PeriodonticsInstrumentsExplorers- Use:1.Locate Sub-gingival Deposits and Caries.2.Check Smoothness of root surface after planning.3.Assess Restorative problems.- Thin, Flexible, Wire-like working end. Taper to sharp point.- Curved, Right-angled & Area specific.Periodontal Probes- Use:1.Locate &Measure depth of pocket and determine it’sconfiguration.2. Assess Loss of Attachment.3. Detect Sub-gingival Deposits.- Tapered with blunt round tip, mm markings for accuracy.- Ball-end to avoid penetration into junctional epithelium.- Diameter less than or equal 0.6 mm.- Probing Force more than 0.25 N traumatize healthy tissue. (25-50g forclinic)- Ball-end to avoid penetration into junctional epithelium.A, Marquis color-coded probe. B, UNC-15 probe. C, University of Michigan “O”probe, with Williams markings. D, Michigan “O” probe with markings at 3, 6, and8 mm. E, World Health Organization (WHO) probe.
WHO Probe or Screening Probe- 0.5 mm ball at tip- mm markings at 3.5, 8.5, 11.5 mm- Color coding from 3.5 to 5.5 mmWilliams Probe- Marking at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 mm- Color & non-Color codingMarquis Color-coded Probe:- Calibrations in 3 mm sectionsUNC-15 Probe- 15 mm long- Marking at each mm- Color coding at 5, 10, 15 mmMichigan “O” Probe- With Williams markings, or- With markings at 3, 6, 8 mmNabers Probe- Used for Furcation- Accurate Horizontal detection- 1 N for Mesial & Distal- 2 N for Facial & Lingual – Color coding 3, 6, 9, 12 mmGoldman Fox- Flat end- with Williams marking at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 mmMaryland Moffit- with Williams marking at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10 mm- Ball endA, Curette; B,sickle; C, file; D, chisel; E, hoe.
Sickle Scalers- Use: 1. Coronal & Supra-gingival Scaling only, due to large blade.2. Removal of Supra-gingival Deposits especially below contactsin Anterior region.- Method:Pull Stroke.- Thin, Triangular cross section, Point to Tip, Double cutting edge andWorking tip.- Pointed Tip increases root surface roughness.- Straight for Anterior & Curved for Posterior.- Single-end or Double-end.- Other types: Cumine Universal Scaler& Posterior JacquetteScaler.Hoe Scalers- Use: 1. Remove Ledges or Heavy Rings of Calculus Supra & Sub-gingival.2. Planning & Smoothening Root surface.3. Remove Calculus remnants.4. Remove Heavy deposits on Distal of Terminal Molar.- Method:Pull Stroke.- Cutting edge beveled at 45 degrees.- Blade bent at 99 degrees, back of blade is rounded.- 2 contact point with tooth.Files- Use: 1. Fracture or Crush Large Deposits in Deep, Narrow PeriodontalPockets.2. Effective for Burnished or Smooth Calculus, TenaciousCalculus. (Remove Tenacious Sub-gingival Deposits).3. Remove Overhanging Restorations.- Method:Pull & Push and Pull Strokes.- Doesn’t reach apical portion of pocket.- Not indicated to remove Bacterial Plaque or Endotoxins.- Head (Body), Shank & Handle.- Hirschfield series: 3 cutting edges – Fracture Heavy Calculus- Orban design: 6 cutting edges – Fracture Heavy Calculus- Bendbug File: 10-11 cutting edges – Smoothen Roots and CEJ, &Remove Moderate Deposits.- Less no.of cutting edges more the fracture of large deposits.
Chisel Scalers- Use: 1. Proximal of Anterior Teeth.2. Remove Tenacious Sub-gingival Deposits.- Method:Push Stroke. Horizontally from Labial to Lingual.- Double-ended.- Curved & Straight Shanks on ends with 45 degrees bevel.Curettes- Use: 1. Remove Deep Sub-gingival Calculus2. Root Planning altered Cementum.3. Remove Soft Tissue lining of Periodontal Pocket.4. Used on Flat concave and convex root surfaces.- Method:Push Stroke. Horizontally from Labial to Lingual.- Single-ended or Double-ended.- Semi-circular cross section; convex base.- Rounded Tip.- 1 or 2 Cutting edges.- No sharp points other than cutting edge of blade.Universal Curettes- Use:Remove Plaque & Calculus at Interproximal surface, betweengingival or crown margin & Inaccessible Furcation.- Used in Most Areas.- 90 degrees with lower shank. (when seen in cross section from tip)Face offset beveled at 80 to 90 degrees to Terminal shank.Gracey- Area Specific Curettes- Use:Sub-gingival Scaling & Root Planning.- Only instrument with Curved Cutting edge. Adapt to curved tooth surfaces.- Face offset beveled at 60 to 70 degrees.- Lower number more anterior in mouth.#1-2 and #3-4 : Anterior#5-6 : Anterior & Premolar#7-8 and #9-10 : Posterior Facial & Lingual#11-12 : Posterior Mesial#13-14 : Posterior DistalGracey after Five e.g: Hu-Friedy after Five- Extend shank 3 mm. Used for Pocket more than 5 mm.Gracey Mini e.g: Hu-Friedy Mini- Half Standard.
Periodontal Endoscope- Use:Visualize Deep pockets and Furcation during scaling and rootplanning.SchawartzPeriotreivers- Set of double-ended highly magnetized instruments designed for retrieval ofbroken instrument tips from periodontal pocket.Plastic Instrument- Avoid Permanent Damage to Implant surfaces.Diagnostic InstrumentsPeriodontal Probes, Nabers Probes, & Explorers.Scaling & Root Planning and Curettage InstrumentsSupra-gingival Scaling (Sickle scaler, Cumine Universal scaler, PosteriorJacquettescaler)Sub-gingival Scaling (Hoe, Chisel and File scalers& Curettes)Sonic & Ultrasonic InstrumentsCleansing & Polishing InstrumentsRubber Cups, Brushes, Air Power Abrasive System.Surgical InstrumentsExcisional & Incisional Instruments, Surgical Curettes and Sickles,Periosteal Elevators, Surgical Chisels, Hoes, Files, Scissors & Nippers.