Results of ESI Phase 1 in Africa


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This powerpoint was presented by WSP Consultant, Sophie Hickling,during AfricaSan 3 (Kigali, Rwanda - 2011) under the "Economics of Sanitation for Advocacy and Decision Making" session.

This session introduced the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI) aims, rationale, and methods. A panel of experts from government, donors and other sector specialists in Africa commented on the use of ESI results for sanitation financing; the use of media to influence stakeholders; the mechanisms for adopting ESI results into government decision making; and critical assessment and proposed improvement to ESI methods.

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Results of ESI Phase 1 in Africa

  1. 1. Results of ESI Phase 1 in Africa<br />Sophie Hickling<br />Consultant<br />Water and Sanitation Program<br />
  2. 2. Countries included in the study<br />Benin <br />Burkina Faso<br />Congo, Dem Rep of<br />Ghana<br />Kenya<br />Madagascar<br />Mozambique<br />Niger<br />Nigeria<br />Rwanda<br />
  3. 3. Costs of poor sanitation included in the study<br />Mortality<br />Healthcare<br />Access<br />Productivity<br />
  4. 4. How these costs were derived<br />Desk study<br />Estimation<br />
  5. 5. Mortality costs are the largest national cost of poor sanitation <br />Example: <br />Burkina Faso loses US$ 136 million each year due to mortality<br />
  6. 6. Healthcarecosts resulting from poor sanitation are a heavy burden<br />Example:<br />Ghana spends US$ 54 million on health care each year <br />
  7. 7. Finding a private location to defecate leads to economic loses which affect women most<br />Example:<br />Niger loses US$ 23 million each year in access time<br />
  8. 8. Incapacity due to sickness and time accessing healthcare result in <br />lost productivity<br />Example:<br />Kenya loses US$ 2.7 million each year in productivity<br />
  9. 9. Costs associated with <br />open defecation are <br />greater than <br />fixed point sanitation<br />Example:<br />In Rwanda OD costs US$ 2 more per open defecator than either unimproved or shared latrines<br />
  10. 10. The economic burden of poor sanitation falls most heavily on the poorest<br />Example:<br />In Nigeria average cost of poor sanitation is almost 10% of average salary for the poorest.<br />
  11. 11. Other potentially significant costs<br />Epidemics: Annual additional cost of responding to cholera in Mozambique is est. US$ 5.1 million.<br />Funerals: Sanitation-related funerals costs in Burkina Faso is est. US$ 1.5 million per year<br />Water pollution: Poor sanitation affects drinking water sources increasing costs of treatment and supply<br />
  12. 12. Other potentially significant costs<br />Tourism: Based on existing travel and tourism contribution to GDP, by addressing poor sanitation in Ghana could gain est. US$ 8.5 milion each year.<br />Cognitive development: Long term economic losses: early childhood diarrhoeaunder nutrition reduced cognitive development. STH infection  impaired cognitive development.<br />Excreta re-use: Could bring potential economic benefit. <br />
  13. 13. Conclusions<br />Public financing of sanitation is a good investment and should be increased<br />Public sector investment in sanitation is an important tool in poverty alleviation<br />Public sector financing of sanitation strengthens other areas of the economy<br />