Assignment 2 Cambodia Killing Fields

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Assignment 2 for World Isues: Singapore's Perspective.

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Assignment 2 Cambodia Killing Fields

  1. 1. World Issues: A Singapore Perspective
  2. 2. Questions <ul><li>Provide a summary of the Cambodian Killing Fields. It may be useful to include things such as historical time lines, a profile of the main players in the conflict and its impact on the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Using what you had learnt from your group's research, present the KEY reasons that led to the conflict becoming full-blown. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think were the most important reason OTHER THAN RACE in this conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>What were your group's thoughts/opinions after having done this research. You can also comment on any thing/point that you had unearth that you can link to your understanding of our society here in Singapore. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Short Video <ul><li>Cambodia Khmer Rouge 1975 to 1979 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sIDcwLPSHTo </li></ul>
  4. 4. Towards Year Zero <ul><li>1953 – Cambodia gains independence from 90 years of French colonisation </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – King Sihanouk of Cambodia “breaks off relations” with US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sihanouk kept a small army to prevent coups and could not defend Cambodia against North Vietnamese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows North Vietnamese guerillas (Communist) to set up bases on Cambodian soil against US-backed government in South Vietnam (Capitalist) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Towards Year Zero <ul><li>1969 – The US bombs North Vietnamese forces in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – Sihanouk was deposed in a coup and General Lon Nol assumed power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His government assumed Pro-Western and Anti-Communist stance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lon Nol sends army to fight North Vietnamese in Cambodia, supporting American military involvement </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Towards Year Zero <ul><li>1975 – Lon Nol was overthrown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facing a 2-way attack from Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by the Chinese, North Vietnamese Communists and Sihanouk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 17, 1975 – Khmer Rouge marched into Phnom Penh unopposed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement plans for utopian communist society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day Zero where 2000 years of Khmer history became meaningless </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Khmer Rouge Years <ul><li>To create Utopian Communist Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phnom Penh was evacuated to the countryside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Khmer Rouge believes cities are tools of capitalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All should live and work in the countryside as peasants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Khmer Rouge Years <ul><ul><li>Isolate country from foreign influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close schools, hospitals and factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolished banking, finance and currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed all religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confiscated all private properties </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Khmer Rouge Years <ul><ul><li>Government arrested, tortured and executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone connected to former government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals and intellectuals (bespectacled) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodia Christians, Muslims and Buddhist Monks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Former urban dwellers who were incapable of farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ To keep you is no benefit. To destroy you is no loss” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Khmer Rouge Years - Numbers <ul><li>Estimated of 850,000 to 3 million deaths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly between 1.4m to 2.2m deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% - 30% of population then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By execution, starvation and forced labour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>158 prisons </li></ul><ul><li>209 mass-grave sites, with 19,000 grave pits </li></ul><ul><li>10 m mines left, one for each Cambodian </li></ul>
  11. 13. Khmer Rouge Years - Numbers <ul><li>Tuol Sleng (S-21 Prison) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest single day execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>582 persons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May 27, 1978 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least 14,000 imprisoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7 known survivors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 children </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Key Reasons <ul><li>Capitalism vs Communism (Cold War) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War spillover </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Khmer Rouge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US secret bombing of Vietnamese communists in Cambodian land on March 18, 1969 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants’ detest for Lon Nol and American campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support from China, Vietnamese communists and Sihanuok </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khmer Rouge’s idealistic Communist rule </li></ul>
  13. 15. Other than Race, what? <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure no opposition/uprising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill educated people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy past political powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorise the people through torture and execution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eradicate religions to prevent gatherings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme insistence on Communist utopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equality within the people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All people work on the fields </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Thoughts & Opinions <ul><li>Strong and able leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push progress into the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing Singapore and Cambodia’s progress after gaining their independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike Sihanuok who balanced between Vietcong and the US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, neutrality only theoretically possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to look far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make policies accordingly to build country economically and socially </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Thoughts & Opinions <ul><li>Protect country’s sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent similar situations where Sihanuok could not fend himself from Viet Commies setting bases on Cambodian soils and maintaining Cambodia’s neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining strong armed forces like NS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional instability can spill over easily </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How Vietnam War got into Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrest in East Asia can affect Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We live in a Interdependent World </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Thoughts & Opinions <ul><li>Power to the People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people of the country can choose its fate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodians chose Khmer Rouge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singaporeans chose PAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people can prevent the rise of tyrants through their support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the importance of each vote during Elections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Learn from history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial Harmony Day – Racial Riots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Defence Day – Japanese Occupation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Short Video <ul><li>Cambodian Genocide </li></ul><ul><li>Little walk through S21 Prison http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=C9tfGO2Oni0 </li></ul>
  18. 20. References <ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1244006.stm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.edwebproject.org/sideshow/ </li></ul>

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