Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATES
  2. 2. • Carbohydrate – this word means the same thing as sugar. sugar• Some examples of sugar are:• -Glucose• -Fructose• -Sucrose
  3. 3. • The basic unit, or building block of sugar is called a saccharide. saccharide• One molecule of saccharide has the molecular formula of• C6 H12 O6
  4. 4. • Saccharides can vary (ie the types of sugar vary) by where the OH’s are and how they are shaped. shaped• 1 molecule of saccharide =• monosaccharide• 2 molecules of saccharide =• disaccharide• >2 molecules of saccharide =• polysaccharide
  5. 5. • MONOSACCHARIDES• The most common example is glucose. glucose• 2 ways to write glucose’s structural formula are:
  6. 6. • Another monosaccharide is fructose. fructose
  7. 7. • DISACCHARIDES• Disaccharides results when you join two monosaccharides together• When this happens one monosaccharide loses an “H” and the other monosaccharide loses an OH.OH• OH + H = H2O (water)• When water is lost in the making of a new molecule, the process is called dehydration. dehydration• The resulting bond is called a glycosidic bond.
  8. 8. • POLYSACCHARIDES• Polysaccharides are thousands of monosaccharides hooked together.• For example, starch is a polysaccharide• -noodles, potatoes• -thousands of glucose molecules hooked together• Organisms can get energy from polysaccharide molecules by breaking the glycosidic bonds that hold all the monosaccharides together.• The bond is broken by adding H2O (OH + H) and is called hydrolisis.
  9. 9. • Another example is cellulose. cellulose• This is found in plant walls and wood (what plants have instead of bones)= cell wall• Humans can’t break the glycosidic bonds of cellulose. That is why we can’t cellulose eat trees.• They won’t digest in our stomachs. But we can break the glycosidic bonds of starch
  10. 10. • Another example is chitin. chitin• The hard shell on bugs (what they have instead of bones).•• Humans can’t break these bonds either.

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