Wt4603 unit3 week4


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Wt4603 unit3 week4

  1. 1. WT4603 Wood Processing Safety & PracticeLecture Unit 3 (Week 4)<br /><ul><li>Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) & Week 5 Labs (Component B & Routers)
  2. 2. Lecturer: Mr. Joseph Lyster
  3. 3. joseph.lyster@ul.ie
  4. 4. Notes prepared by: Mr. Donal Canty, Mr. Des Kelly and Mr. Joseph Lyster
  5. 5. Notes available on www.slideshare.net/WT4603</li></li></ul><li>WT4603<br />WT4603 Wood Processing Safety and PracticePPEPERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  6. 6. WT4603<br />Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  7. 7. WT4603<br />Personal protective equipment<br />For centuries, people have employed the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).<br />Cowboys wore leather chaps.<br />Eskimos wear thick gloves and coats.<br />Medieval knights wore Armour.<br />Soccer players wear shin guards.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  8. 8. WT4603<br />What is PPE?<br />“All equipment which is held or worn at work to protect a person from any harm or environmental hazards encountered.”<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_protective_equipment<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  9. 9. WT4603<br />Environmental Hazards<br />Noise<br />Dust<br />Smoke<br />Unsafe Machinery<br />Etc.<br />There are 5 main classes of environmental hazard:<br />Chemical<br />Physical<br />Mechanical<br />Biological<br />Psychological<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  10. 10. WT4603<br />Hierarchy of risk control<br />Eliminate the Hazard Completely.<br />Substitute Hazard with a safer alternative.<br />Isolate the Hazard.<br />Use engineering controls to reduce risk at the source (Guarding).<br />Provide training on how to avoid risks.<br />& if all that fails…<br />Use PPE.<br />MOST PREFERABLE SOLUTION<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  11. 11. WT4603<br />Using P.P.E.<br />The use of PPE is a last resort!<br />It should only be relied upon for protection when all other means of controlling a hazard have been eliminated as possibilities.<br />It is much more desirable to completely eliminate the hazard than to safeguard against it.<br />Prevention is better than cure!!!<br />PPE should be used:<br />Where Engineering (Guarding) or Administrative (Training, Rules) controls are not feasible.<br />As a short-term measure during periods of time when engineering or administrative controls are being implemented.<br />During emergency response situations.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  12. 12. WT4603<br />PPE Legislation<br />Safety Health and Welfare at Work (Control of Noise at Work) Regulations 2006.<br />Act specifically outlining the requirements to protect the hearing of employees in the workplace.<br />Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005. (Formerly 1989 Act)<br />General Act Governing health and Safety at work in Ireland<br />The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (General Application) Regulations 2007.<br />Among other things, this Act outlines the legal responsibilities in relation to the use of PPE in the workplace & schools.<br />European Communities (Personal Protective Equipment) Regulations, 1993.<br />Aimed more specifically at the selection, use and manufacturing quality of PPE.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  13. 13. WT4603<br />Responsibilities of Employers*<br />All employers must conduct a Hazard Identification and risk assessment to determine if the use of PPE is necessary.<br />Risk control; this may be through the use of PPE.<br />Provision of PPE on the basis of the Hazard Identification.<br />Provision of Training on using necessary PPE.<br />The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (General Application) Regulations 2007 requires schools to provide suitable PPE if a risk to health and safety cannot be avoided or sufficiently controlled through other means.<br />*The Safety, Health and Welfare at work (General Application) Regulations 2007.<br />*The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  14. 14. WT4603<br />Responsibilities of Principals<br />They should:<br />Carry out a risk assessment to identify the possible need for PPE.<br />Provide, free of charge, adequate PPE to employees (Teachers) who may be exposed to hazards at work that have not been controlled by other means.<br />Make an assessment before choosing any form of PPE.<br />Ensure that PPE is well maintained and cared for.<br />Provide storage for PPE when not in use.<br />Provide teachers with training in the use, limitations and care of their of PPE<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  15. 15. WT4603<br />Responsibilities of Teachers (Employees)<br />Employees must:<br />Attend PPE training.<br />Make full and proper use of PPE.<br />Ensure PPE is correctly stored and cared for.<br />Follow all directions and heed all warnings.<br />Report any defects in or loss of PPE to employer.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  16. 