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Wireless Boot Camp 2010 Handout


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Handout that accompanied the Wireless Boot Camp 2010.

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Wireless Boot Camp 2010 Handout

  1. 1. W A S H I N G T O N U N I V E R S I T Y Unive r s ity Lib r a r ie s WIRELESS NETWORK BOOT CAMP UNDERSTANDING THE UNIVERSITY’S WIRELESS NETWORK Sarah Bombich Friday, January 29, 2010
  2. 2. Table of Contents What is a network? 1 Parts of a Network 1 How does Wi-Fi work? 2 What Is Wi-Fi? 2 What are the different types of Wi-Fi? 2 What happens when I “get on wireless”? 3 What is encryption? 4 Wash U’s Wireless Network in Action 5 Who can use the University wireless network? 5 What are the differences between WUFI, WUFI-S, and WUNOREG? 6 Which network is being used by most people? Why? 7 Are WUFI and WUFI-S used on the South Forty? 7 Where else is the wireless network available on campus? 7 What happens when I connect to WUFI? 8 What should I expect when I connect to WUFI? 9 What should I expect when I connect to WUFI-S? 11 Troubleshooting a WIFI Connection 12 WUFI & WUFI-S: Cannot find the network 12 WUFI only: Trouble getting to or past the authentication page 12 WUFI & WUFI-S: Appears connected a network but cannot load or connect to any- thing 13 Where can we get more help? 14 Glossary 15 Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich i
  3. 3. fabric, you greatly simplify management. More importantly, you ensure an open environment that can accommodate multiple vendors, new solutions and future flexibility. What is a network? “A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunication equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information.1” Parts of a Network The Internet. The worldwide Internet computer network, comprised SANbox ® of many smaller networks con- The new look for powerful, easy to manage fabrics nected to each other. Informa- • SANbox 9000 Stackable Chassis Switch • SANbox 8000 Storage Services Platform tion you receive via computer • SANbox 6000 Intelligent Storage Router • SANbox 5000 Stackable Switch network that is not from Wash • SANbox 1000 Fixed Port Switch U is from the Internet. Network Backbone (or Modem, at Network Backbone (Modem). This home) device talks to an Internet Serv- ice Provider and sends infor- Router mation and information re- (may be skipped quests back and forth to the rest at home) of the Internet. Router. This device allows mul- tiple devices or computers to share a single Internet connec- tion. It ensures that the correct data gets to and from each de- vice. At Wash U, it generally refers to wired connections. At home, it can be wired only, wireless only, or both. Wireless Access Point Wireless Access Point. Converts the data sent over wires to a wireless signal that can be re- ceived by computers and de- vices with compatible wireless cards. Every access point has at least one name (or SSID) that it broadcasts, such as WUFI and WUFI-S. Server. This is a general term for a computer that has no one sitting at it; most of its communication is to other computers. For example, a web server sends data to other comput- ers using the Internet. Client Computer, Computer, or Workstation. This is a general term for a computer that has someone sitting in front of it, using it. For example, computers in a computer lab are workstations. 1 network. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.1). Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 1
  4. 4. How does Wi-Fi work? What Is Wi-Fi? 2 A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here's what happens: 1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. 2. A wireless router receives the signal and then sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Eth- ernet connection. The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter. The signal from each wireless device is circular and can be visualized as a rock dropping in the center of a pond. The waves spread out from the wireless de- vice, like waves in the water, and get weaker the farther you get from the de- vice. Different devices create signals of different strengths and have antennas of different strengths; just because one lap- top gets a wireless signal in a given loca- tion, you cannot assume that all laptops will be able to detect a signal at the same location. The radios used for Wi-Fi communica- tion are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. Note that Wi-Fi radios use a different part of the radio wave spectrum and have special networking standards. What are the different types of Wi-Fi? Most Wi-Fi in use is 802.11, which is a name created by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) standards board to describe signals traveling within a certain part of the wireless spectrum. As technology changes, the standard has been modified slightly which is designated by add- ing letters to the end (802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n). There is a Wi-Fi standards board which certifies all wireless access points and devices to ensure that that can successfully interoperate. WUFI/WUFI-S is an 802.11a/b/g net- work; all devices that support those standards will work. 802.11n devices are the newest and generally backwards compatible with a/b/g networks (check with the device manufacturer to be sure). 2 This section adapted from How Stuff Works. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 2
