Thesis writing


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  • The writeup's goal is to present all of your work to someone that knows nothing about your work. The defense presentation's goal is to present the highlight of your work to people that have already read your document. Both are presentations of your work.
  • Thesis writing

    1. 1. Professor Dr. Md. Abdul Wohab KhanMBBS, FCPSProfessor and HeadDepartment of SurgeryAnwer Khan Modern Medical CollegeAndA learner in ‘Medical education’
    2. 2. ObjectivesThe participant will be able too Describe what are the purposes of writing an academic thesiso How to write a thesis proposalo What are the component of a thesiso What are the steps of thesis worko How to write a thesiso How to defend a thesis
    3. 3. • Both areo Written report of supervised research at the institute levelo A Primary publication of the candidate’s independent researcho Contains and presents candidates own findings --Which are critically analyzed with scientific informations from othersources
    4. 4. Is there any difference between the two?• Practically NO!• Both are research work and submitted for attaining a higherdegree.But• Medical education needs ----o ‘Production of the producers’ i.e. Teacher - with a wide range of scholarly workAndo ‘Production for the users’ i.e. service providers - with less extensive works to train them for anevidence based practice.
    5. 5. Difference between --• In UKo Dissertation is for diploma, undergraduate or First Master’s degreeo Thesis is for MPhil/PhD• In USA (Just opposite !!!!!!)o Thesis is for diploma, undergraduate or Master’s degree (usually twoyears)o Dissertation is for PhD level (usually 3-6 years)o Dissertation is much more extensive work and often called ‘Doctoraldissertation’• In some universities, dissertation and thesis are seenas the same thing
    6. 6. Why it is a prerequisite for fellowship, mastersand PhD programs ?To use this excellent learning experience as a tool for‘learning to learn’• To familiarize the student with the steps of research,• To promote critical and analytical thinking• To provide an experience in scientific writing and• To contribute to knowledge.
    7. 7. Other learning objectiveso To develop a skill to find out the literatureo To demonstrate the appropriate depth and breadth of knowledge in thedisciplineo To develop the skill to evaluate the available information and thus ---• To help them to adopt evidence based practice.o To practice ethical application in professional lifeo To think critically and creatively
    8. 8. Benefits
    9. 9. Medical practice is complex andunpredictable!Needs -----Best professional judgment –o With a professional wisdom• A complicated amalgam ofo Factual knowledgeo Procedural skill ando IntuitionThe exercise of academic research is tolearn, build up and develop the professionalwisdomBenefits
    10. 10. Development of writing skill – a communication• Communication among the scientific -progress of science• So the scientist should haveo A strong general writing skillo An understanding of the convention of scientific writing ando An understanding of the Reader’s expectation
    11. 11. All these are necessary to developa skilled professional -o To methodically deal with the realworld problems ando To find out the best possibleevidence-based solution
    12. 12. Steps of thesis work
    13. 13. works• Step 1- Start literature review• Step 2 – Start working withguide/Supervisor• Step 3 –Preparation, submission andapproval of the proposal(all these must be completedwithin 3m 1/4th of the totaltime)• Step 4 – Start data collection• Step 5 – Start datamanagement and startreport writing• Step 6 – Continue to finishreport writing( must be completed within8th m)• Step 7 – Revision andcorrection of the report• Step 8 – Finalcorrection, editing andsubmission(must be within 10th month)• Step 10 -- Writing thesisderived articles• Step 11 – Defending thethesis
    14. 14. Step 1Start literature search and review• To select the problem• To build up knowledge on the related issues• To discuss with the supervisor for finalization• Selection and working with the title
    15. 15. Step 2Start working with the Guide• Mind maps ono Development of the research instrumento Planning for pretestingo Development of proposal drafto Time line for submission for protocol
    16. 16. Protocol vs proposal• Protocol – A written detailed scientific plan of thestudy• Proposal – A document written for obtaining fundthat containso Study protocolo Budgeto Other administrative and supportive informations
    17. 17. Elements of a protocolsimilar to that of a thesis a large fraction of the materialcan be used for final thesis.• Title page/ Cover page• Abstract• Table of contents• Introduction• Thesis/ problemstatement• Approach/methods• Preliminary/expectedresults and discussion• Implications of research• List of references• Work plan including timetable