16. WT4603<br />Provision of P.P.E. <br />The employer should shoulder the cost of all PPE required by the employee.<br />In schools, this means that any teachers requiring it, should be provided with a full set of PPE by the school.<br />It should be made mandatory that all pupils should be required to provide their own PPE (to the appropriate standard).<br />Wearing of this PPE should be strictly enforced by the teacher.<br />Employer must maintain and replace broken or un-usable PPE.<br />However, it is the responsibility of each employee to respect and care for their PPE and report any damage or defects present in it to the employer.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  17. 17. WT4603<br />PPE Training*<br />Employers must provide the following training in relation to PPE:<br />Proper use of PPE.<br />When to use PPE.<br />Adequate PPE Storage.<br />Importance of using PPE.<br />How to spot defects in PPE<br />Teachers should also provide training to their pupils on how to use their PPE correctly.<br />Part of a teachers demonstrations should place an emphasis on <br />The correct use of PPE<br />Importance of PPE<br />Care of PPE.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  18. 18. Sharing PPE<br />WT4603<br />Under no circumstances should pupils be allowed to share PPE.<br />Why Not?<br />Associated hygiene issues.<br />Swapping PPE may limit the level of protection offered:<br />Different size/Setting.<br />Make sure everyone has their own!!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  19. 19. WT4603<br />PPE Selection<br />In schools, the selection of PPE is generally the responsibility of the teacher.<br />For this reason, it is vital that teachers are capable of making the correct selection of PPE both for themselves and the pupils left in their care.<br />When selecting PPE, always think of the worst case scenario – What is the worst that could happen?<br />The existence of the “CE” marking on a piece of equipment should indicate that its manufacturer has met all relevant safety standards and requirements.<br />ALWAYS look for this mark when buying PPE (as well as other equipment, tools and machinery.)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  20. 20. WT4603<br />PPE – Some Factors to Consider<br />DEGRADATION<br />Harmful change of physical properties of a protective clothing material when subjected to a chemical or wear and tear over time.<br />PENETRATION<br />Flow of chemicals/ hazardous substances through seals such as zips, seams or pinholes.<br />PERMEATION<br />Movement of the hazardous substance through the protective material itself.<br />Always consult manufacturer’s instructions.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  21. 21. WT4603<br />Eye & Face Protection<br />Thousands of people are blinded in the workplace every year for no reason.<br />Simple and inexpensive face and eye protection could have prevented it.<br />The human eye is very sensitive organ and is highly susceptible to injury from many sources:<br />Impact <br />Chemicals<br />Dust/ foreign particles.<br />Etc..<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  22. 22. WT4603<br />The eye<br />The Cornea & Lens focus light.<br />The Iris controls the amount of light entering the eye.<br />All are made up of very soft, delicate and easily damaged tissue.<br />Damage is often irreparable!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  23. 23. WT4603<br />Common Eye Injury Causes<br />Objects hitting the eye <br />Swarf.<br />Flying particles (Sawdust).<br />Flying objects (Projected materials/ tools!)<br />Intense Light (Lasers, Welding)<br />Contact with Chemicals.<br />Falling onto or walking into stationary objects.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  24. 24. WT4603<br />Chemicals/ fumes/ mists<br />Spray Paint.<br />Fumes from welding and other heat processes.<br />Smoke.<br />Aerosol Cans.<br />Liquid droplets.<br />Airborne Hazardous chemicals can enter and damage the eye.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  25. 25. WT4603<br />Flying particles<br />Grinding <br />Hammering <br />Welding<br />Splashes of chemicals and molten metals<br />Physically injure the eye, tearing or scratching the cornea.<br />Very painful and difficult to correct.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  26. 26. WT4603<br />Thermal<br />Heat and glare from molten metals, furnaces and other heat processes such as welding or soldering can burn the cornea.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  27. 27. WT4603<br />Intense light levels<br />Lasers<br />Exposures to excessive glare or bright lights <br />Damage the retina and optic nerve located deep within the eye as opposed to swarf or dust just damaging the cornea.<br />A much more serious injury.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  28. 28. WT4603<br />Safeguarding against Eye Injuries<br />Eye protection should be worn when spray painting, grinding, drilling, welding, sawing, working in a dusty environment, or handling chemicals.<br />One should also develop the good habit of protecting the eyes whenever working with hand or power tools.<br />WHEN IN DOUBT, WEAR EYE PROTECTION ANYWAY!