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Pursuing The Position Final

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Pursuing The Position Final

  1. 1. WSU--Pursuing the Position WSU Superintendent Program 2008-10 Cohort Prepared by Gay Selby
  2. 2. Goals <ul><li>To assist you in your preparation for securing the position of Superintendent of Schools </li></ul><ul><li>To assist you in distinguishing yourself as a candidate for the position of Superintendent of Schools </li></ul>
  3. 3. Calendar and Topics <ul><li>(August) Overview </li></ul><ul><li>(September) Preparing Your Resume, Placement File and Obtaining Letters of Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>(October) What the Process Looks Like from the School Board’s Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>(November) Researching the Vacancies and the Positions </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>(January) Analyzing the Vacancy Announcement and Submitting Your Application </li></ul><ul><li>(February) Preparing for Your Interview </li></ul><ul><li>(March) Negotiating Your Contract </li></ul><ul><li>(April) Transition Planning and Assuming the Position </li></ul>
  5. 5. August <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent changes for 2009-10 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. For September <ul><li>Dust off your resume and update it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a resume? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro’s and Con’s of Placement File </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose and Focus of Letters of Recommendtion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meet with your superintendent for the purpose of discussing his/her “operating protocols” or “operating principles” with the board of directors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What process was used to develop this document? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often is it reviewed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it formally adopted by the board? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is it “operationalized”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your superintendent find the protocols/principles useful? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is a Resume? (public document) <ul><li>Answers the question “what” ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your career goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What schools you attended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What degrees/certificates you hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What places you have worked/positions you have held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are your responsibilities (optional, be selective, use verbs, only positions “that contribute”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What professional organizations you belong to and what leadership roles you have held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What community groups you belong to and what leadership roles you have held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What awards you have received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What articles you have authored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What ________________________ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Reminders About Resumes <ul><li>• fits the position for which applying </li></ul><ul><li>• well organized and easy to read (adequate </li></ul><ul><li>white space)--professional appearance </li></ul><ul><li>• be truthful!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>• proofread carefully--watch dates </li></ul><ul><li>• white paper--professional and best for duplicating as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>• most recent first for education and experience information </li></ul><ul><li>• list personal address, phone numbers, and e-mail address (not business) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>• references--list on separate sheet as do not want these included when duplicated for distribution </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pro’s and Con’s of Placement Files <ul><li>Pro’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical archive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Con’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can become dated if not attended to regularly </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Purpose and Focus of Letters of Recommendation <ul><li>Helps reader get a more complete picture of you as a candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Address specific required requirements and/or experiences desired by the district </li></ul><ul><li>Be selective as to who you ask to do a letter of recommendation--need at least two current school board members; select good writers who will invest in the effort </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear with those writing letters of recommendations as to what you want them to focus on--provide a current resume and writing points if needed and clarity as to when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Must be current letters--be dated </li></ul>
  12. 12. Assignment for October <ul><li>Interview the Board President/Chair about the work of the board and its expectations of the superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Update your resume and bring 8 copies to the seminar; send resume to University Supervisor for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Review your placement file (if you have one) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a list of persons you would seek a letter of recommendation from when applying for a superintendent position </li></ul>
  13. 13. October <ul><li>What the Process Looks Like from the School Board’s Perspective </li></ul>
  14. 14. Superintendent Position Open <ul><li>Board options: (interim/permanent) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint someone from within the district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select someone from outside the district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle the appointment/selection themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire a consultant to assist them in the appointment/selection </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Inside Candidate <ul><li>Appointing an inside candidate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just do it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information from employees and/or community on qualities and experiences desired in next superintendent, “measure” inside candidate against the information collected, and make decision to either hire inside candidate or conduct a search for a superintendent. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Selecting Outside Candidate <ul><li>Doing a search themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solicit proposals (larger districts RFP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track record </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fit” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Search Process <ul><li>Timeline (three months) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine qualities & experiences desired in new superintendent and identify opportunities & challenges new superintendent will confront </li></ul><ul><li>Advertise the position, recruit applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Screen applications/initial background checks </li></ul><ul><li>Board selects candidates to interview/background checks </li></ul><ul><li>Interview candidates ( many different interview processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Site visit(s)/final background checks </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint new superintendent (roll call vote) </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate contract </li></ul><ul><li>Transition period </li></ul>
  18. 18. Role of the Consultant (works for board) <ul><li>Advise the board </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate & manage the process </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit candidates (assist candidates) </li></ul><ul><li>Initial screening of applications and background checks </li></ul><ul><li>Assist board with timeline, determining qualifications/ experiences, opportunities/challenges, screening of applications, interviews, site visit(s), and contract </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant is NOT an attorney </li></ul>
  19. 19. Assignment for November <ul><li>Continue refining your resume ( what ) </li></ul><ul><li>If using placement file--purge, update </li></ul><ul><li>Review board policies that pertain to the Board of Directors—what did you learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with your superintendent about: 1) the induction and orientation of any new board members, 2) the reorganization of the board, and 3) any plans for board development with the old board or the new board </li></ul><ul><li>— (when you have a new board member you have a new board) </li></ul>
  20. 20. November <ul><li>Researching the Vacancies and the Positions </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Positions are Open? <ul><li>WASA (Career Connections) </li></ul><ul><li>State Associations (Administrators and School Boards) </li></ul><ul><li>AASA and NSBA </li></ul><ul><li>Education Week </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers (e-clips/WSSDA) </li></ul><ul><li>ESD Superintendents </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with search consultants </li></ul>
