FEIS J-Revised Archeology Reports

531 views

Published on

Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage FEIS, J-Revised Archeology Reports, WSP SELLS

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
531
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

FEIS J-Revised Archeology Reports

  1. 1. Appendix JRevised Archeological Reports
  2. 2. REVISED PHASE 1A LITERATURE REVIEW & SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND PHASE 1B ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD RECONNAISSANCE SURVEYMAHAMUDRA BUDDHIST HERMITAGE Cragsmoor Road Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York OPRHP 05PR05513 Prepared For: Tim Miller Associates, Inc. 10 North Street Cold Spring, New York 10516 Prepared By: CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants 166 Hillair Circle White Plains, New York 10605 May 2007
  3. 3. MAHAMUDRA BUDDHIST HERMITAGE Cragsmoor Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York TABLE OF CONTENTSPHASE 1A LITERATURE REVIEW & SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS Introduction............................................................................................1 Project Area Description ........................................................................1 Environmental Information ....................................................................3 Potential for Site to Contain Prehistoric or Historic Cultural Resources ..............................................................4 Cragsmoor Historic District ...................................................................7 History of Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site...................................9 Additional Research Undertaken .........................................................13 Sensitivity Assessment & Site Prediction ............................................13 Conclusions and Recommendations.....................................................14PHASE 1B ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY Phase 1B Introduction ..........................................................................15 Project Area Description & Environmental Setting .............................15 Assessment of Archaeological Sensitivity ...........................................15 Methodology ........................................................................................16 Field Methodology ...............................................................................17 Field Results.........................................................................................18 Rockshelters & Mines ..........................................................................19 Summary & Conclusions .....................................................................19 Bibliography.........................................................................................21APPENDICES: Appendix A: Maps & Figures Appendix B: Photographs Appendix C: Soil Description & Map Appendix D: Shovel Test Records Appendix E: Correspondence mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  4. 4. MAHAMUDRA BUDDHIST HERMITAGE Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York OPRHP 05PR05513Introduction The following report presents the results of a Phase 1A Literature Review and Sensitivity Analysis andPhase 1B Archaeological Field Reconnaissance Survey of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, prepared forTim Miller Associates, Inc., by CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants. The Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site, a parcel containing +90.5 acre (36.2 hectare) parcel, is located on the west side of Cragsmoor Roadand south of Old Inn Road in the Hamlet of Cragsmoor, in the southern part of the Town of Wawarsing, UlsterCounty, New York. The parcels included in the project area are identified on the Town of Wawarsing Tax Map asParcel 98.1-1-15.110: ±28 acres, and Parcel 98.1-1-15.200: ±61 acres. Within the +90.5 acres (36.2 hectare), theArea of Potential Effect (APE) was, according to information provided by the engineer and TMA, Inc, limited to±30.1 acres (12.04 hectare). Of the ±30.1 acres (12.04 hectare) ±18.5 acres (7.4 hectare) contain slopes in excess of12 %, while the balance of the land within the APE ranges from more gently sloped to relatively level. The entireAPE is, as stated, located on the south side of Old Inn Road in the area formerly occupied by the golf course, thenorthwestern portion of which is within the boundary of the Cragsmoor Historic District. The Phase 1A work was performed in accordance with the requirements of the State Environmental QualityReview Act (SEQRA) 6NYCRR, part 617 of the New York State Environmental Conservation Law and to meet thestandards of the New York Archaeological Council (1994), as well as relevant federal standards (36 CFR 61).Permits are required for the proposed project from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation(DEC) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The