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  29. 29. Machinery Guarding<br />WT4603<br />Because it is much more preferable to eliminate the hazard at the source, guarding is often added.<br />This is not usually enough to fully reduce the risk so wear safety glasses as well!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  30. 30. WT4603<br />Ventilation<br />Ventilation is the movement of air, usually between the inside and outside of enclosed spaces.<br />Ventilation is necessary when people or animals are present to remove carbon dioxide and replace it with oxygen.<br />Ventilation must also be used to remove dangerous pollutants such as smoke, fumes, chemicals and fine particles suspended in the air.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  31. 31. WT4603<br />Safety Glasses/goggles<br />Safety glasses usually have frontal protection only.<br />Safety goggles fit closer to the face and protect the eyes from frontal as well impact from all other directions.<br />Much more resistant to airborne hazards<br />Airborne hazards such as fine particles and dust may by-pass safety glasses.<br />Check for “CE” marking.<br />Different Grades available for different hazard levels.<br />Prescription safety glasses also available.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  32. 32. WT4603<br />Face Shields<br />Should be used in conjunction wit glasses or goggles where possible. <br />Not considered suitable eye protection on its own.<br />Offers very little protection against strong impact <br />More suitable for dust and small flying particles (Lathe Work).<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  33. 33. WT4603<br />NOTE: “CE” Marking<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  34. 34. WT4603<br />Welding Goggles/Shield/Helmet<br />The brilliant light from welding can cause serious damage to the eye even when exposed to it for a short period of time.<br />A welding helmet is fitted with a special lens to filter extreme bright light from welding while the helmet itself protects against hot sparks.<br />Anyone watching the welding should also utilise suitable PPE.<br />When chipping slag, ensure that you, as well as anybody else watching, is wearing suitable eye protection!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  35. 35. WT4603<br />Care of Eye Protection<br />Clean with wipes or water.<br />Don’t use abrasive soaps.<br />Store in a clean, dry and dust-free place.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  36. 36. WT4603<br />Eyewash Stations<br />Install and Maintain <br />Display instructions.<br />Train on how to use.<br />Keep fully stocked.<br />Some chemicals react with water – <br />Consult Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  37. 37. WT4603<br />Of course, wearing safety glasses doesn’t necessarily mean you are going to be safe from everything!!<br />USE YOUR COMMON SENSE!!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  38. 38. WT4603<br />Respiratory Protection<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  39. 39. WT4603<br />The Breathing Process<br />To best understand the hazards one should take a look at how breathing works<br />Take a breath and air rushes from the external environment, down the windpipe and into the alveoli in the lungs.<br />Alveoli in lungs are tiny air sacs which transfer oxygen into blood and CO2 from it.<br />The lung is a very delicate organ and can be easily damaged by hazardous dusts, fumes and chemicals when inhaled.<br />Damaged lungs are also much more susceptible to contracting further diseases.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  40. 40. WT4603<br />Dust<br />Dust is formed when material is broken down into tiny particles.<br />Grinding. <br />Sanding.<br />Cutting.<br />The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations 2001 requires all schools to assess and determine the risk posed by any chemical agent including wood dust.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  41. 41. WT4603<br />Wood Dust<br />Machining Processes:<br />MDF and hardwood dust is considered to be a significant hazard.<br />Sanding – <br />Fine dust that may even stay airborne for hours after work has ended.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  42. 42. WT4603<br />Carcinogens <br />A carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer.<br />Softwood dust – Non-Carcinogenic.<br />Hardwood dust – Carcinogenic.<br />MDF - Carcinogenic.<br />Due to the carcinogenic nature of these materials, they should be phased out completely in the technology classrooms.<br />At a minimum, PPE and dust extraction should be available.<br />It is the responsibility of the employer to monitor and control the use of carcinogenic materials and substances in the workplace.*<br />Storage.<br />Training.<br />Control Measures or suitable PPE.<br />*Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (Carcinogens) Regulations, 2001.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  43. 43. WT4603<br />Vapors<br />A vapor is created when a liquid or solid evaporates.<br />EXAMPLES<br />Petrol vapors.<br />Wood finishes<br />Paint.