Cold War (2013 edition)


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Cold War (2013 edition)

  1. 1. Cold War 1. Reasons for the Cold War 2. Actions of the Cold War 3. The end of the Cold WarMost of This Is in Chapter 17 & 19 of Your Textbook.Most of This Is in Chapter 17 & 19 of Your Textbook.
  2. 2. Part 1: Reasons• Your goal: Be able to explain why the Cold War happened.
  3. 3. What does “cool” mean?Why would a war be called “cold”? What does temperature have to do with anything?
  4. 4. What Is a Cold War?• No actual battle between the countries at war.• THE Cold War was the period of hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union 1945-1991.
  5. 5. What are some reasons for the USSR to dislike the US?• The US did not join WWI until after Russia had to quit.• The US did not join WWII until after USSR had lost millions of lives.
  6. 6. What are some reasons for the US to dislike the USSR?• The USSR signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler.• The USSR was communist.
  7. 7. The biggest reason for the Cold War:Communism versus Capitalism
  8. 8. Capitalism vs. Communism• Free elections • One-party state• More than one • Industry/agriculture political party owned by the state• Industry/agriculture • No different social classes owned by individuals • Government• Different social controls people’s classes lives• Freedom of speech • Strong censorship
  9. 9. Capitalism vs. Communism• You can create a • No matter how hard business, make lots your neighbor of money, and have works, he will never more things than make more money or have more things other people. than you.• Some people get • It’s not fair for some rich. It could be you! people to be wealthy, while others starve.
  10. 10. Which country was communist? Put these Put these on your on your chart also. chart also.Which countries were capitalist? and many more.
  11. 11. How did the Cold War start?
  12. 12. The Cold War begins … Yalta Conference 1945World Yes, butWar II we needisnt to planover for theyet. end of the war. Germany didn’t surrender until May 1945, but the Allies met at Yalta in February 1945 to discuss the end of the war.
  13. 13. Yalta Conference 1945 How will weHow will rebuild Europe? How willwe keep we punishthe peace? Germany?
  14. 14. Yalta Conference 1945 What do we do What Dont you with the war about the want criminals? homeless revenge? people? Dont youand the wantbroken revenge?factories and theand fields countries They cant even without pay their bills! governments? How will any of this work?
  15. 15. Yalta Conference 1945The three major results of this conference were: • United Nations • Dismemberment of Germany • Reparations
  16. 16. ltaYa United Nations • The League of Nations failed • The United Nations was the new and improved version • Differences: – More members worldwide – More military force to keep peace
  17. 17. ltaYa How to deal with Germany: Two main goals: • Keep Germany weak • Make sure it can pay for the damage
  18. 18. ltaYa Keep Germany Weak • Germany cannot be trusted • Dismember* it so it is remains weak • The Allies will divide Germany into four parts and keep military control over it. * Dismember: to take apart
  19. 19. lta Iron Curtain –Ya A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
  20. 20. ltaYa Reparations • After WWI, Germany had to pay 32 billion marks. • What was the result? * Reparations: payment for damages
  21. 21. ltaYa Reparations • After WWII, the Allies would get “paid” by whatever their portion of Germany produced. • Factories, mines, labor, etc.
  22. 22. The Marshall Plan• US Secretary of • The US would loan State George them money to help Marshall, 1947 them rebuild.• He proposed financial aid for all of • This money would the needy European be spent on countries. American products, so it was profitable, to the US.
  23. 23. The Marshall Plan
  24. 24. Keep my neighborsSoviet opposition communist!• The Soviet Union did not want countries in Eastern Europe to accept this money.• Economic involvement with the United States was dangerous to communism.
  25. 25. Soviet Fear• The Soviet Union did not want Germany to rebuild.• Why wouldn’t they want that?
  26. 26. Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparation of communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
  27. 27. Iron Curtain
  28. 28. Two sides of Cold War• NATO – North • Warsaw Pact – Atlantic Treaty pro Soviet Organization countries –• USA, France, USSR, and all Great Britain, countries West Germany controlled by the• CAPITALISM USSR. • COMMUNISM
  29. 29. Cold War goals• the United States • the Soviet Union wanted countries to wanted countries to be capitalist and be communist democratic
  30. 30. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization US alliance with Britain, France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland
  31. 31. Warsaw PactUSSR alliance with East Germany,Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary,Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania
  32. 32. Containment• This was the foreign Contain policy of US Communism! President Harry Truman. Keep communism from spreading to other countries.
  33. 33. Brinkmanship*• Going to the edge of war, without actually starting any fighting.• How far can you push it, before someone calls your bluff? *Brink: the edge of something
  34. 34. Why Brinkmanship?• War between theThe superpowers want to avoid superpowers would almostdirect war between them. certainly involve nuclear weapons.• Millions would be killed.• No one wins a nuclear war
  35. 35. Why Brinkmanship?Mutually Assured Destruction• The USSR eventually had the same nuclear weapons power as the US.• Both sides could destroy the other many times. No one wins.
  36. 36. Part 2: Actions• Your goal: Be able to explain how the events of the Cold War affected the world..
  37. 37. Arms Race Arms Race: competition to get more weapons than the other country.• The Cold War drove the superpowers into an arms race.• US & USSR produced as many weapons as possible. (Including nuclear bombs)
  38. 38. Space Race Space Race: competition to get more advanced rockets.• Who has the best science and engineering?• Making better rockets also meant making better bombs.
  39. 39. Space Race• 1957: USSR launched first man made satellite into space.• It circled the earth 15 times a day.• It beeped. Why was Sputnik significant? Why would the US care?