Phase 1 report was reviewed by the NewYork State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (OPRHP) at the request of the Town of WawarsingPlanning Board. The revised document reflects the comments offered by Douglas P. Mackey, Program Analyst, in aletter dated December 28, 2006, a copy of which is attached. (See Appendix E)Project Area Description The proposed project area is located on a +90.5 acre (36.2 hectare) parcel located on the west side ofCragsmoor Road and south of Old Inn Road in the Hamlet of Cragsmoor, in southern part of the Town ofWawarsing, Ulster County, New York. (Map 1-2 & Fig. 3) The project area, an irregularly shaped parcel extendingfrom Old Inn Road to Cragsmoor Road, can be accessed from Old Inn Road, which parallels a portion of theproject’s northern boundary. (Photo 1) The Area of Potential Effect (APE) contains ±30.1 acres (12.04 hectare).Approximately 18.5 acres (7.4 hectare) of the APE contains slopes greater that 12 %; the steeper areas are generallylocated in the center of the property, the remaining 11.6 acres (4.64 hectare)are gently sloped or almost level.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  5. 5. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 2Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Dharmakaya, Inc., the project applicant, proposes to develop a 67,457-square-foot Buddhist hermitage onthe site. The proposed Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage will consist of the construction of 16 buildings, including atemple and meditation centers, common dining hall and welcome center, living quarters for program participants andstaff, and a Well House. The construction of the buildings will be phased over time. Site improvements will includenew access roads, subsurface sewage treatment systems, central water supply from drilled wells, stormwatermanagement facilities, landscaping and off-site road improvements. The proposed plan shows two access points tothe Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage property, a main entrance from Cragsmoor Road that is some distance south ofthe intersection of Cragsmoor Road and Old Inn Road and the original entrance to the Cragsmoor Inn, and a secondfrom Old Inn Road. The Administration Building and Check-in House, as well as the Main Parking Lot, will belocated at the Cragsmoor Road entrance. The entrance roadway will also provide access to the Common House,with dining and guest accommodations, the Bodhisativa Dharma Center and a series of several residential buildingson the south side of the roadway. To the north of the roadway, in the same area, there will be the MilarepaMeditation Center (short term retreat). This building will be located close to the building set back line in the northcentral portion of the site. To the southwest of this complex will be the Naropa Retreat Center (long term retreat).In the northwestern portion of the site is the Guest Teachers House. The roadway will intersect with Old Inn Roadat the northwestern corner of the property. The location of the Teachers House, which had been located adjacent toOld Inn Road in the extreme northern part of the property, has been relocated away from Old Inn Road to the westside of the former golf course fairway as shown on the revised Site Plan contain within the FEIS. The proposed project for the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage is limited to the area south of Old Inn Road,which includes an area that is within the boundaries of the Cragsmoor Historic District. (Photo 5) According to theNational Register of Historic Places Registration Form, the Cragsmoor Historic District was listed on the NationalRegister of Historic Places in 1996. The district covers ±362 acres and includes over "210 contributing features on107 properties: 168 contributing buildings, 15 contributing structures, 11 contributing objects, and 16 contributingsites (National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, hereafter referred to as NRRF, 1996:2). Among themis the Cragsmoor Inn Site (Photo 1), "Beveridge Cottage (Photo 7)," "Gardiner Cottage (Photo 8)," and "Bear CliffHouse." The Cragsmoor Inn site and these three dwellings and, in some cases, associated outbuildings are the onlyproperties on Old Inn Road included in the National Register inventory. In addition to the adjacent houses, there arehouses that overlook the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site from Delangley Road; the NRRF does not includeany of the buildings located on Delangley Road, several of which are of recent date. The houses adjacent to theproject area and the Cragsmoor Historic District will be discussed in greater detail below. The golf course, a portion of which was located on the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, was,according to the National Register Building Inventory Site Form, laid out in the 1920s (National Register BuildingInventory Site Form, hereafter referred to as NRIF, Cragsmoor Inn Site: 3). It was a nine-hole