Joe Torre is notorious for empathizing with his players when they are dealing with sensitive situations. He has been know to specifically acknowledge and praise his players when they continue to play the game even as they mourn calling one player a “warrior” (Goleman, 2000). He has been known to stand up to owners who threaten his players contracts to ascertain their value to the team (2000 ). So, why do these characteristics of Coach Torre make him fall into the affiliative role? We would first need to define the role of a affiliative leader.
Empathetic leaders can be beneficial to those cultures who vale this trait (Sadri, Weber, and Gentry, 2011 ). When leaders at higher levels display empathic emotion, it has a very positive impact upon ratings of performance (2011 ).
It is a universal principle to want to belong to something significant. We also react better to and are more motivated when we receive positive feedback on what we do. People also have a need to be understood and valued.
In cultures, where there are large populations, and high technical industries, employee empathy and engagement may be insubstantial. Foxconn is a electronics supplier powerhouse, employing 50% of China’s workforce . numerous theories suggest the ability to have and display empathy is an important part of leadership ( ).
Armstrong, P. (2012). Q&A: Apple's China supplier in the spotlight. Retrieved on February 7, 2012, from http://www.cnn.com/2012/02/06/world/asia/china-foxconn-explainer. Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78 (2), 78-90. Goleman, D. (2006). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Dell. Sadri, G., Weber T.J., & Gentry, W.A. (2011). Empathic emotion and leadership performance: An empirical analysis across 38 countries. The Leadership Quarterly 22, 818–830.
Linda Sheppard, Sheronda Smith, Shonte Taylor, SalmaTheus, Kathie Trotter
<ul><li>An authoritative leadership style also known as autocratic or commanding style refers to when the individual who makes the prime decisions about a group, a company, an organization or a country, is the central decision maker, who has authority and demands mission accomplishment without counting on input from their followers. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A famous theorist that proven the impact of authority in normal human being is Milgram (1974) who found that human have two possible acts, their own, or on behalf of others or authority (Masters, 2009). Like all leadership styles, authoritative leadership style requires obedience. </li></ul>
<ul><li>For the sake of satisfying certain psychological needs like the need to be right or the need to be liked, human being blindly would obey to leaders they trust or found fair regardless of whether they share the same cultural values or not (Van Dijke, De Cremer & Mayer, 2010). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Coercive leadership is said to be most effective in times of crisis (Leadership Style, 2012). This is because coercive leadership involves the leader that chooses to take charge by demanding obedience and compliance. During a time of crisis, such as a natural disaster or when safety is otherwise compromised, this type of leader is needed to take charge and quickly get things turned around (Cravens & Worchel, 1977). </li></ul>
<ul><li>This style has the advantage of having a leader that is very much in control of their organization and aware of its functions. However, this type of leader is often viewed negatively by their subordinates. However, some cultures may find this controlling style of coercive leadership to be offensive and can therefore produce a negative work environment (Leadership Style, 2012). </li></ul>
<ul><li>The coercive leader may have many problems with a diverse multicultural group. If the coercive leader is not able to be flexible to meet the needs of those he supervises, then he will not be successful in obtaining the compliance he desires. According to Cravens & Worchel, (1977), workers that have an internal or external locus of control may be more or less responsive to this style and may exhibit behavior that is the opposite of what is desired. </li></ul>
<ul><li>One of the most significant ways to affect group effectiveness is by the leader’s communication style (Zander & Butler, 2010). An effective example of the Coercive Leader, would be the CEO that realizes that the business must change product focus in order to survive. He meets with the leadership staff, quickly informs them and instructs them on what needs to be done. By taking charge, he saves his business from bankruptcy. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The democratic leader sees everyone as equals promoting equal participation in decision making. He will not see his opinion or that of anyone else as more or less important. He considers open communication as essential to problem-solving (Leadership Style, 2012). This type of leader will also often want to collect everyone’s opinion prior to making a decision. </li></ul>
<ul><li>This type of leader is often appreciated by his subordinates for his attention to their opinions and ideas. This leader is seen as a team player and sees sharing information as a way of maximizing his staff’s strengths and encouraging involvement. However, this type of decision-making process can also be long and time consuming (Leadership Style, 2012). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Although this leader is preferred by many, when there needs to be a quick decision made, this style can be ineffective. No one leadership style is appropriate when dealing with a diverse, multicultural work environment (Byrne & Bradley, 2007). Instead, the leader of such an environment will need to draw on various communication and leadership styles in order to lead their team to success (Cellar, Sidle, Goudy & O'Brien, 2001). </li></ul>