<br />Thinners<br />Solvents<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  44. 44. WT4603<br />Mists and Sprays<br />Mists and sprays are made up of small droplets suspended in the air.<br />Aerosols and spray guns, by design, create fine sprays and mists. <br />EXAMPLES<br />Paint<br />Water<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  45. 45. Gases, fumes & Smoke<br />WT4603<br />GAS<br />May or may not have a smell.<br />May or may not be visible.<br />FUMES<br />Occur during high heat process such as welding or soldering.<br />SMOKE<br />The suspension in air of small particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a fuel.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  46. 46. WT4603<br />Respiratory Protection<br />Hazardous substances which have become airborne pose a significant threat to the lungs and therefore we must protect ourselves against them in some way<br />The aim should always be to prevent the substance from getting into the air in the first place but when this is not possible, Respiratory Protection should be used.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  47. 47. WT4603<br />Respirators<br />All respirators have some form of face piece which is held to the face with straps, usually around the head.<br />Half-face respirators cover the nose and mouth only and are for use where the contaminants are not a threat to the eyes or face.<br />A full-face respirator covers all the face and should be used where contaminants may be a hazard to eyes and the face as well as the respiratory system.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  48. 48. WT4603<br />Respirators<br />A respirator is a device which is designed to protect the wearer from inhaling harmful dusts, gases, fumes or vapours.<br />Two main types of respirator exist:<br />Air Purifying Respirators.<br />Atmosphere Supplying Respirators<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  49. 49. WT4603<br />Air Purifying Respirators<br />Used against contaminants such as smoke, dust, vapours and fumes.<br />Acts passively to remove contaminants from the air.<br />The device renders the contaminated air breathable.<br />Usually has a filter for particulates or a cartridge for gasses and vapours (or a mixture of both).<br />Not suitable where the levels of oxygen in the air are deficient.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  50. 50. Filter Mask - Disposable<br />WT4603<br />A filter mask offers protection to its wearer against airborne substances.<br />It usually covers only the nose and mouth and works by restricting the flow of air, forcing it through a filter which removes harmful particles or dusts.<br />The most common type is the white disposable N95 filter mask as shown.<br />Cannot protect against:<br />Gasses<br />Vapors<br />Low O2 levels<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  51. 51. WT4603<br />Filter Mask - Reusable<br />Reusable filter masks fitted with disposable filter cartridges are also available.<br />When filters become saturated or worn, or if air flow is restricted they must be replaced.<br />Mask cartridges are filled with certain resins or chemicals that will absorb certain fumes, eliminating them from the inhaled air.<br />Different cartridges are available for filtering different contaminants from the air. <br />Check manufacturer’s instructions & Use by date.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  52. 52. WT4603<br />Atmosphere Supplying Respirators<br />Air supplied respirators use reserve tanks to supply a constant flow of air to the wearer’s face/lungs.<br />The contaminated air is not purified in any way nor is it inhaled by the wearer.<br />Fire Fighters<br />S.C.B.A. – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus<br />S.C.U.B.A. – Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  53. 53. WT4603<br />Respirator Selection<br />Hazard level should be determine and adequate level of protection selected accordingly by a competent person. <br />Determined largely by the hazard present.<br />E.g. - Dust PPE will give no protection against fumes and vapours.<br />Supplied air respirators in schools SHOULD NOT BE USED. <br />If any such risk should exist, find an alternative for it!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  54. 54. WT4603<br />Inspection Before Use<br />Check Respirators before you them every time.<br />Look out for;<br />Wear and damage.<br />Cracks<br />Loose fittings.<br />Use by dates.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  55. 55. Monitoring the Respirator<br />WT4603<br />As you work- you must stay aware of your respirators operation.<br />Signs of it not working are:<br />Feeling dizzy or sick.<br />Being able to smell or taste the contaminant in the air.<br />Difficulty breathing.<br />Filter/ cartridge has expired.<br />Respirator is damaged.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  56. 56. WT4603<br />Storing<br />When not using respirators, they must be carefully stored in order to prevent deterioration in their effectiveness.<br />Store in a sealable plastic bag and away from:<br />Dust<br />Moisture<br />Direct Sunlight<br />Heat<br />Extreme cold<br />Chemicals<br />Germs/fungal growth<br /> Sources of infection.