  22. 22. Researching a Position <ul><li>Carefully read Vacancy Announcement (clues) </li></ul><ul><li>Contact search consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Use internet sites to gather information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPSI website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community websites (city, county, Chamber of Commerce, economic development council, census bureau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper and TV websites that cover district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESD website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WEA and education association websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other??? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Contact “key” people? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESD superintendent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSPI persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing superintendent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons you know in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others??? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Visit the school district/community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive around the community and neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check out the schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk informally with community folks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop by Chamber of Commerce or other similar entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other??? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Talk with the search consultant! </li></ul>
  26. 26. Assignment for January <ul><li>Continue to polish Letter of Application </li></ul><ul><li>Select one of the districts that is currently searching for a new superintendent and do some research about the district. Be prepared to share what you did and what you learned? </li></ul>
  27. 27. January <ul><li>Analyzing the Vacancy Announcement and Submitting Your Application </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Vacancy Announcement ( Review Carefully ) <ul><li>Usual Sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about school district (enrollment, programs, employees, facilities, strategic plan, mission statement, web-site address, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about school board--leadership, terms, experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about application process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When due and where to send </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What due--letter of application, application form, resume, letters of reference, transcripts, other requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What not to do--do not contact school board members </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Residency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment--length of contract, salary & benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications, Experience, and Challenges/Opportunities ( how arrived at ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications--degrees, certification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience--teacher, principal, district office, superintendent; number of years in positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges/Opportunities--many are common to most districts and a few are specific to particular district </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Submitting your Application <ul><li>Talk with the search consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Provide what is requested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of references (may specify number required from board members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific requests--written paper on how you meet qualifications, experience and/or challenges/opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ___________ </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Reminders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White bond paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proofread carefully!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not staple items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place in order requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit so received “on time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ___________ </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Remember: Your written application </li></ul><ul><li>represents you! Be sure all the </li></ul><ul><li>information is accurate and that it </li></ul><ul><li>is professional in appearance. It is </li></ul><ul><li>key to you being invited for an </li></ul><ul><li>interview so it must distinguish you </li></ul><ul><li>as a candidate. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Questions/Comments <ul><li>Resume (what) </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of application (who) </li></ul><ul><li>Researching the district </li></ul><ul><li>Submitting your application </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
  34. 34. February <ul><li>Preparing for Your Interview </li></ul>
  35. 35. Preparing for the Interview <ul><li>Call inviting you for an interview (board chair) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Arrangements” (district person) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lodging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spouse/children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>______________________ </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Connecting with the consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format and expectations for interview visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How it “will look” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insights into board members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO SURPRISES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>______________________ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Interview Formats (pluses and minuses) <ul><li>Semi-finalists (first round) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panel of observers provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separate day for each finalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with variety of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Round-robin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All finalists in district at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>____________________ </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sample Interview Schedule <ul><li>Breakfast with ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Tour of the school district </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with administrators and/or supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with key central office personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch with _( superintendent )__ </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with students </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with school district employees </li></ul><ul><li>Dinner with school board </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with community (employees also) </li></ul><ul><li>Interview with school board ( executive session ) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Be Aware <ul><li>Role of unions? </li></ul><ul><li>Some employees attend all meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Board getting lots of feedback from many sources </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on format you will learn a lot about the district and community--but, be careful! </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare spouse as to what to expect </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inside candidate”--act like an outside candidate! </li></ul>
  40. 40. Things to Think About <ul><li>Prepare, prepare, prepare!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Dress </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing--long day!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Entering & exiting </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to “introduce yourself” </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions--give examples from experience & then tie it to what district is looking for (read your audience) </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor response to group, but be consistent in responses (people compare) </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT OVERTALK RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul>