  5. 5. What happens when I “get on wireless”? Networking as a Phone Call Join wireless network Locate the phone or plug into ethernet Say hello to DHCP Pick up the phone server Listen for response Hear dial tone from DHCP server Dial number & hear Request IP address phone ring from DHCP server Someone answers Receive IP address from DHCP server You ask their name and ask a Wireless access point asks for question to verify it's the correct and you provide user name and person password Optional: WUFI-S only Optional: WUFI-S only Special software creates an skips step skips step You tell person the code language encrypted connection between WUFI WUFI in which to speak your computer and the wireless access point Start sending and Have a conversation receiving data Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 3
  6. 6. What is authentication? 3 Authentication is “the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be.” To access the wireless network, among other technologies, at Washington University, you must provide such proof of identity. “In private and public computer networks (including the Internet), authentication is commonly done through the use of login passwords or passphrases; knowledge of such is assumed to guarantee that the user is authentic. Thus, when you are asked to "authenticate" to a system, it usually means that you enter your username and/or password for that system.“ What is encryption? Encryption is the encoding of data to prevent it from being read by unauthorized people. Think of pig latin - you take a word and change it around a little bit so that it is hard to understand if you don’t know what you’re listening for. Encryption is similar in that only the sender and receiver have the keys needed to unscramble the data in order to use it. Given enough time and effort, encryption can be broken, but it is much better than using no encryption at all. 3All authentication quotes from Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 4
  7. 7. Wash U’s Wireless Network in Action How does Wash U’s wireless network work? Internet Our wireless network runs on SANbox ® Meru Networks access points, The new look for powerful, easy to manage fabrics which are also used in airports • SANbox 9000 Stackable Chassis Switch • SANbox 8000 Storage Services Platform and other large-scale commercial • SANbox 6000 Intelligent Storage Router • SANbox 5000 Stackable Switch settings as well as other universi- • SANbox 1000 Fixed Port Switch ties. Network Backboone There are multiple access points in the library and any given physical location may have coverage from Router multiple access points (see dia- gram on page 2). The access points are installed to provide maximum coverage, though there are some areas without coverage. The library provides coverage maps on its website. Each access point in the library provides access to the University network. All connect to the same Authentication Server network -the Internet- but the various network names describe the security type of each kind of Wireless connection and which protocols Access Point are allowed. The Meru access points are auto- matically load balancing (when one access point has lots of people connected it decreases its signal strength and other access points in the area increase their signal strength in order to move people away from the over-used access point). They also allow handoffs between access points when people are moving around the building. To the user, the multiple access points all look like one big super-access point. Who can use the University wireless network? The only people allowed to use the University’s wireless networks are current students, faculty, and staff with a WUSTL key. In order to use the wired network, one must authenticate with a WUSTL key. Individuals affiliated with Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 5
  8. 8. the Law and Medical School have access to the wireless networks using authentication provided by their respective schools (not WUSTL key). Visitors do have limited wireless access but it is unsupported. What are the differences between WUFI, WUFI-S, and WUNOREG? WUFI WUFI-S GUESTWIFI- WUNOREG LAW-S WUCON WUSTL WIRELESS What can you View web Everything Everything, View web cannot test; cannot test; do?* pages, SSH, but number pages with “allows ac- “allows SFTP of connec- browser; “for cess to Law Medical tions and special ma- specific re- School login speed lim- chine appli- sources1” access to the ited cations1” Internet1” What doesn’t FTP, non- Nothing Nothing - Everything Unknown, Unknown, work* secure email but could be but web cannot test cannot test transfers very slow or browsing (POP, IMAP), unavailable, Remote depending Shell, telnet on usage Does it require Yes, via a Yes No No Yes Yes authentication? web browser Do you have to Yes, must No No, never No, never Probably no, Probably no, enter your login authenticate cannot test cannot test and password through web every time you browser first connect? Do you have to No No No No Probably Probably install special same as same as software to use WUFI-S, WUFI-S, it? cannot test cannot test Is your data en- No Yes No No Yes Yes crypted and se- cure? Who can access Students, Students, Everyone, Everyone, Individuals Individuals it? faculty, staff faculty, staff including including affiliated affiliated via WUSTL via WUSTL visitors visitors with the Law with the key key School Med School 1Information from NSS: *Note that this information is not well-documented and may be slightly incorrect Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 6
