1010 f11 9-23


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Cantata and Oratorio

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1010 f11 9-23

  1. 1. Music & Worship pt. 3 <ul><li>Bach, Handel, and Religious Storytelling </li></ul>
  2. 2. When is your exam? <ul><li>1) Today </li></ul><ul><li>2) Mon-Wed </li></ul><ul><li>3) Yesterday </li></ul>
  3. 3. Where is your exam? <ul><li>1) in class </li></ul><ul><li>2) in one of the 8 testing centers </li></ul><ul><li>3) at home </li></ul><ul><li>4) Red Robin </li></ul>
  4. 4. TEXTURE
  5. 5. Texture <ul><li>“weave” of the music </li></ul><ul><li>vertical (simultaneous) relationships </li></ul>
  6. 6. Monophony <ul><li>Single line, unaccompanied melody </li></ul>
  7. 7. Homophony <ul><li>Single melody of primary interest, other parts supportive in nature </li></ul><ul><li>melody + chords </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homorhythm <ul><li>a type of homophony </li></ul><ul><li>all parts have same rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>still single melody of primary interest </li></ul>
  9. 9. Polyphony <ul><li>more than one melody </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heard simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each of equal or nearly equal interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>somewhat independent of one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Imitative vs. Non-imitative </li></ul>
  10. 10. Imitative Polyphony <ul><li>Melodic lines are more or less the same </li></ul><ul><li>Usually enter one after the other </li></ul>
  11. 11. Non-Imitative Polyphony <ul><li>Melodies are different from one another </li></ul><ul><li>Each of equal interest </li></ul>
  12. 12. J.S. Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>St Thomas Church </li></ul><ul><li>Leipzig, Germany </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bach’s Cantatas <ul><li>Cantata = “that which is sung” </li></ul><ul><li>More than 200 Cantatas for Leipzig </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150 in first three years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most for orchestra, soloists, chorus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on Scripture reading </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Chorales </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cantata no. 140: “Wachet auf” (“Sleepers Wake”) “ Wachet auf” (“Sleepers Wake”) <ul><li>27th Sunday after Trinity, 1731 </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew 25: 1-13 </li></ul><ul><li>7 movements </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recitatives, arias, choruses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Movement 7--Chorale
  16. 16. The prevailing texture was: <ul><li>a) polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>b) monophony </li></ul><ul><li>c) homophony (homorhythm) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Movement 7 <ul><li>Lutheran chorale melody </li></ul><ul><li>four-part harmonization (melody on top) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>instruments double voices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Symbolic unity </li></ul><ul><li>AAB form </li></ul><ul><li>homorhythm </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gloria sei dir gesungen, mit Menschen- und englischen Zungen, mit Harfen und mit Zimbeln schon. Let Gloria be sung to You with mortal and angelic tongues, with harps and even cymbals. Von zwölf Perlen sind die Pforten, an deiner Stadt sind wir Konsorten der Engel hoch um deinen Thron. Of twelve pearls the portals are made, in your city we are consorts to the angels high around your throne. Kein Aug' hat je gespürt, kein Ohr hat je gehört solche Freude, des sind wir froh, io, io, ewig in dulci jubilo. No eye has ever glimpsed, no ear has ever heard such joy which makes us glad, io, io, eternally, with sweet rejoicing! A A B
  19. 19. Movement 1
  20. 20. In what part or voice was the chorale melody? <ul><li>a) the bass </li></ul><ul><li>b) the soprano </li></ul><ul><li>c) the banjo </li></ul><ul><li>d) the violins </li></ul>
  21. 21. Movement 1 <ul><li>Same Chorale melody as 7th movement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>melody in soprano </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interruptions by orchestra and other voices </li></ul><ul><li>Ritornello Principle </li></ul>
  22. 22. &quot;Awake,&quot; a voice calls to us, the watchman high in the tower: &quot;Awake, thou city of Jerusalem.&quot;Midnight the hour is called; they call to us with bright voices: &quot;Where are you, wise virgins?&quot;Behold, the bridegroom comes; rise up and take your lamps, Alleluia! Alleluia! Prepare yourselves for the wedding, you must go to meet Him.
  23. 23. Ritornello Principle in Mvt. 1 Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme, der Wächter sehr hoch auf der Zinne, wach auf, du Stadt Jerusalem. A Mitternacht heißt diese Stunde, sie rufen uns mit hellem Munde, wo seid ihr klugen Jungfrauen? A Wohlauf, der Bräut'gam kömmt, steht auf, die Lampen nehmt, Alleluia! Alleluia! Macht euch bereit zu der Hochzeit, ihr müßet ihm entgegengehn. B Section Rit. 1 Chorale A Rit. 2 Chorale A Rit. 3 Chorale B Rit. 4 Timbre Orchestra Orchestra & Chorus Orchestra Orchestra & Chorus Orchestra Orchestra & Chorus Orchestra
  24. 24. G.F. Handel Messiah (1741) (1741)
  25. 25. True or False: Handel’s Messiah has much in common with opera. <ul><li>a) true </li></ul><ul><li>b) false </li></ul>
  26. 26. Oratorio <ul><li>No Operas Lent & Advent </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oratorio a “workaround” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Biblical, no acting, sets, or costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Characters, plot, recitative, aria, choruses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Messiah unusual, no real plot </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Recitative/Aria Pair “ He that dwelleth in Heaven” “ Thou shalt break them” tenor + basso continuo tenor + reduced orchestra ritornello principle text brief, extended by repeating words and long melismas
  28. 28. He that dwelleth in heaven shall laugh them to scorn; the Lord shall have them in derision. Recitative Aria Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron;Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron;Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. (ritornello) (ritornello) (ritornello)
  29. 29. “Glory to God” from Handel’s Messiah <ul><li>“Glory to God” </li></ul><ul><li>“...and peace on Earth” </li></ul><ul><li>“...good will” </li></ul>homophony monophony polyphony
  30. 30. “Hallelujah Chorus”
  31. 31. What textures did you hear in the voices? <ul><li>a) monophony and polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>b) monophony, polyphony, and homophony </li></ul><ul><li>c) only polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>d) only homophony </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hallelujah,for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth The Kingdom of this world is become theKingdom of our Lord, and of His Christ;and He shall reign for ever and ever,King of Kings, and Lord of Lords,and He shall reign for ever and ever,Hallelujah! H, M, & P H P