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  57. 57. WT4603<br />Hearing Protection<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  58. 58. WT4603<br />Noise<br />Noise is often described as being sound that people would prefer not to hear. <br />What may be important or welcome sound to you may be noise to others exposed to it.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  59. 59. WT4603<br />Is Noise harming you?<br />If you experience any of the following, you may be exposed to excessive noise levels on a daily basis:<br />You experience ringing or other noises in your ears.<br />You have difficulty hearing people talking.<br />You are unable to hear high pitched or soft sounds.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  60. 60. Remember!<br />WT4603<br />Becoming used to a loud noise is a sign of gradual hearing loss.<br />You do not become used to it, you merely lose your ability to hear it!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  61. 61. WT4603<br />Ear Protection Zones<br />If the risk assessment reveals areas of high noise levels in which ear protection is required, they must designated as Hearing Protection zone<br />These zones must be marked clearly using adequate signage.<br />The sign should show the following:<br />That you are entering an ear protection zone.<br />Ear protection must be worn in this area.<br />Nobody may enter the zone without wearing appropriate hearing protection.<br />Safety Health and Welfare at Work (Control of Noise at Work) Regulations 2006<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  62. 62. WT4603<br />As a Rule!<br />If you must shout in order for someone 2 meters away from you to hear you, <br />YOU SHOULD BE WEARING HEARING PROTECTION!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  63. 63. WT4603<br />Hearing Protection Devices<br />Tinnitus and Noise Induced Hearing Loss can be prevented with the use of appropriate Hearing Protection Devices (HPD’s).<br />These devices provide a barrier between the ear and the noise.<br />Some ear defenders work on the principle of absorbing the sound waves before they reach the ear.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  64. 64. WT4603<br />Selecting Hearing Protection<br />Ensure a “CE” Marking is present.<br />Every person is different. – Some find different things more comfortable than others.<br />In processes where hands become dirty, inserting and removing earplugs can lead to dirt and bacteria being introduced into the ear canal causing ear infections.<br />Provide and encourage the use of a variety of hearing PPE and let people select most comfortable for themselves.<br />If PPE is uncomfortable or irritating, It will not be used!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  65. 65. WT4603<br />Noise Reduction Ratings<br />Earplugs and earmuffs come rated with “Noise Reduction Ratings” (NRR’s).<br />This rating tells the user what level of sound protection they can expect from the device in a noisy environment.<br />The NRR of hearing protection devices should be consulted when selecting them for use.<br />However, NRR’s are developed under controlled laboratory conditions and the “real-life” NRR rating is usually lower. Therefore it is always best to error on the side of caution and select the PPE with a higher NRR than is required.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  66. 66. WT4603<br />Hearing P.P.E.<br />If the noise cannot be reduced to suitable levels at the source, hearing PPE must be used to achieve this.<br />Many types of hearing protection devices are available each carrying with them various advantages and disadvantages.<br />Popular types of hearing protection devices are: <br />1 Earplugs <br />2 Earmuffs<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  67. 67. WT4603<br />When to Wear Hearing Protection.<br />You should consider wearing Hearing Protection if;<br />You work in an environment where you are exposed to continuous decibel levels of 80dB or greater over an 8 hour period.<br />You are unusually fatigued after being in a noisy area.<br />You experience ringing in your ears after being in a noisy area.<br />You feel nervous or anxious after being in a noisy area.<br />In order to be fully effective, hearing protection devices must be worn at all times in noisy environments.<br />Removing for even a short period of time can decrease their effects substantially.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  68. 68. WT4603<br />Earplugs<br />An earplug is a protective device which is inserted into the ear canal to protect the inner ear from being exposed to excessive levels of noise or the intrusion of foreign bodies or excessive wind.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  69. 69. WT4603<br />Earplugs<br />Most earplugs are cylindrical in shape and are made from memory foam.<br />The earplug is rolled into a tightly compressed cylinder between the fingers and inserted into the ear canal.<br />When released, the earplug expands to its original size, sealing the ear canal and preventing sound vibrations from reaching the eardrum.