    18. 18. Major Parts of the Thesis Proposal• INTRODUCTIONo A short summary of the major questions behind the research, the context ofthose questions within a larger academic framework.• PROBLEM STATEMENTo Describe in depth, and provide the background and particular context of theproblem in relation to the particular academic field.• LITERATURE REVIEWo Address the scope of research and list major findings.• METHODOLOGYo Describe what you plan to do, why you plan to do it, and how you are goingto go about doing it.• BIBLIOGRAPHYo A list of all source materials
    19. 19. Tips For Preparing the Proposal• Give yourself plenty of timeo A good proposal needs around six months to prepare• Complete a thorough literature review• Communicate with your guide /supervisor• Talk with the experts
    20. 20. Thesis work (plan)Activities inrelation withtimeJuly’11Aug’11Sept’ 11 Oct’ 11 Nov’ 11Dec.11Jan.’12Feb.’ 12 Mar’ 12 Apr.’ 12 May’ 12 Jun.12LiteraturereviewWritingResearchproposalDevelopmentof researchinstrumentData collectionData entry andanalysisReport writingand editingSubmission ofreport
    21. 21. How to write athesis
    22. 22. The need for a standardformatThesis/dissertation is a weaving of theory and factsthat makes the fabrics of knowledge.Marvin Harris said thato ‘Facts are always unreliable without theoryando Theories without facts are meaningless’Soo A logical structure reflects and clarify the relationship betweentheory and fact of a research paper
    23. 23. Need for Consistency (in structure and the format)• Variations distractso Reader have to spent more time and energy• to understand and conceive the ideaando There is a possibility of misinterpretation• Easy and short sentenceso writer’s intention will be best understood by most of the readers
    24. 24. The basicphysicalarrangementOfA thesis/dissertation
    25. 25. • Front matters• Body• Back matters
    26. 26. Front matters• Title page• Declaration ofauthorship• Certificate orforwarding of guide orsupervisor (omittedafter approval)• Recommendation orApproval foracceptance• Dedication (optional)• Epigraph (optional)• Frontispiece (optional)• Acknowledgement (optional)• Preface (optional)• List of contents• List of tables• List of figures anddiagrams• List of abbreviation• Abstract
    27. 27. Title page• Title of the study• Students name, course name, session• Institute name, place, month & year ofsubmission
    28. 28. Title page• Title at the topo extra space above and below,o larger and bold face font than the other items of the page,o ALL CAP or Capitalize Each Wordo 1.5 space between lineso No abbreviations - everything in wordo All centeredo Name as recorded in the institute
    29. 29. QUALITY OF SUPERVISED RESEARCH REPORTIN RELATION TO POSTGRADUATE MEDICALQUALIFICATIONS OF BANGLADESHMMEd ThesisByDr. Md. Abdul Wohab KhanMMEd student (ME -7)Centre for Medical Education (CME)Mohakhali, DhakaFaculty of Basic Medical SciencesBangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU)July 2012
    30. 30. Declaration• Declarations made by the studento Declaration of authorship• Transition from student to scholaro Declaration of the purposeo Declaration of originalityo Authorization of property rights2nd Page
    31. 31. DeclarationThis thesis is the document of my research work and was done under the guidance andsupervision of Professor ……………….., Professor Department of …………………,Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. I would like to emphasize thatthe work is my original one. Due reference and acknowledgement are made clearly,wherever others contributions are taken.The work was done and submitted to the Centre for Medical Education Mohakhali,Dhaka in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MMEd awarded fromBangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University during the academic session 20…--20…..No part of this work has been submitted for any other degree under any other institutionor published anywhere for any purpose.I authorize Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Centre for medicalEducation to lend this thesis to other institutions or individuals for the purpose ofscholarly research. I further authorize the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical Universityand the Centre for medical Education to reproduce this thesis by photocopying or byother means, in total or in part, at the request of other institutions or individuals for thepurpose of scholarly research and for national and or international benefit.Dated:The 15th June, 2012 (……………………………..)Centre for Medical Education MMEd student,Mohakhali, Dhaka. Session: 2010-2012
    32. 32. 3rd pageCertificate of the Guide/SupervisorCertification on theo Originalityo Guidance ando Other informations declared by the student.This page can be omitted after final approval
    33. 33. CertificateThis is to certify that the thesis entitled “Quality evaluation of supervised researchreport in relation to postgraduate medical qualifications of Bangladesh” andsubmitted by Dr ……………….. for partial fulfillment of the MMEd degree from Centerfor Medical Education awarded by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University;embodies original work done by him under my direct supervision.PROFESSOR …………………………Professor ……………………….Department of ………………………….Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical UniversityDhaka
    34. 34. Recommendation forAcceptance• Recommendation• Signature, name and designation of the boardmembers• Date of approval/recommendation