<ul><li>The democratic leader is one that desires the team to come to a fair conclusion together. An example of the effective democratic leader would be the Principal that asks the Teachers to review the new curriculum that is being offered. They are also asked to note the positives and negatives of it in contrast to the present curriculum. He asks that they be prepared to vote on whether or not to adopt the new curriculum at the next staffing. The teachers greatly appreciate that their opinions are needed (Leadership Style, 2012). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent (Best, 2010). Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and will power, you can become an effective leader. Everyone has a leadership style that fall in one of the following areas authoritative, coercive, coaching, pacesetting and affiliating. The style that will be focused on is the coaching leadership style. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The coaching leadership style is defined as an apprenticeship where individuals are trained by more experienced people to develop and enhance his/her professional career (Boyatzis & at.el., 2006). Peterson & Hicks (1996) also defines coaching as “the process of equipping people with the tools, knowledge, and oportunities they need to develop themselves and become more effective” (p. 14). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Coaching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Search for hidden layers </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize the coaching approaching </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate change best for the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Real World Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul>
<ul><li>A major challenge in using the coaching leadership style is the time that it takes for both parties. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual’s openness of the coaching can be a challenge </li></ul>
<ul><li>The ability to learn from experienced workers increasing his/her knowledge in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive work environment and improved work outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and team excellence </li></ul><ul><li>High commitment to common goals and valuable leaders </li></ul>
<ul><li>Joe Torre, New York Yankees Coach (1996-2007) </li></ul>
<ul><li>What are the characteristics of an affiliate leader? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural relationship builders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers ample positive feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are masters at building a sense of belonging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give people the freedom to do their job in the way they think is most effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put employees first, focusing on emotional needs over what work needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliative leaders may also tend to his own emotions openly. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Ability to display empathy or “sensing what people are feeling, being able to take their perspective, and cultivating rapport and </li></ul><ul><li>attunement with a broad diversity of people” (Goleman, 2006, p. 318). </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when there are situations of low morale and poor teamwork. Utilizing this method will, in the longer term, create good team bonding and heightened team performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Also beneficial to use for healing rifts in getting through stressful situations </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sense of recognition and reward for work well done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback in the workplace is rare: outside of an annual review, most people usually get no feedback on their day-to-day efforts-or only negative feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive words all the more motivating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building trust allows habitual innovation and risk taking. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to develop fierce loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effect on communication. </li></ul><ul><li>-People who like one another a lot talk a lot. They share ideas; they share inspiration. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Foxconn </li></ul><ul><li>Apple, Inc. parts manufacturer, (i.e. for IPOD, IPAD) in China </li></ul>