<br />Other earplugs are custom made with moulds from the user’s ear to provide a more snug and noise resistant fit.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  70. 70. WT4603<br />Advantages & Disadvantages of Earplugs<br />ADVANTAGES<br />Inexpensive<br />Small & Lightweight<br />Comfortable in warm, humid environments.<br />Easily used with other equipment.<br />DISADVANTAGES<br />May work themselves loose and require adjustment or refitting.<br />Frequently become soiled.<br />Require specific fitting instructions.<br />Awkward to remove and replace when noise is inconsistent.<br />Easily Misplaced.<br />May irritate the ear canal.<br />Difficult to monitor the use of.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  71. 71. WT4603<br />Earmuffs<br />Earmuffs are objects which are designed to cover the ears for protection.<br />Earmuffs come in two different kinds;<br />Thermal Earmuffs<br />Worn in cold environments to keep the ears warm.<br />Acoustic Earmuffs<br />Also known as ear defenders.<br />Cups lined with sound-absorbent material which fit over the ears.<br />Protect the ears from excessive noise levels.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  72. 72. WT4603<br />Advantages & Disadvantages of Earmuffs<br />ADVANTAGES:<br />Easy to supervise the wearing of.<br />More comfortable for long periods of use.<br />One size fits all.<br />Quickly put on & removed.<br />May be worn with minor ear infections.<br />DISADVANTAGES<br />May fit loosely on the head.<br />Uncomfortable in a warm environment.<br />Difficult to use with some other equipment.<br />Less portable and convenient.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  73. 73. WT4603<br />Wearing Earmuffs<br />Earmuffs must fit fully over the outside of the ears.<br />Their effectiveness is determined by the quality of the seal around the ear.<br />Ensure hair, hats, glasses, jewellery, etc. does not interfere with the seal around the ear.<br />A combination of earplugs and earmuffs should be used as an extra precaution if glasses, earrings, facial hair, etc, prevents the earmuffs forming a good seal around your ears.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  74. 74. WT4603<br />Hearing Protection Overkill<br />Wearing excessive levels of hearing protection can also be hazardous!!!<br />Employees may not be able to hear vital warning alarms such as fire alarms.<br />It also promotes users removing ear protection to talk.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  75. 75. WT4603<br />Caring for hearing protection devices - Earplugs<br />When not using earplugs, they should be stored in a clean, cool and dry place.<br />If Foam earplugs become soiled, they should be discarded and replaced with a clean pair.<br />Soiled PVC earplugs can often be cleaned with soap and water.<br />Replace PVC earplugs if they become torn or brittle.<br />Check manufacturer’s instructions regarding washing earplugs.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  76. 76. WT4603<br />Caring for hearing protection devices - Earmuffs<br />Always follow manufacturers instructions.<br />Check headband regularly for wear and tear-replace or repair immediately if needs be.<br />Ensure tension in headband is not reduced.<br />Store earmuffs in a clean, cool and dry place when not in use.<br />Always replace when a snug fit in or around ear is not achieved.<br />Wash earmuffs with a mild liquid detergent. <br />Do not wet sound-attenuating material within the ear muffs.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  77. 77. WT4603<br />Hand Protection<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  78. 78. WT4603<br />Hand Protection<br />Look at your hands! They are the only two you will ever have. SO MIND THEM!<br />Without the use of your fingers or hands, your ability to work or lead a normal life would be dramatically reduced.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  79. 79. WT4603<br />Possible Hazards<br />Cuts and Abrasions.<br />Crushing.<br />Extremes of temperatures.<br />Contact with toxic or corrosive substances.<br />Skin Irritation & Dermatitis.<br />Electric shock.<br />Absorption of chemicals.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  80. 80. WT4603<br />Dermal Hazard Categories<br />Skin on the hands may come into contact with a lot of unknown materials and substances from day to day.<br />Chemical<br />Irritants.<br />Corrosives.<br />Carcinogens.<br />Physical <br />Fire.<br />Radiation.<br />Vibration.<br />Biological<br />Human, animal or environmental pathogens (Hepatitis, AIDS, etc)<br />NOTE: poisons and toxins can be absorbed through the skin in the hands and into the body.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  81. 81. WT4603<br />Possible Hazard: Traumatic injury<br />Sharp tools and machines may cut your hands.<br />Staples, wire, nails chisels etc. can puncture your hands.<br />Hands may become caught in machinery causing them to become sprained, crushed or amputated.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  82. 82. WT4603<br />Selection of Gloves<br />The correct glove must be selected in order to achieve an adequate level of protection. The following should be considered:<br />Chemical Resistance.