    35. 35. Recommendation for AcceptanceBangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical UniversityPostgraduate faculty of Basic Medical SciencesDhaka, BangladeshWe, the undersigned certify that we have carefully read and recommended to the facultyof Basic Medical Sciences, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University foracceptance of this thesis titled “Quality of supervised research report in relation topostgraduate medical qualifications of Bangladesh” conducted by Dr Md AbdulWohab Khan for partial fulfillment of the MMEd degree from Center for MedicalEducation during the session 2010-2012.BOARD OF EXAMINERS1. Signature……………………………………Name:2. Signature: …………………………………….Name:3. Signature: …………………………………….Name:4. Signature: …………………………………….Name:Approved on ---------------------------------
    36. 36. DedicationThis thesis is dedicated---To my Parents for their care and support during the time I grown up anddeveloped myself.To all of my teachers from primary to graduate level for teaching me toaccomplish any complicated task in step by step at a time.To all educationist who have laid out the direction, tried to eliminate the blistersand to open our eyes to understand the excellence of continuing education.5th page (optional)
    37. 37. Epigraphs“For you (God) subjected all that is in the heavens and on the earth, all from Him.Behold! In that are signs for people who reflect”.--- Surah Al-Jathiya, verse # 13 (Al Quran)“Fear of the LORD is the foundation of true knowledge, but fools despise wisdom anddiscipline” ---The Bible“Educating the brain without educating the heart is not at all education”---Aristotle“Write for an open minded non-expert; write for him, he should be able to see yourargument not necessarily agree or disagree with it, but accept it.” ---Bob Dick“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and tryanother. But above all, try something.” ---Roosevelt6th page (optional)
    38. 38. FrontispieceAn illustration of a dissertation defense ceremony (Dissertation Leiden 1721)Universiteits Bibliotheek Leiden (Breimer 2005)7th page (optional )
    39. 39. AcknowledgementAll praise is upon the almighty -------------------------------------------------------------------My heartiest gratitude and special honor to -------------------------------------------------------Dr ……………………….. has contributed in every aspect of my total work; --------------I would like to express my best regards to ---------------------------------------------------------I am indebted to ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------My sincere gratitude to ------------------------------------------------------------------------------I am also thankful to ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------It was my good luck to have opportunity to share and have valuable input from ------------My heartiest thank to my entire course fellows of ------------------------------------------------I should express my pleasure for the excellent academic environment -----------------------and the administrative staffs for ----------------------------------------------------------------I shall not forget the kind cooperation from -------------------------------------------------------Finally I should thank my ----------------------------------------------------------------------------All the flavor may have in this thesis is the credit of the numerous study subjects and myignorance must be the cause of shortcomings in this report.Dated:The 15th June, 2012 (-----------------------------------)Centre for Medical Education MMEd student, -----------------Mohakhali, Dhaka Session, -----------------------------8th page (optional!)
    40. 40. PrefaceThis thesis was a dream to learn about the overall academic research and also to see thecriteria followed. The University of Dhaka has the guideline for thesis examination inwritten (not published), the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU)and the Bangladesh College of Physician and Surgeon (BCPS) has their own style formatpublished in 2008 and 2009 respectively. As the guideline of the university of Dhaka forthe examiners are not published, probably most of the supervisors/guide or examiners andnone of the student are familiar with that.If any one goes through more than one thesis/dissertation in any discipline; he will be in adilemma of the criteria of standard. Although the thesis/dissertation manual is not verydifficult to reach and follow, still the variation in consistency with style format isalarming. The Institutes has got their own system of examination. How much the systemis working and how much the quality is assured this study will be able to focus on thatissue to some extent.Evaluation of the institutional format and style consistency is prerequisite to assure thequality. This thesis tried to highlight in this respect inspite of its all limitations. The effortwill be considered successful if much concentration is given to its pitfalls and usability istested with intelligent criticism.Dated:The 15th June, 2012 (…………………………)Centre for Medical Education MMEd studentMohakhali, Dhaka Session 2010-20129th page (optional)
