Be able to describe the early forms ofdescribe the early forms of government in the colonies.government in the colonies.
  18. 18. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  There were 102 men,There were 102 men, women, and childrenwomen, and children aboard the Mayflower.aboard the Mayflower.  They were granted landThey were granted land by the Virginia Company,by the Virginia Company, but were blown offbut were blown off course.course.  Once outside Virginia,Once outside Virginia, they were an independentthey were an independent colony.colony.
  19. 19. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  Passengers decided toPassengers decided to establish rules for thisestablish rules for this new colony.  TheThe Mayflower CompactMayflower Compact (1620) is the first example(1620) is the first example of colonial plans for selfof colonial plans for self government.government.
  20. 20. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  Each American colonyEach American colony had its own governor,had its own governor, legislature, and courtlegislature, and court system.system.  The British felt theThe British felt the colonies owed allegiancecolonies owed allegiance to the monarch, and forto the monarch, and for years the colonies wereyears the colonies were loyal to the crown.loyal to the crown.
  21. 21. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  Colonial governmentsColonial governments began practices thatbegan practices that became a key part of thebecame a key part of the nation’s government:nation’s government:  1. a written constitution1. a written constitution guaranteeing basic rightsguaranteeing basic rights and limited the power ofand limited the power of governmentgovernment  2. elected representatives2. elected representatives  3. separation of powers3. separation of powers between the governorbetween the governor and legislature.and legislature.
  22. 22. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers  Colonies set up governmentsColonies set up governments that separated powersthat separated powers  Branches of governmentBranches of government  Election of localElection of local representativesrepresentatives
  23. 23. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  Colonial LegislaturesColonial Legislatures  Circumstances necessitated self-governmentCircumstances necessitated self-government  Leaders picked by CrownLeaders picked by Crown  3 requirements for self government3 requirements for self government  Remain Loyal CitizensRemain Loyal Citizens  Buy British GoodsBuy British Goods  Provide Raw MaterialsProvide Raw Materials
  24. 24. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  Written Constitutions (a plan forWritten Constitutions (a plan for government)government)  A deal between colonists andA deal between colonists and crown (Social Contract)crown (Social Contract)  Reaction to abuses of power byReaction to abuses of power by rulersrulers  Each colony had a constitutionEach colony had a constitution that outlined how the colonialthat outlined how the colonial government would operate.government would operate.
  25. 25. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  TheThe Fundamental OrdersFundamental Orders of Connecticutof Connecticut waswas America’s first formalAmerica’s first formal constitution.constitution.  It laid out a plan forIt laid out a plan for government that gave thegovernment that gave the people the right to electpeople the right to elect the governor, judges, andthe governor, judges, and representatives to makerepresentatives to make laws.laws. Don’t take notes. Just listen.
  26. 26. Colonial GovernmentColonial Government  Other English coloniesOther English colonies began to draw up theirbegan to draw up their own charters setting theown charters setting the principles of limitedprinciples of limited government and rule bygovernment and rule by law in each in each colonies. Don’t take notes. Just listen.
  27. 27. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  RepresentativeRepresentative assemblies becameassemblies became common in the Englishcommon in the English colonies.colonies.  1619: Virginia House of1619: Virginia House of BurgessesBurgesses  It was the first legislature*It was the first legislature* in North North America. *Legislature: the part of government that makes laws
  28. 28. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  Rapid growth- coloniesRapid growth- colonies needed new laws to copeneeded new laws to cope with new circumstanceswith new circumstances such assuch as  land distributionland distribution  public workspublic works  new townsnew towns  new schoolsnew schools  new courts.
  29. 29. Colonial GovernmentsColonial Governments  Colonial charters dividedColonial charters divided the power of government:the power of government:  Governor had executiveGovernor had executive powerpower  Legislature had the rightLegislature had the right to pass lawsto pass laws  Judges heard casesJudges heard cases