<br />Cut/Tear Resistance.<br />Manual Dexterity/Flexibility.<br />Extremes of Temperature.<br />Cost<br />Fit.<br />Comfort.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  83. 83. WT4603<br />Types of Gloves<br />Metal mesh & Kevlar gloves protect against cuts and sharp objects.<br />Leather gloves offer protection against rough objects, chips, sparks and low moderate heat.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  84. 84. WT4603<br />Types of Gloves<br />Cotton fabric gloves protect the hands from dirt, abrasions and splinters. <br />Cotton gloves also improve grip when handling slippery objects.<br />Offers very little protection against cuts.<br />Rubber & Vinyl gloves protect the wearer’s hands from dirt, chemicals and environmental pathogens.<br />Wear around blood<br />Should always check packaging and manufacturer’s instructions.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  85. 85. WT4603<br /> <br />Use of gloves<br />When wearing gloves;<br />Remove any rings, watches or bracelets that may damage the gloves or reduce their ability to do their job.<br />Inspect gloves for holes and cracks that might leak.<br />Replace gloves that are torn or worn out.<br />After working with chemicals, leave gloves on hands and wash under running water to remove any chemicals before you remove gloves from your hands.<br />Store gloves in a clean, cool, dry and well ventilated area.<br />NEVER wear gloves around powered rotating equipment such as drills or lathes etc…(May become tangled)<br />Always follow manufacturer’s instructions.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  86. 86. WT4603<br />Welding PPE<br />While working with heat processes such as welding additional protection will be necessary.<br />Infrared radiation produced during welding is a cause of retinal burning and cataracts.<br />To protect against this, a proper welding helmet should be worn which incorporates the correct grade of filter plate.<br />To protect the body from welding spatter and arc flash, the following protective clothing may be utilised:<br />Flame-proof apron.<br />Gloves.<br />Long sleeves.<br />Fire resistant capes for overhead work.<br />Appropriate footwear<br />Keep clothes free of grease and oil.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  87. 87. WT4603<br />LAB COAT<br />A lab coat is a knee-length overcoat worn by those involved in significant work to protect their street clothes.<br />The garment is usually made from cotton or linen and is usually white in colour.<br />known not to react with any chemicals.<br />No loose elements.<br />Hygienic.<br />Lab coats are much easier to take off than regular street clothes if they get splashed with chemicals, catch fire or become entangled in machinery.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  88. 88. WT4603<br />Encouraging use of PPE<br />Students should benefit from good example.<br />Teacher should wear PPE whenever appropriate.<br />Signage.<br />Highlight importance of PPE using strategically placed safety signs.<br />Teach safety as part of working, not just an add-on.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  89. 89. WT4603<br />Encouraging use of PPE<br />The use of suitable signage should be employed to help encourage safe practices and the appropriate use of PPE.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  90. 90. WT4603<br />WEEK 5: LABS<br />Component B<br /><ul><li>You will be provided with two pieces of un-sawn material, both measuring 1020 x 145 x 25.
  91. 91. You will label both pieces B1 and B2, respectively.</li></ul>B1<br />Table Top<br />145<br />1020<br />Back/Side Rails & Drawer Front<br />B2<br />145<br />1020<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  92. 92. WT4603<br />B1 = Table Top<br /><ul><li>B1 must be planed all round (P.A.R) to 1020 x 140 x 22
  93. 93. The process for B1 will involve the following:
  94. 94. Surface plane/thickness to 140 x 22
  95. 95. Rip B1 @ 67mm (x2)
  96. 96. Thickness to 65mm (x2)
  97. 97. Cross cut to 500mm (x4)</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  98. 98. WT4603<br />B2 = Back and Side Rails<br /><ul><li>B2 must be planed all round (P.A.R) to 1020 x 140 x 20
  99. 99. The process for B2 will involve the following:
  100. 100. Surface plane/thickness to 140 x 20
  101. 101. Rip B2 @ 132mm (x1)
  102. 102. Thickness to 130mm (x1)
  103. 103. Cross cut 1 = Side Rails @ 158mm (x2)
  104. 104. Cross cut 2 = Drawer Front @ 272mm (x1)