  41. 41. Interviewing with the Board <ul><li>Be relaxed--be confident! </li></ul><ul><li>Let your personality come through! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember board has been watching and listening-move your responses to the “next level”! </li></ul><ul><li>Format: questions or conversation? </li></ul><ul><li>Be thoughtful, show commitment, answer question asked or discuss topic presented, be professional--give examples focused on “what or how would provide leadership in their district, but know when to quit </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions as appropriate--but avoid questions like: Would each of you tell me your vision for the district? </li></ul><ul><li>Save questions about contract, salary, details about rest of the process for the consultant. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Remember <ul><li>Remember that you are also “interviewing the board, the district and the community.” </li></ul><ul><li>Remember it is all about the fit! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Next Steps <ul><li>If not a fit for you--withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>Site visit--work with consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: find out whatever additional information they need to make a decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When, where, who is coming, who do they want to meet with, lunch, etc.? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your role during the site visit? </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. March <ul><li>Negotiating Your Contract </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>“ That contract is all you have. If it’s not there, it doesn’t exist.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Joe Jones, Association of California School Administrators) </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>“ A carefully prepared contract is no guarantee of a good superintendent-school board relationship. It’s simply a starting point.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Richard Babb, Maine Center for Educational Services) </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is a Contract? <ul><li>Legal Document </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agreement (n) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agree to (v) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treaty </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Terms and Conditions <ul><li>THIS AGREEMENT is entered into by and between the Board of Directors (“Board”) of __________ School District No. ____, ___________County, Washington (“District”), and __ name of superintendent __ (“Superintendent”). </li></ul><ul><li>WHEREAS, the District and the Superintendent desire to enter into a contract whereby the Superintendent will perform services as such for the District for a period of ___________, on terms and conditions acceptable to both parties; </li></ul><ul><li>Length of contract (1 – 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Work days, inclusive of paid holidays and paid vacation </li></ul><ul><li> days (260 days) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Employment, Authorities, and Duties <ul><li>July 1 – June 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual salary </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance at professional meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel (subject to Board approval) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize, reorganize & arrange administrative and supervisory staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection, placement & transfer of personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Board refer all significant criticism, complaints, and suggestions called to its attention to the Superintendent </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Related professional work (consulting, speaking, lecturing, etc.)—5 days, use vacation days, Board approval </li></ul><ul><li>Attend all meetings of the Board except when reemployment or compensation being considered, or absence authorized by the Board </li></ul>
  51. 51. Other Compensation & Benefits <ul><li>Sick leave </li></ul><ul><li>Professional membership dues </li></ul><ul><li>Paid vacation days </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of days per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># of days allowed to “cash out” annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># of days allowed to carry over annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li># of days allowed to “cash out” at termination/retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate of pay for # of days “cashed out” at termination/retirement </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. Evaluation and Extension of Contract <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annually or more often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss working relationship between Superintendent and Board (review protocols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board’s evaluation of the Superintendent’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of and process for the evaluation— annual goals, 360, comprehensive list of responsibilities, or other </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Extension of contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual action by the Board (in a public meeting) to extend the contract by one year or to let the contract continue toward its expiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic “roll over” by one year on a certain date unless Board takes action otherwise </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Other Common Provisions <ul><li>Residency (moving expenses) </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge or Termination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ just cause”– tied to state statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no cause—serve solely at pleasure of Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ buy-out” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hold Harmless (superintendent and spouse) </li></ul><ul><li>Savings Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Entire Agreement </li></ul>
  55. 56. Pay for Performance <ul><li>Gaining interest, but limited in use </li></ul><ul><li>Performance based contract does not guarantee longevity </li></ul>
  56. 57. A Contract is a Legal Document <ul><ul><li>“ One of the first contracts I analyzed taught me a valuable lesson: Superintendents are prone to practice law and sometimes practice it badly.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Marcy Dutton, Attorney, Illinois Association of School Administrators) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. April <ul><li>Transition Planning and Assuming the Position </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>You are not the superintendent until July1. </li></ul>
  59. 60. The Secret of Success <ul><li>Laying the Foundation of Trust </li></ul>
  60. 61. Cautions <ul><li>Do NOT refer (very often) to your previous district by name. Instead say “my experience has been . . .” or “ I am familiar with . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>Do NOT cast any aspersions on the superintendent you are replacing </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious of those “who come calling early” (often there is a story you need to know) </li></ul><ul><li>Be a good listener, be careful making promises, and be thoughtful in your decision making until you understand the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Be intentional as to learning about the culture </li></ul>
  61. 62. Transition Planning <ul><li>By invitation of the leaving superintendent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify important issues or decisions that are pending— budget and personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a plan for your involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Days in the school district (calendar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receipt of documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School board meetings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special events in the district or community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to meet with key personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>Compensation for work during transition period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addendum or supplemental agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use vacation days for work during transition planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share calendar with current board of directors and keep them informed. (Remember: you are the superintendent through June 30.) </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Assuming the Position (July 1) <ul><li>Have a plan (first 100 days) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A culture to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board members to know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff to interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People to meet (district and community) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget to be approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel to be hired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiations to be completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board meetings to plan </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><ul><li>Administrative meetings to plan/attend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative retreat to plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting to know the media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pending legal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ___________________ </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Last Reminders <ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS!!! </li></ul><ul><li>NO SURPRISES!!! </li></ul><ul><li>REMAIN TRUE TO YOUR PERSONAL BELIEFS, VALUES, AND THEORY OF ACTION!!! </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>“ Effective superintendents will be those who manage the seemingly contradictory elements of the job: to develop leadership both from the top down and from the bottom up, to be both tough and gentle, to be both leader and follower.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome T. Murphy </li></ul>

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