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1010f11 10-3

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Concerto

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1010f11 10-3

  1. 1. Virtuosity pt. 1 Concertos
  2. 2. What’s virtuosity?
  3. 3. • Relative to the instrument / voice• Display over expression• Extremes (tempo, register)
  4. 4. What’s a concerto?
  5. 5. Concerto• Concertare = skirmish, contend, dispute• Conserto = to bind, join together• Contrast
  6. 6. Soloist(s) & Orchestra
  7. 7. Early 18th C. (Baroque) vs.Later 18th C. (Classical
  8. 8. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)• Venice, “The Red Priest”• Pio Ospedale della Pietà• over 500 Concertos
  9. 9. The Concerto contrast between
  10. 10. The Concerto contrast betweensmall group
  11. 11. The Concerto contrast betweensmall group large group
  12. 12. ...orcontrast between
  13. 13. ...or contrast betweensoloist
  14. 14. ...or contrast betweensoloist orchestra
  15. 15. volume virtuosity Contrasttimbre themes
  16. 16. A baroque concerto contrasts asoloist or solo group with a ______. 1. larger ensemble 2. basso continuo 3. chorus of singers 4. second soloist
  17. 17. Ritornello Form alternation betweenSmall group/ Large group/ soloist orchestra
  18. 18. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4Ritornello = something that returns
  19. 19. The ritornello in aconcerto is a kind of ____.1. accompaniment2. orchestra refrain3. solo section4. fugue subject
  20. 20. Vivaldi, Four Seasons (1723)• 4 Violin concertos (3 mvts each) • Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter• Written to go with sonnets• Often depicts characteristics of the season• program music
  21. 21. “Winter”mvt 1 To tremble from cold in the icy snow, In the harsh breath of a horrid wind; To run, stamping ones feet every moment, Our teeth chattering in the extreme coldmvt 2 Before the fire to pass peaceful, Contented days while the rain outside pours down.mvt 3 We tread the icy path slowly and cautiously, for fear of tripping and falling. Then turn abruptly, slip, crash on the ground and, rising, hasten on across the ice lest it cracks up. We feel the chill north winds course through the home despite the locked and bolted doors... this is winter, which nonetheless brings its own delights.
  22. 22. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  23. 23. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  24. 24. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  25. 25. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  26. 26. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  27. 27. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  28. 28. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  29. 29. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  30. 30. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  31. 31. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  32. 32. R1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 “to “in the “to run, “our teeth, tremble harsh chattering stampingfrom cold breath of in the in the icy a horrid one’s extreme snow” wind” feet” cold”
  33. 33. Program music is music which:• 1) has a text (lyrics)• 2) is performed in concerts• 3) refers to a story, event, or idea• 4) is heard in the background
  34. 34. In Vivaldi’s Winter, the repetitive figure in both the orchestra and solo parts suggests:• 1) stamping of the feet• 2) ducks attacking• 3) trembling in the cold wind• 4) sitting under a shade tree
  35. 35. “Autumn” mvt 1Celebrates the peasant, with songs and dances,The pleasure of a bountiful harvest.And fired up by Bacchus liquor, many end their revelry in sleep mvt 2Everyone is made to forget their cares and to sing and danceBy the air which is tempered with pleasureAnd (by) the season that invites so many, manyOut of their sweetest slumber to fine enjoyment mvt 3The hunters emerge at the new dawn,And with horns and dogs and guns depart upon their huntingThe beast flees and they follow its trail;Terrified and tired of the great noiseOf guns and dogs, the beast, wounded, threatensLanguidly to flee, but harried, dies.
  36. 36. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  37. 37. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  38. 38. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  39. 39. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  40. 40. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  41. 41. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  42. 42. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  43. 43. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  44. 44. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  45. 45. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  46. 46. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  47. 47. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  48. 48. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 S1 S2 S3 S4 aaabcc aabcc acc aasong & song & cc dance dance sleep drunk
  49. 49. Later 18th C. (Classical)
  50. 50. Mozart concertos• 30 for piano• 5 for violin• 2 flute, 1 oboe, 1 clarinet, 4 horn, 1 bassoon• various multiple- instrument concertos
  51. 51. Piano concertos
  52. 52. Piano concertos• Fortepiano
  53. 53. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791
  54. 54. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series
  55. 55. Piano concertos• Fortepiano• 1771-1791• Vienna subscription series• for himself and others
  56. 56. Classical concertos are a hybrid of• 1) Ritornello and Sonata forms• 2) Ritornello and Fugue• 3) Dance movements and opera
  57. 57. Classical concerto form “hybrid” of sonata and ritornello forms
  58. 58. Ritornello form
  59. 59. Ritornello formR1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3
  60. 60. Ritornello formR1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata form
  61. 61. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development Recapitulation
  62. 62. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development RecapitulationTh1, Br, Th2, Closing
  63. 63. Ritornello form R1 R2 R3 R4 S1 S2 S3 Sonata formExposition Development RecapitulationTh1, Br, Th2, Th1, Br, Th2, Closing Closing
  64. 64. Classical Concerto FormExposition Development RecapitulationR1 S1 (R2) S2 (R3) S3 R4.1 Cadenza R4.2
  65. 65. Piano Concerto in A, K488 (1786)
  66. 66. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo 1. lyrical strings 2. energetic full orchestra 3. lyrical, conjunct strings then windsSolo Expo 1., elaborated soloist 2., modulating orchestra plus soloist 3., new key soloist 4., new theme orchestra
  67. 67. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A, K. 488, mvt. 1Orchestral Expo 1. lyrical strings 2. energetic full orchestra 3. lyrical, conjunct strings then windsSolo Expo 1., elaborated soloist 2., modulating orchestra plus soloist 3., new key soloist 4., new theme orchestra
  68. 68. Development 4., fragmented winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation 1. solo + orch 2., stays in home key solo + orch 3., in home key solo + orch 4., in home key solo + orch 2. orchestra 4. orchestra Cadenza improvisation soloist Coda 3. orchestra
  69. 69. Development 4., fragmented winds, soloist, orch. dialogueRecapitulation 1. solo + orch 2., stays in home key solo + orch 3., in home key solo + orch 4., in home key solo + orch 2. orchestra 4. orchestra Cadenza improvisation soloist Coda 3. orchestra

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