  40. 40. Cold War FightingDid the United Statesactually go into battlewith the Soviet Union? No
  41. 41. Cold War FightingWere there battles aspart of the Cold War? Yes
  42. 42. Cold War Fighting How was the Cold War fought?1. Foreign Aid – Marshall Plan2. Propaganda – Convince people which side is better3. Espionage – Find out what the other side is doing4. Alliances – NATO & Warsaw Pact5. Brinkmanship – Who will back down first?6. Surrogate wars – Korea & Vietnam
  43. 43. Berlin Airlift• Dismemberment of Germany didn’t last.• US, France and Britain wanted to leave Germany in 1948.• USSR did not want Germany to become strong again.
  44. 44. Berlin Airlift• When US, France and Map of Britain left Berlin, Stalin Berlin took control of the whole city.• USSR did not have the “right” to keep more than East Berlin.• US, France and Britain were committed to protect West Berlin from this capture. Map of Germany
  45. 45. Berlin Airlift• USSR cut off roads to the Map of outside world, not letting Berlin people in or out of Berlin.• US, France and Britain airlifted supplies to West Berlin for 11 months.• USSR gave up. Map of Germany
  46. 46. Berlin Airlift• USSR cut off roads to the outside world, not letting people or supplies in or out of Berlin.• US, France and Britain airlifted supplies to West Berlin for 11 months.• USSR gave up. Map of Germany
  47. 47. Third World Countries• Superpowers* recruited countries to choose sides in the Cold War.• Third World includes countries who are • economically poor • still developing • politically unstable • need assistance *Superpowers: US & USSR
  48. 48. Third World Countries• Who will they turn to for help? US or USSR?
  49. 49. Third World Countries• Examples of Third World Countries: • Guatemala • Bolivia • Chile • Cuba • Congo • Greece • Korea • Vietnam Why were these countries significant? Why would the superpowers want to help them?
  50. 50. What’s this?
  51. 51. Domino Theory
  52. 52. How does Domino Theoryrelate to Third WorldCountries?How does Containment relateto Third World Countries?
  53. 53. Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis• Fidel Castro took over Cuba, and wanted to make it communist.• Americans lost their investments there.• Castro asked the Soviet Union for help.• President Kennedy attempted to liberate Cuba from Castro, in the Bay of Pigs invasion.• It was a failure.
  54. 54. Cuban Missile CrisisCuban Missile Crisis
  55. 55. Fidel Castro Communist dictator of Cuba, during Cuban missile crisis 1962. •He nationalized the economy. •He got help from Nikita Khrushchev. •Khrushchev set up Nuclear missile sites in Cuba.
  56. 56. Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis• Nikita Khrushchev began building 42 missile sites in Cuba.• Cuba is as close to Florida as Sacramento is to San Francisco!• President Kennedy demanded they be removed. This was brinkmanship.• Kennedy announced a naval blockade, which could have been considered an act of war.
  57. 57. Nicaragua Nicaragua• The United States supported a dictator, Anastasio Somoza.• His administration, while being one of the most corrupt in history and brutal to dissidents, was nevertheless supported by the United States because it was viewed as anti-communist.
  58. 58. Anastasio Somoza Garcia Dictator of Nicaragua 1937-1956 A corrupt tyrant, who was supported by the United States because he was anti-Communist. Corruption, torture, and murder of dissidents
  59. 59. Iran Iran• The Shah of Iran was friendly to capitalism, but lost power in his country to nationalists.• The United States put him back in power.• Many Iranians were still unhappy with the Shah.• Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious leader, and encouraged Iranians to riot, protesting US interference.• In 1979, the Shaw’s followers took 60 Americans hostage from the US Embassy in Tehran. They were held 444 days.
  60. 60. IranIran
  61. 61. Ayatollah Khomeini Religious (Muslim) leader of Iran. Opposed US involvement in the Middle East Iran hostage crisis 1979
  62. 62. Afghanistan Afghanistan• After World War II, Afghanistan was independent, but had a communist friendly government.• A Muslim revolt tried to change the government, so the Soviet Union invaded. They did not want a non- communist government.• The Soviet Union supported the Afghan communists in the battle.• The United States supported the Muslim rebels in the battle.• 1979-1989: the Soviet Union eventually gave up.
  63. 63. AfghanistanAfghanistan
  64. 64. Afghanistan Vietnam War• Third World country• Newly independent French Colony in 1954• Vietnamese have to decide what kind of government to have. – US wants them to have anything but communism. – USSR and China want it to be communist. Why would the US get involved in this war?
  65. 65. Vietnam Afghanistan War
  66. 66. Afghanistan Vietnam War• Third World country• Newly independent French Colony in 1954• Vietnamese have to decide what kind of government to have. – US wants them to have anything but communism. – USSR and China want it to be communist. Why would the US get involved in this war?
  67. 67. Afghanistan Vietnam War• US gives South Vietnam military advisors• Then more advisors• Then some troops• Then more troops• US Officially entered the war in 1964.• US lost the war to the communists in 1973. Why would the US get involved in this war?
  68. 68. Afghanistan Korean War• Korean had a long history of being controlled by China or Japan• WWII – Japan controlled Korea• After WWII – Korea was split into 2 countries.• Divided at the 38th Parallel• North Korea – Communist• South Korea – democratic republic
  69. 69. AfghanistanKorean War
  70. 70. Afghanistan Korean War• 1950 – North Korea invades South Korea• US and United Nations helps South Korea• USSR and China supported North Korea• Battles went North and South• Ended the war in 1953• Border was set at the 38th parallel – WHERE IT BEGAN!