<ul><li>Employees work 60 hours a week, staged strikes and threats of mass suicide to win better working conditions.( No empathy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Most have never seen an IPAD or any finished Apple product </li></ul><ul><li>Employees feel as though they are "not seen as a human but as an animals and machines”( No sense of belonging, workers DO NOT come first ), with low pay </li></ul><ul><li>Complaining not tolerated. Employees are told "if they don't like it, they can quit.” ( Negative Feedback, No relationship building ) </li></ul><ul><li>Are sometimes prohibited from speaking with other employees during work hours ( No team building, trust, and cooperation ) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Poor performance will go by without feedback as the leader may feel that conflict will upset the balance. Employees may perceive that mediocrity is tolerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliative leaders rarely offer constructive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation and emotionally distressing positions can be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Advice on how to improve is rare, employees must figure out how to do so on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>When people need clear directives to navigate through complex challenges, the affiliative style leaves them rudderless. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all cultures value this leadership style of positivity and empathy </li></ul><ul><li>If this is the only style implemented, this style can actually steer a group to failure. Therefore, Affiliative Lead ship Style should not be used alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Use in conjunction with Authoritative Leadership style . That emphasizes a vision, set standards, and let people know how their work is furthering the group's goals. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Leaders who practice this style of leadership focus on group dynamics. Their goal is to create strong teams that work well together. This style focuses on lowering stress levels and creating good relationships between members of the team. This type of leadership is especially effective when there have been problems within the organization and morale and trust is low (Goleman, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>New leaders coming in to an organization after a catastrophe will find this style of leadership especially effective. It provides a strong foundation of trust and helps meet people’s need to be understood and valued. In most situations leaders will benefit from making use of the affiliate leadership style in addition to other styles (Goleman, 2000). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Anonymous (2011) List of Good Things Muammar Gaddafi Done for The People of Libya. Retrieved from http://expertscolumn.com/content/list-good-things-muammar-gaddafi-done-people-libya </li></ul><ul><li>Beer, D.E., (2007). Coaching as a leadership style scores big. IndUs Business Journal Online. Retreived from http://www.indusbusinessjournal.com/ME2/Audiences/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications%3A%3AArticle&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=A8D3FE532E5D4A3A8B75C4B113F3282C&AudID=EEB7C7075C2E462F969310BCC0CAA619 </li></ul><ul><li>Best, K. (2010). Assessing leadership readiness using developmental personality style: A tool for leadership coaching. International Journal Of Evidence Based Coaching And Mentoring , 8 (1), 22-33. </li></ul><ul><li>Blass, T. (2009). From New Haven to Santa Clara: A historical perspective on the Milgram obedience experiments. American Psychologist, 64 (1), 37-45. doi:10.1037/a0014434 </li></ul><ul><li>Boyatzis, R. E., Smith, M. L., & Blaize, N. (2006). Developing Sustainable Leaders Through Coaching and Compassion. Academy Of Management Learning & Education , 5 (1), 8-24. </li></ul><ul><li>Braine, L. G., Pomerantz, E., Lorber, D., &Krantz, D. H. (1991). Conflicts with authority: Children's feelings, actions, and justifications. Developmental Psychology, 27 (5), 829-840. doi:10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1689 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Goret, M., Zega. A., Voss. L. & Fawcett-Hammalian, G. (1998) Stanley Milgram (1933 – 1984), Retrieved from http://mikeg531.tripod.com/MikeG531.htm </li></ul><ul><li>John,B. R.(2002) New Era in American-Libyan Relations, Middle East Policy, vol. IX, NO. 3, Retrieved from Political Science Complete Jun.2012 </li></ul><ul><li>Laura, M., &Turiel, E. (1993). Children's concepts of authority and social contexts. Journal of Educational </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology, 85 (1), 191-197. doi:10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124 </li></ul><ul><li>Lawerence, M. (2009). Memory of Red Holzman serves as a motivator for Lakers' Phil Jackson.Daily News Sports. Retrieved from the NY Daily News.com </li></ul>
<ul><li>Masters, K. S. (2009). Milgram, stress research, and the Institutional Review Board. American Psychologist, 64 (7),621-622. doi:10.1037/a0017110 </li></ul><ul><li>Nissani, M. (1990). A cognitive reinterpretation of Stanley Milgram's observations on obedience to authority. American Psychologist, 45 (12), 1384-1385. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.45.12.1384 </li></ul><ul><li>Peterson, D. B. (2007). Executive coaching in a cross-cultural context. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice And Research , 59 (4), 261-271. doi:10.1037/1065-92126.96.36.1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Peterson, D.B. & Hicks, M.D. (1996). Leader a coach: Strategies for coaching and development others. Minneeapolis, MN: Personnel Decisions International. </li></ul><ul><li>Robbins, S. & Judge, T. (2009). Organizational behavior, 13th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Dijke, M., De Cremer, D., & Mayer, D. M. (2010). The role of authority power in explaining procedural fairness effects. Journal ofApplied Psychology, 95 (3), 488-502. doi:10.1037/a0018921 </li></ul>