  9. 9. Which network is being used by most people? Why? In past years, WUFI was widely used but WUFI-S was not. However, with the creation of WUSTL key and the adop- tion of WUFI-S on the South Forty coupled with some changes to STS policy regarding device registration, most stu- dents arrive at the Library with their laptops correctly configured to use WUFI-S. However, students that live off campus are less likely to be set up to use WUFI-S. Ultimately, our users are better served by connecting to WUFI-S instead of WUFI due to the ease of use after initial setup (don’t have to enter username and password every time) and the increased level of security it offers. However, setup takes more time the first time one connects to WUFI-S. Are WUFI and WUFI-S used on the South Forty? Any student that has used wireless on the South Forty has already used WUFI-S and has all the necessary software installed. Where else is the wireless network available on campus? See Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 7
  10. 10. What happens when I connect to WUFI? What You're Doing What Your Computer is Doing Enable wireless, check list of available Look for wireless signals from other networks devices Select WUFI and connect Say hello to DHCP server Open a web browser Listen for response from DHCP server Attempt to open a web page Request IP address from DHCP server Redirected to WUFI authentication page Receive IP address from DHCP server You enter username and password. Wireless access point asks for and you Press enter. provide user name and password Access point checks your username@domain and password You wait against master list (authentication server) No Match No Match Match Found Match Found on Server on Server You are redirected You are taken back to the page you Start sending and No data will be to the first asked for authentication page receiving data sent or received You are now You are not connected You are now Only have access to connected to WUFI. to WUFI. You can retry connected to WUFI. authentication page Use the Internet. or give up. Use the Internet. until successful. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 8
  11. 11. What should I expect when I connect to WUFI? 1. Enable wireless, check list of available networks. Select WUFI and Connect or Join. 2. Your system will automatically be assigned an IP address on the University wireless network. Open your web browser. and attempt to open a web page. 3. You will see certificate errors. Select “Accept this certificate permanently” and OK and then OK on the next screen. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich Page 9
  12. 12. Note: These prompts might be slightly different on different browsers. Some require only one OK, some might want you to click on “Continue.”As long as the certificate says something about or Meru Networks, it is safe to assume it is legitimate. 4. You are redirected to the WUFI authentication page. 5. Enter user name and password. Click Login. You wait. Some browsers will take you straight to the web page requested in step 2; some will first show a Web Authentication Succeeded pop-up or screen. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 10
  13. 13. What should I expect when I connect to WUFI-S? Sample help sheet from Student Technology Services. See for up-to-date directions for iPhone & iPod Touch, Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, Windows Vista & XP. More directions can be found on NSS’s web page at Connecting to WUFI-S Mac OS X (10.5.x) Gregg Hall Store Front 935-7100 (help desk) AIM: WUSTSHelp What You Will Do: What You Will See: We strongly recommend you first: Step 1: Airport Icon and List of Wireless Networks ! Connect your computer to the WIRED network FIRST AND REGISTER ! Install all Apple updates rd ! If you have a 3 party wireless configuration on your computer, we recommend REMOVING that software before using these instructions! 1. Click the “Airport” icon near the top-right of your screen. When the list of available wireless networks appears, select WUFI-S. 2. Enter your WUSTL-KEY username and password. Click OK. 3. When asked to verify the security certificate, click on “Show Step 2: WUSTL KEY Username and Password Certificate.” 4. Click the small button labeled “Always trust accounts-”. Click “Continue.” 5. When prompted for a password to save the certificate, enter the username and password for your computer’s user logon account. Click “Ok.” REGISTERING YOUR COMPUTER FOR USE IN RESIDENTIAL LIVING SPACES/HALLS: Step 3: Show Certificate Once you have connected your computer to WUFI-S, you will need to register it on the STS Network in order to use it in the residential living spaces/halls. Follow these steps to register on the STS network: a. Be sure you are connected to WUFI-S and open a web browser. b. Navigate to a page, such as Step 4: Always Trust XX Button c. You will be automatically redirected to the registration page for the STS network. d. At the bottom of the page, click “Regular full time students using their WUSTL KEY.” e. The registration page will appear. Complete the form using your WUSTL key and contact information. When finished, click “Register.” f. You will get a confirmation that registration is complete. Close your web browser. g. Reboot your computer. You are now registered on the STS network! Step 5: Computer’s User Logon Account Info Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 11
