Long-term Sustainability of Rural Sanitation<br />Findings from a Study in Bangladesh<br />Craig Kullmann<br />1<br />
Overview of Session<br /><ul><li>Study Objectives
  Background
  Methodology
  Findings – Sanitation Status| Durability of Latrines
  Findings - Sustainability Factors  -  Positive | Negative
  Conclusions
  Program Considerations</li></ul>2<br />
Study Objectives<br />3<br />Understand current status of sanitation behaviors and durability of latrines<br />Why househo...
4<br />Background<br />
Methodology<br />5<br /><ul><li>480 Open Defecation Free    Local Gov’t (LG) as of 2005
 Sampled 50 Local Gov’t (10% of pool)
3,000 household survey
18 Local Gov’t with in-depth Qualitative </li></li></ul><li>6<br />Study Objective 1a:  What is the Current Status of Sani...
By Wealth Quintiles</li></li></ul><li>7<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />
8<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />OD<br />Confining Feces<br />
9<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />Over 80% of the poorest households own...
10<br />Study Objective 1b:  What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
11<br />Study Objective 1b– What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
12<br />Study Objective 1b– What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
13<br />Exploring Factors Supporting Sustained Outcomes<br />Study Objective 2:  Why have households sustained behaviors a...
14<br />Study Objectives 2: Why have households sustained behaviors and their latrines?<br />Social Norms Positively Reinf...
Study Objectives 3 -Has sanitation programming been sustained and has it helped sustain behaviors and facilities?<br />San...
16<br />Study Objectives 4- Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />High Acce...
17<br />Study Objectives 4- Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />High Acce...
18<br />Exploring Factors Working Against Sustained Outcomes<br />Study Objective 2:  Why have households not sustained be...
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WSP Long-term Sustainability of Sanitation in Rural Bangladesh study bbb july 21 2010

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Presentation on factors that promote or inhibit the sustainability of improved sanitation in rural Bangladesh, based on research conducted in 50 local governments by the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)

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  • The presentation is very useful one for all those involved iin the formulatuion of raod map for suatainable sanitation.
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WSP Long-term Sustainability of Sanitation in Rural Bangladesh study bbb july 21 2010