    41. 41. 10th page• Chapters (No. or Name)o Contents (Name or Heading)o Page no (In Romans or Arabics)List of contents
    42. 42. List of ContentsContent Page noDeclaration …. …. …. …. …. iiCertificate …. …. …. …. …. iiiRecommendation for acceptance …. …. …. …. …. ivDedication …. …. …. …. …. vEpigraph …. …. …. …. …. viFrontispieces …. …. …. …. …. viiAcknowledgement …. …. …. …. …. viiiPreface …. …. …. …. …. xList of content …. …. …. …. …. xiList of tables …. …. …. …. …. xvList of figures …. …. …. …. …. xviList of abbreviation …. …. …. …. …. xviiiAbstract …. …. …. …. …. xixChapter 1 1 – 17Introduction …. …. …. …. …. 1Background …. …. …. …. …. 3Rationale …. …. …. …. …. 8Research question …. …. …. …. …. 10Objectives …. …. …. …. …. 10List of variables …. …. …. …. …. 12
    43. 43. 11th pageList of tablesContents Page no.Table 1 Quality Chasms identified in the titles…. …. …. …. …. 61Table 2 Flaws detected in Abstracts …. …. …. …. …. 63Table 3 Weaknesses identified in the introductory chapter. …. …. 65Table 4 Limitations identified in literature review…. …. …. …. 67Table 5 Shortcomings in the methodology …. …. …. …. …. 69Table 6 Type of problems detected in the result sections... …. …. 71Table 7 Weaknesses identified in discussion …. …. …. …. …. 73Table 8 Category of problems apparent in making conclusions…. 75Table 9 Weaknesses of recommendation …. …. …. …. …. 77Table 10 Defects found in citation …. …. …. …. …. 79Table 11 Imperfection detected in presenting appendices… …. …. 81Table 12 Problems detected in demonstration of innovation and creativity 83Table 13 Flaws identified in physical format and overall get up …. 85Table 14 The mean, median and mode of overall marks …. …. …. 87Table 15 Distribution of marks scored in different sections. …. …. 88
    44. 44. List of FiguresContent: Page no.Figure 1 The quality of title observed in the study. …. …. …. …. 60Figure 2 The frequency of Abstract according to the quality …. …. 62Figure 3 The quality of the introduction .... .... …. …. …. 64Figure 4 The frequency of quality grades of literature review ... …. 66Figure 5 The quality grade evaluated for the methodology sections.. 68Figure 6 The quality grades on result …. …. …. …. …. 70Figure 7 Frequencies of quality grades of the discussion sections…. 72Figure 8 Distribution of quality grades detected in conclusion …. …. 74Figure 9 Distributions of quality labeled on recommendations …. …. 76Figure 10 Quality grades assigned to the citation …. …. …. …. …. 78Figure 11 Frequencies of quality of appendices presentation …. …. 80Figure 12 Level of innovation and creativity …. …. …. …. …. 82Figure 13 Grading on general quality and physical format.... …. …. 84Figure 14 Overall grading of the report …. …. …. …. …. 86Figure 15 The alertness level of the candidates …. …. …. …. …. 89Figure 16 Evidence of plagiarism …. …. …. …. …. 9012th page
    45. 45. List of AbbreviationAACU Association of American Colleges and UniversitiesAPA American Psychological AssociationBCPS Bangladesh College of Physicians and SurgeonsBMRC Bangladesh Medical Research CouncilBSMMU Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical UniversityG Grade (in this document G1 to G4 for quality grade were used).GMER Global Minimum Essential RequirementIIME Institute for International Medical EducationIRB Institutional review boardL2 Second languageLEO Literacy Education OnlineMD Doctor of MedicineMLA Modern Language Association of AmericaMHRA Modern Humanities Research AssociationRCT Randomized Control TrialTOT Training Of TrainerUSA United States of AmericaWFME World Federation of Medical EducationWMA World Medical Association
    46. 46. 14th pageAbstractIn any academic field the question of quality is central issue and the „fundamentalrelationship‟ between assessment and learning quality needs to be expressed. Evaluationof the quality in supervised research in medical education is very important in highereducation and teaching. The purpose of the supervised research project is to provide thelearner an experience in scientific writing, to familiarize the student with the steps ofresearch, to promote critical and analytical thinking of the learner and to contributesomething new to knowledge base. The objectives of the study were to determine thequality in postgraduate supervised research report writing, according to the standardcommonly prescribed and implied by the post graduate medical institutes of Bangladesh.A descriptive study was performed on 64 thesis and dissertation submitted during theperiod of 2008-2010 in two selected post graduate institutes of Dhaka city. The overallquality was less than marginal in 93.8% (60), marginal in 6.3% (4) of the reports. Nonecould be appraised as good or exemplary. It was evident from the study that there aredifficulties in learning and gap in fulfillment of the purpose of supervised research.Weaknesses in supervision were also evident and theoretical knowledge gap in all levelcould be assumed. There were also evidences that the prescribed standard were notfollowed. To address these issues planning, designing, supervision and evaluation systemof supervised research in relation to the postgraduate medical qualification of Bangladeshneeds critical attention.
