Econ322 le2 meting van ontw

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PPTs vir ECON322 module.
Leereenheid 2 oor meting van groei en ontwikkeling

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Econ322 le2 meting van ontw

  1. 1. ECON322 Ontwikkelingsekonomie Development Economics Meting van groei en ontwikkeling Measuring growth and development
  2. 2. The key questions • How do we measure development? • What are the important features of developing countries? • How do conditions in today's developing countries differ from the early stages of development? • How has inequality changed?
  3. 3. Wie is die ontwikkelende wêreld? • Volgens BNI is daar: o Lae-inkomste, lae middel-inkomste, hoë middel- inkomste en hoë inkomste lande. Daar is ook ander klassifikasies…
  4. 4. Indicators of development • GDP and GNI should be compared at PPP. o See table 2.2 • Indicators of health and education. • The Human Development Index. o Note the differences between and within countries. • The new HDI.
  5. 5. Eienskappe van die ontwikkelende wêreld • Laer lewenstandaard en produktiwiteit. • Minder mense-kapitaal. • Hoër vlakke van ongelykheid en absolute armoede. • Hoër bevolkingsgroeikoerse. • Meer sosiale "fractionalisation". • 'n Groter landelike bevolking, maar vinnige verstedeliking. • Laer vlakke van nywerheidsontwikkeling en vervaardigde uitvoerprodukte. • Onder-ontwikkelde markte. • Geografiese uitdagings. • 'n Nalatenskap van kolonialisme en ongelyke internasionale verhoudinge.
  6. 6. How do low-income countries today differ from developed countries in their early stages? • Physical and human resources. • Relative levels of income. • Climatic differences. • Population size, distribution and growth. • International migration. • International trade benefits. • Basic science, technology and R&D. • Efficacy of domestic institutions.
  7. 7. Is daar konvergensie? • Is daar "catch-up growth"? • Beweeg die lewensstandaarde van ontwikkelende lande en ontwikkelde lande nader na mekaar? • Is daar 'n middel-inkomste lokval?

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