  1. 1. Long-term Sustainability of Rural Sanitation<br />Findings from a Study in Bangladesh<br />Craig Kullmann<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Overview of Session<br /><ul><li>Study Objectives
  3. 3. Background
  4. 4. Methodology
  5. 5. Findings – Sanitation Status| Durability of Latrines
  6. 6. Findings - Sustainability Factors - Positive | Negative
  7. 7. Conclusions
  8. 8. Program Considerations</li></ul>2<br />
  9. 9. Study Objectives<br />3<br />Understand current status of sanitation behaviors and durability of latrines<br />Why households have or have not sustained behaviors and their latrines.<br />Has sanitation programming been sustained and has it helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />
  10. 10. 4<br />Background<br />
  11. 11. Methodology<br />5<br /><ul><li>480 Open Defecation Free Local Gov’t (LG) as of 2005
  12. 12. Sampled 50 Local Gov’t (10% of pool)
  13. 13. 3,000 household survey
  14. 14. 18 Local Gov’t with in-depth Qualitative </li></li></ul><li>6<br />Study Objective 1a: What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br /><ul><li>By Collective Outcomes
  15. 15. By Wealth Quintiles</li></li></ul><li>7<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />
  16. 16. 8<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />OD<br />Confining Feces<br />
  17. 17. 9<br />Study Objective 1a –What is the Current Status of Sanitation Behaviors?<br />Over 80% of the poorest households own or share an improved latrine (n=3,000)<br />
  18. 18. 10<br />Study Objective 1b: What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
  19. 19. 11<br />Study Objective 1b– What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
  20. 20. 12<br />Study Objective 1b– What is the Durability of Latrines?<br />
  21. 21. 13<br />Exploring Factors Supporting Sustained Outcomes<br />Study Objective 2: Why have households sustained behaviors and their latrines?<br />Study Objective 3: Has sanitation programming been sustained and has it helped sustain behaviors and facilities?<br />Study Objective 4: Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />
  22. 22. 14<br />Study Objectives 2: Why have households sustained behaviors and their latrines?<br />Social Norms Positively Reinforce Latrine Use<br />“The sanitation revolution and the 1971 independence revolution had the same character.” Local Gov’t Chairman<br />“All spots in the village are free of open defecation. Hanging latrines no longer pollute the waterways and people understand that open defecation is a type of social negligence.” Focus Group Discussant<br />
  23. 23. Study Objectives 3 -Has sanitation programming been sustained and has it helped sustain behaviors and facilities?<br />Sanitation Programming has been Sustained and Appears to Help Sustain Latrine Use (n=50)<br />Reminding constituents<br />1/3 Very Active LG<br />1/3 Moderately Active LG<br />1/3 Inactive LG<br />Use ADP funds for sanitation<br />Declaring rules against open defecation<br />Providing latrine parts to poor families<br />15<br />
  24. 24. 16<br />Study Objectives 4- Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />High Access to Parts Suppliers/Masons <br />Access<br />n=2,487<br />Access<br />Access figuresare self-reported based on household survey<br />
  25. 25. 17<br />Study Objectives 4- Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />High Access to Pit Emptying Services<br />No Access<br />Access<br />Access<br />n=2,686<br />Access<br />Access figuresare self-reported based on household survey<br />
  26. 26. 18<br />Exploring Factors Working Against Sustained Outcomes<br />Study Objective 2: Why have households not sustained behaviors and their latrines?<br />Study Objective 3: Does lack of sanitation programming effect sustain behaviors and facilities?<br />Study Objective 4: Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />
  27. 27. 19<br />Study Objectives2 - Why have households not sustained behaviors and their latrines?<br />Natural Disasters<br />
  28. 28. 20<br />Study Objectives3 - Does lack of sanitation programming effect sustain behaviors and facilities?<br />Lack of Sanitation Programming May Affect Sustained Latrine Use <br />Improved<br /><ul><li>8 out of 50 Local Governments had >20% of households with unimproved latrines/open defecation
  29. 29. None had an active Local Government Chairman
  30. 30. 5 of the 8 had no follow up sanitation program</li></ul>Un-improved<br />
  31. 31. 21<br />Study Objectives 4- Have private sector sanitation providers helped sustain behaviors and latrines?<br />Lack of Access to Cash/Credit<br /><ul><li>63% of households indicated lack of money</li></li></ul><li>22<br />Conclusion About Sustaining Latrine Use<br />Enabling Environment<br />Social Norms<br />Active Private Sector<br />Sanitation Programming<br />Sustained Behaviors<br />
  32. 32. 23<br />Program Considerations – Inside of Bangladesh<br />Application of Sanitation Marketing<br /><ul><li>Households that still don’t have basic access
  33. 33. Strengthen private sector to offer affordable range of products and services</li></li></ul><li>24<br />Program Considerations – Outside of Bangladesh<br />
  34. 34. For More Information on …<br />Sharing<br />Cleanliness<br />Satisfaction Levels<br />Perceived Benefits<br />Additional Analysis<br />www.wsp.org/scalingupsanitation<br />Chronicles of CLTS in Bangladesh view at www.bitly.com<br />
  35. 35. Study Team<br />Dr. Laurie Krieger – The Manoff Group (Project Director)<br />Dr. Suzanne Hanchett – Planning Alternatives for Change Consulting (Team Leader)<br />Mohid Khan – Pathway Consulting Services (Deputy Team Leader)<br />Craig Kullmann – Task Manager – WSP <br />Rokeya Ahmed – WSP-Bangladesh<br />Santanu Lahiri, Abdul Motaleb, Mark Ellery, Mansoor Kabeer - WSP Colleagues in Bangladesh<br />Eddy Perez, Jacqueline Devine, Nila Mukherjee, Soma Gosh, and Pete Kolsky, Amy Grossman- WSP and World Bank Colleagues in Washington DC<br />Government of Bangladesh<br />Development Partners in Bangladesh<br />

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