    47. 47. Body of the thesis
    48. 48. Chapter IIntroductory chapter• Introduction• Background(may havesubsections)• Rationale or Justification• Research question and orHypothesis• Objectiveso Generalo Specific• List of variables• Operational definitions
    49. 49. Chapter IILiterature review• It is the research on researcho All over the world it is considered as the most important section !!!!!!• Describe, summarize, evaluate and clarify theinformations so far known on the problem• Build up theories on the problem• Formulate the instruments and methods
    50. 50. Methodology or materialand method• Study design or type of study• Place of study with briefdescription• Study period• Study population• Sampling uniteo Sample sizeo Sampling technique• Selection criteriaoo Species/strain ( other than human)o Sources of materials (if necessary)• Sample size estimation• Sampling techniqueo Inclusion criteriao Exclusion criteria• Grouping (if applicable)
    51. 51. Chapter III; contd.• Data collectiono Data collection instrument• Development• Pretesting• finalizationo Data collection procedure(Detailed, if new or modified)o Laboratory methods (ifapplicable)• Data managemento Processingo Summarization• Data analysis• Limitation• Quality control• Ethical consideration
    52. 52. Chapter IVResults• You need not to randomly present every result found• Present your concrete finding and result of your own research• Must be pertinent and relevant to the specific objectives• Are the Result and data same ???o Result is the ‘statement of interpretation’ which is a translated finding fromsummarized data
    53. 53. • Presentation should justify the ground created in --o Introduction and literature reviewo Leading to the answer to your research question• Structure and organization should be readers friendly• No scope for opinion• A successful result section ---o Well presented tables and figureso Clarification with salient interpretation
    54. 54. Chapter VDiscussion• It is the communication of the meaning of research outcome to thereaders• A valid and interesting data may be spoiled if discussion is not organizedin logical way• The target is to answer research question and to test hypothesis• Future problems should be perceptible• As it is a long section subheading may help the readers to understandthe analysis and interpretation of findings
    55. 55. Conclusion andrecommendation• A good conclusion is reiteration of ‘what intended to foundand what was found’• Main statement should be based on strongest evidence• Others comment or result should not be there• Should not be repetition of your result or discussion word forword.
    56. 56. Back matters• Reference list/Bibliography(Although it is in back matter the pagination is continuous with the body)• Appendices or annexure – instruments, work schedule, Maps etc.• List of symbols and formulas (optional)• List of pictures and plates (optional)• Glossary of terms (optional)√ Pagination in romans and continuous with the front matte
    57. 57. How to defendthesis
    58. 58. General guideline• Defence should summarize the thesis• Enough information ono What you have done?o Why you have done it?o How you did ito What you found; ando What the implications of your finding• Advisor must be satisfied• Make sure all technical facilities working well
    59. 59. GoalsThe goal isNot toPresent what you wrote?But toPresent what you did?
    60. 60. work to someonethat knows nothingabout your work.The defense presentations goal is to present thehighlight of your work to people that have alreadyread your document.
    61. 61. Only two things topresent !!!What is knownAndWhat you have addedDon’t presento Literature reviewo Referenceso Acknowledgements and other optional thingso ‘Out line of my talk’ slide
    62. 62. Know youraudience/Examiners !!• Prepare your slides– not more than 20 m• Practice repeatedly• Check the instruments – have back ups• Review your thesis, forecast questions, prepare to answer – writedown the• Introduce your work• Justify
    63. 63. Final game !• Justify your work means justify your conclusiono Back up it with solid findings or referenceso When in doubt Qualify or temper the inconclusivestatement rather to stretch on conclusion.
    64. 64. Questions• Inquisitiveo Committee members expect more explanation to be satisfied• Curiouso They simply wants to know more• Hostileo They are trying to explore the inadequacy
    65. 65. Answer• Inquisitive questiono Answer question if you cano Answer to best of your abilityo Never try more than you know( You should know everything related to your research question butnot necessarily to know everything of the field)o If the question is beyond the research scope –• Answer if you know• Or explain that you don’t know and it is beyond the scope of your area• Allow advisor/Guide to step in !
    66. 66. Contd.• Curious questiono Answer if you cano It is good if you know and can show the relevance to your worko Do not spent more time in an unrelated area
    67. 67. Contd.• Hostile questiono Don’t let question get to you – remain professionalo If at all a committee member out to get youo A conflict between two memberso Evidences of your weaknessesDo not fake answer try to answer to best abilityBest if advisor rescue youo If the things are pointed out wrongly – don’t go into confrontation – At best you can point outthe erroro If you are wrong admit it and move on as quickly as possible
    68. 68. After the Defence• Record the notes and corrections prescribed by theexaminers• Make necessary revisions for final aproval• Acknowledge them accordingly