  105. 105. Cross cut 3 = Back Rail @ 312mm (x1)</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  106. 106. WT4603<br />Processing Sequence:<br />Surface plane face side/face edge for B1 & B2<br />Thickness 1 = B1 Table Top to 140 x 22<br />Thickness 2 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front to 140 x 20<br />Rip 1 = B1 Table Top @ 67mm (x2)<br />Thickness 3 = B1 Table Top to 65mm (x2)<br />Rip 2 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front @ 132mm (x1)<br />Thickness 4 = B2 Side/Back rails/Drawer Front to 130mm (x1)<br />Cross cut 1 = B1 Table Top @ 500mm (x4)<br />Cross cut 2 = B2 Side Rails @ 158mm (x2)<br />Cross cut 3 = B2 Drawer Front @ 272mm (x1)<br />Cross cut 4 = B2 Back Rail @ 312mm (x1)<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  107. 107. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  108. 108. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  109. 109. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  110. 110. WT4603<br />Working Drawings<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  111. 111. WT4603<br />Select & Position Dimensions Correctly<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  112. 112. WT4603<br />Arrows & Dimension Lines<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  113. 113. WT4603<br />Consider best location and view<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  114. 114. WT4603<br />Include all details<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  115. 115. WT4603<br />Include Component labelling<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  116. 116. WT4603<br />Exploded View or Assembled View???<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  117. 117. WT4603<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  118. 118. WT4603<br />ROUTER PULLS TO THE LEFT<br />FENCE PULLED TOWARDS WORKPIECE<br />FEED<br />DIRECTION<br />Router Station 1<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router. <br />Select V- groove cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 3mm.<br />Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence. (Note: Guide fence is set. Do not adjust.)<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the cutter from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  119. 119. WT4603<br />Router Station 2<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router.<br />Select the bearing guided chamfer bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Set the depth of the chamfer to half the thickness of the material provided. <br />Machine the chamfer profile on the outer edges of the material.<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the cutter from the router<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  120. 120. WT4603<br />Router Station 3<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router.<br />Select Ø 6mm cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.<br />Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.<br />Fit the guide fence to the router.<br />Set the guide fence to the dimension shown on the drawing.<br />Machine the profile shown on the drawing using the guide fence.<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the guide fence and Ø 6mm cutting bit from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  121. 121. WT4603<br />Router Station 4<br />Carry out the following operations:<br />Isolate the router.<br />Select Ø 12mm cutting bit cutting bit.<br />Fit the bit in the router securely.<br />Fix the template guide to the base of the router.<br />Set material in the template.<br />Set the depth of the cut to 5mm.<br />Set the depth turret to machine to a depth of 10mm on the second pass.<br />Machine the profiles of the template using the template guide.<br />Isolate the router.<br />Remove the template guide and Ø 12mm cutting bit from the router.<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  122. 122. WT4603<br />What makes a good poster?<br />TIPS:<br /><ul><li>Layout: Portrait/Landscape
  123. 123. All graphics must be sketched
  124. 124. Can be done entirely by hand or sketches can be scanned and the poster electronically edited/formatted.
  125. 125. Main sketch located in centre
  126. 126. Render/shade neatly
  127. 127. Background colour (electronic only – optional)
  128. 128. Supporting sketches of good proportion and size
  129. 129. Annotations/Information must be clearly readable from a distance of 5 metres.
  130. 130. Information must be labelled and have a logical sequence i.e. clockwise pattern
  131. 131. Text can be typed/printed, in the case of printing text (by hand) ensure it is of the highest standard.</li></ul>Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  132. 132. WT4603<br />What makes a good poster?<br />Poster Information:<br />A2/A3 in size - Laminated<br />Name of Machine<br />Purpose of Machine<br />Machine Provision <br />CE Marking <br />Information panel <br />Safety signage<br />Machine Components<br />Health & Safety Features<br />Information Sheet:<br />A4 in size (Laminated)<br />Can be attached to the machine<br />Index of poster information<br />Should further describe components labelled on main poster<br />Activity Sheet:<br />A4 in size<br />Must check appropriate PPE for machine<br />Criteria/areas to be investigated by operant before use.<br />Pre-Work Phase:<br />Machine set up – dependent on nature of work and material<br />Work Phase:<br />General procedure to follow when processing material<br />Post-Work Phase:<br />Isolation<br />Cleanliness<br />Re-positioning of components (safety) to standard position<br />ETC…<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />
  133. 133. WT4603<br />SEE YOU ALL NEXT WEEK!!!<br />Department of Manufacturing & Operations Engineering<br />