  14. 14. Troubleshooting a WIFI Connection If someone cannot connect to the wireless network, the problem is most likely to be one of the following: • Lack of physical wireless coverage • Wireless disabled on their laptop • Trouble getting to the authentication page • Trouble getting past the authentication page which is a login/password issue • Appears connected but cannot load any web pages which is a capacity issue WUFI & WUFI-S: Cannot find the network • Lack of physical wireless coverage • Find out if the person has successfully connected at that location previously (Note: this is not a guarantee that they will always connect successfully there, but it means that is not likely a coverage issue.) • Determine network coverage by checking the library’s wireless coverage maps located on the library web site (see ). • If it appears that the area should have a wireless signal, you can check to ensure that the wireless network is fully functional by checking the SOS status page ( ). • Wireless disabled on their laptop • Even if the person has successfully connected before, their wireless adapter might be disabled. Make sure wireless in enabled by right-clicking on the wireless icon in the system tray (Win) or by turning on Airport in the top-right corner of the menu bar (Mac) . If this doesn’t fix it, more extensive configura- tion and troubleshooting may be needed. See “Where can we get more help?” below. WUFI only: Trouble getting to or past the authentication page You might be redirected to a blank page, or, you’re not redirected at all, and your computer just says it cannot load a page. Other times, a login and password are entered but you are taken back to the same login page. Here are some things you can try to get online: • Try manually entering the authentication page address into a web browser and then authenticating: • Try using a different web browser. Firefox often works best. If Firefox is not installed, it can be downloaded onto a flash drive ( )and quickly installed. • Try loading a web page again - it might have worked but sent you back to the authentication page in error. • If none of these things work, the person’s username or password might be incorrect. Use the available tools to ensure that their WUSTL key is correct. • If it still won’t work, try to set up WUFI-S. If time is short, GUESTWIFI-WUSTL can be used as a short term fix. It is not recommended as a long-term solution due to capacity, speed and security issues. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 12
  15. 15. WUFI & WUFI-S: Appears connected a network but cannot load or connect to anything If the library is especially busy, it is possible that people will be unable to connect to the wireless network. There is a limit to the number of connected devices that the network can support. Although capacity has been in- creased recently, it is possible that students will be unable to connect. Unfortunately, if we are truly over capacity, there isn’t much to do. However, they can try: • Changing locations. Each access point has its own pool of network addresses and ones in popular places like Whispers are most likely to be full. It may be possible that ones in less-busy areas, like the Arc, would work. • Keep retrying to connect. As addresses become available, they might be lucky and get one. • If this problem is seen, please report it to SOS so that they can collect data to pass on to NSS. See Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 13
  16. 16. Where can we get more help? • The Arc can help set up WUFI-S connections and perform some basic troubleshooting of laptops. Most Arc student employees have laptops and are comfortable helping people perform basic troubleshooting. If you would like to refer someone with a wireless issue to the Arc, best practice is to IM our desk at OlinLi- braryArc or call at 5-4137 to ensure that we are available and able to handle the situation. If not, a direct re- ferral to STS might be needed. • The official point of support for students is the Student Technology Services Help Desk (STS) on the South Forty (on just the other side of Forsyth, across from the Music Library and next to Cornerstone). You can contact them via phone (935-7100) or AIM (WUSTSHelp). • The official point of support for all others is through their schools. NSS maintains a list of that contact in- formation at . • If all else fails, the Arc and Circulation can check out an ethernet cable to give the person Internet access. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 14
  17. 17. Glossary A) 802.11a N) Domain An IEEE wireless networking standard that specifies a A specific name for a network of computers. maximum data transfer rate of 54Mbps and an operating frequency of 5GHz. O) Download To receive a file transmitted over a network. B) 802.11b An IEEE wireless networking standard that specifies a P) Dynamic IP Address maximum data transfer rate of 11Mbps and an operating A temporary IP address assigned by a DHCP server. frequency of 2.4GHz. Q) EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) C) 802.11g A general authentication protocol used to control net- An IEEE wireless networking standard that specifies a work access. Many specific authentication methods work maximum data transfer rate of 54Mbps, an operating within this framework. frequency of 2.4GHz, and backward compatibility with R) EAP-TTLS (EAP-Tunnelled Transport Layer Secu- 802.11b devices. rity) D) Access Point An authentication method that uses digital certificates. Device that allows wireless-equipped computers and After the server is securely authenticated to the client, the other devices to communicate with a wired network. server can then use the established secure connection Also used to expand the range of a wireless network. ("tunnel") to authenticate the client. E) Adapter S) Encryption This is a device that adds network functionality to your Encoding data to prevent it from being read by unauthor- PC. ized people. F) Authentication T) Ethernet Authentication is the process of validating a user before An IEEE standard network protocol that specifies how allowing access to digital resources, often accomplished data is placed on and retrieved from a common transmis by comparing a username and password against those U) Firewall listed in a database. Security measures that protect the resources of a local G) Bandwidth network from intruders. The transmission capacity of a given device or network. V) Gateway H) Bit A system that interconnects networks. A binary digit. W) IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics I) Bridge Engineers) A device that connects two different kinds of local net- An independent institute that develops networking stan- works, such as a wireless network to a wired Ethernet dards. network. X) Infrastructure J) Database Currently installed computing and networking equip- A collection of data that is organized so that its contents ment. can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. Y) IP (Internet Protocol) K) Default Gateway A protocol used to send data over a network. A device that forwards Internet traffic from your local Z) IP Address area network. A numerical address used to identify a computer or de- L) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) vice on a network. A protocol that lets one device on a local network, known AA) IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) as a DHCP server, assign temporary IP addresses to the A VPN protocol used to implement secure exchange of other network devices, typically computers. packets at the IP layer. M) DNS (Domain Name Server) BB) ISM band The IP address of your ISP's server, which translates the Radio band used in wireless networking transmissions. names of websites into IP addresses. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 15
  18. 18. CC) ISP (Internet Service Provider) RR) Router A company that provides access to the Internet. A networking device that connects multiple networks together, such as a local network and the Internet. DD)LAN (Local Area Network) The computers and networking products that make up SS) Secure W2 the network in your home or office. Software used to create a WUFI-S connection on a Win- dows laptop. EE) MAC (Media Access Control) Address The unique address that a manufacturer assigns to each TT) Server networking device. Any computer whose function in a network is to provide user access to files, printing, communications, and other FF) Mbps (Megabits Per Second) services. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data transmission. UU) SSID (Service Set IDentifier) Your wireless network's name. GG)Meru Manufacturer of our wireless access system. VV) Static IP Address A fixed address assigned to a computer or device that is HH)Network connected to a network. A series of computers or devices connected for the pur- pose of data sharing, storage, and/or transmission be- WW)Subnet Mask tween users. An address code that determines the size of the network. II) Packet XX) Switch A unit of data sent over a network. 1. Device that is the central point of connection for com- puters and other devices in a network, so data can be JJ) Ping (Packet INternet Groper) shared at full transmission speeds. 2. A device for mak- An Internet utility used to determine whether a particu- ing, breaking, or changing the connections in an electrical lar IP address is online. circuit. KK) PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) YY) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet A simple authentication protocol used to authenticate a Protocol) user to a network access server; user names and pass- A network protocol for transmitting data that requires words are sent as clear text. acknowledgement from the recipient of data sent. LL) Port ZZ) Upload 1. The connection point on a computer or networking To transmit a file over a network. device used for plugging in a cable or an adapter. 2. The virtual connection point through which a computer uses AAA)URL (Uniform Resource Locator) a specific application on a server. The address of a file located on the Internet. MM)PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) BBB)VPN (Virtual Private Network) A VPN protocol that allows the Point to Point Protocol A security measure to protect data as it leaves one net- (PPP) to be tunneled through an IP network. work and goes to another over the Internet. NN)Preamble CCC)WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) Part of the wireless signal that synchronizes network A group of computers and associated devices that com- traffic. municate with each other wirelessly. OO)RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) A protocol that uses an authentication server to control References: network access. PP) RJ-45 An Ethernet connector that holds up to eight wires. QQ)Roaming The ability to take a wireless device from one access point's range to another without losing the connection. Wi r e l e s s N e t w o r k B o o t C a m p Presented by Sarah Bombich P a g e 16