course constructedand leased by the Cragsmoor County Club. Following the abandonment of the golf course in the 1960s, the landwas farmed; farming has now ceased and the land is in the process of becoming reforested through "old fieldsuccession." The main buildings of the Cragsmoor Inn, which was established in 1904, were located on the northside of Old Inn Road, but there were a number of buildings owned or associated with the inn that were located inother areas, including south of Old Inn Road. However, no buildings associated with the Cragsmoor Inn werelocated within the proposed project area, though "Beveridge Cottage" is located adjacent to it. In the late 1920s and1930s the Cragsmoor Inn experienced financial difficulties, in part due to the effects of the Depression and in partdue to changes in the travel destinations chosen for by vacationers for their holidays. In 1939 the land waspurchased by the Cragsmoor Company, and in 1958 it was the location of the Mohonk Cragsmoor School, a boysmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  6. 6. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 3Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkboarding school (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:24). Research indicates that the building was burned in 1970 as a"fire drill by the Cragsmoor Volunteer Fire Department (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:24). Although at the time of the site visit, the only remnants of the Cragsmoor Inn observed were the cementslabs that mark the foundation, a drywell, the remains of the inn’s pool (Photo 6), and some scattered debris, thereare a number of associated structures, some of which are considered contributing structures within the CragsmoorHistoric District and others that are not. Among the associated buildings noted are: The Pagoda (located on the eastside of Circle Road), "Beveridge Cottage" (on the south side of Old Inn Road adjacent to the Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site, a cottage used by the summer staff of the Inn (located on the north side of Old Inn Road east of theMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site) (Photo 3), a gazebo, a four-bay garage, a casino (burned in the 1950s), andthe pool mentioned above. With the exception of the "Beveridge Cottage" and the pool, none of these structures arelocated adjacent to or in close proximity to the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site.Environmental Information The topography of the project area ranges in elevation from approximately 1,824 feet (555.96 m) abovemean sea level (AMSL) at the northwestern corner of the property to 1,575 feet (480.06 m) AMSL in thesouthwestern corner. Along the eastern boundary of the site, which borders Cragsmoor Road, the project areareaches an average height of roughly 1650 feet (502.92 m) AMSL. The western site boundary reaches an averageheight of 1595 feet (486.16 m). Four shallow, seasonal tributaries, originating north of the project area flow across the site, draining southinto the Platte Kill, which, in turn, drains into the Shawangunk Kill. The Shawangunk Kill joins the Wallkill River,a major tributary of the Hudson River, which flows north and east to Rondout. The north central portion of the proposed project area is primarily fieldscape, with patches of brush and theoccasional tree cluster. A number of stonewalls mark the boundaries of former farm fields; these may be associatedwith the Decker farm or, perhaps, an earlier owner. While the northern portion of the site is essentially flat, thisfieldscape area is highly disturbed, having been manipulated to create the golf course. (Photo 5) There is anotherlevel area in the south central portion of the site that is also divided by stonewalls. As noted above, the centralportion of the site contains steeper slopes, some of which exceed 12 percent. With the exception of the area where the Cragsmoor Inn was located, the land north of Old Inn Road isprimarily open woodland. (Photo 4) Two of the shallow, narrow streams mentioned above enter the site in thenorthwestern corner of the wooded area. These rocky streams flow in a generally southwesterly direction, through asteeply sloped area. Although, as noted, there are small, flat areas, the majority of the project area features slopes approachingor in excess of 12 %. The central potion of the site features a wide, low stonewall that runs generally northwest tosoutheast, and is bisected by smaller stonewalls. The central portion of the site also has two shallow, narrowstreams that flow in a generally north to south direction. There is a wide, packed earth access road in the easterncentral portion of the site. This road is accessible from Cragsmoor Road.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  7. 7. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 4Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Many small, conglomerate and sandstone bedrock outcrops were observed during the walkover, however,none were of suitable height or angle to fit the requirements of a potential rockshelter. No veins or sizableinclusions of potential cryptocrystalline lithic resources were observed in any of the outcrops, however, numerousquartzite cobbles were noted during the walkover. In terms of geology, the site is located atop the Shawangunk Ridge, which is primarily composed of hardquartzite conglomerate and sandstone caprock overlying a bed of folded shale. The conglomerate was laid down inthe Silurian period, and the shale was deposited during the Ordovician period. As noted above, quartzite cobbleswere observed on the surface during the walkover of the site. These appear to be glacial in nature, rather thanderived from bedrock outcrops, and were likely deposited during the Wisconsian glacial retreat. Soils on the project area are an important indicator of archaeological potential. The project area is locatedwithin the overall Lordstown-Arnot-Mardin soil zone. (Appendix C) In general, the soils on the project aredescribed as dominantly sloping, shallow to deep, somewhat excessively to moderately well drained, very stony,with medium textured soils on glaciated uplands (USDA 1979). Surface stoniness and generally acidic soils areresponsible for the area being primarily utilized for woodland and wildlife habitat (USDA 1979:18). As noted, the project area lies atop the Shawangunk Ridge, which contains a number of unusual or uniqueenvironments, including Pitch Pine Barrens, Dwarf Pine Barrens, which, according to the NRRF is unique in theworld, being the only one located on bedrock, mountain wetlands with swamps, bogs, lakes and many cave habitatswith alpine characteristics (NRRF 1996:3 citing Kiviat 1988:32). Placed in a broader context, the area is one whereChestnut-Oak forests, Mixed Oak forests, as well as Pitch Pine Barrens, dominate the landscape (Küchler 1964).With the exception of some trees along the stone walls, the diameter of a majority of the trees on the site suggestsrecent reforestation. The nature of the vegetation on the site was difficult to ascertain, since the walkover took placein the winter, but it is expected that much of the vegetation would be associated with "old field succession," which isthe process by which abandoned farmland gradually returns to forestland. Two prominent landscape features are strongly associated with Cragsmoor: Sams Point and Bear Hill.Sams Point is located some distance to the east, while Bear Hill overlooks the proposed project area. As reportedon the NRRF, Bear Hill was and remains ". . . a favorite recreational and painting spot for the summer community atCragsmoor" (NRRF 1996:4). The Bear Hill Preserve was formed in 1978 to protect this resource.Potential for the Site to Contain Prehistoric or Historic Cultural Resources As part of the initial research for the Phase 1A Literature Review, CITY/SCAPE: Cultural ResourceConsultants examined the archaeological site maps housed at Peebles Island, Waterford, New York. These filesindicate that no prehistoric sites have been reported within the boundaries of the project area; however, there areprehistoric sites in the vicinity. The first, New York State Museum (NYSM) Site 8648, which is identified as an"Indian village," is located over a mile (1.6 km) to the west, at the foot of the western edge of the ShawangunkRidge near the Delaware and Hudson Canal, while NYSM Site 7592, is located a little less than 2 miles (3.2 km) tothe northwest. This site, where the property owner reported finding ‘knives’, a pestle, and a broken base, wasrecorded in 1933 and identified as ‘Tice’s Field’. In addition to the NYSM sites, there are two OPRHP prehistoricsites within a 1-mile (1.6 km) radius. The first is the Cragsmoor Rockshelter (OPRHP A111.19.00291), which ismahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  8. 8. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 5Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorklocated approximately ⅓ of a mile (0.536 km) north of the project area. This site is within the Cragsmoor HistoricDistrict. The Cragsmoor Rockshelter is located along the base of an escarpment at an elevation of 1900 (579.12 m)and within 100’ (30.48 m) of a water source. One stray find, recorded as a Late Archaic Normanskill projectilepoint (c. 4000 BP), was recovered. This site was not professionally excavated, but was identified by an avocationalarchaeologist. OPRHP A111.19.00292 is a prehistoric site located approximately 2 miles (3.218 km) to thenortheast of the project area near the shore of Lake Maratanza. This site was identified by Sally Matz, President ofthe Cragsmoor Historical Society in 2002. Recovered artifacts are described as a single Orient Phase projectilepoint (3300-3000 BP) and "surface evidence". In addition to the prehistoric sites noted, there are two associated historic OPRHP sites within a 2-mile (3.2km) radius of the project area (OPRHP A111.19.00297 & A111.19.00298). Both of these sites are part of the Sam’sPoint Interpretive Center survey, located approximately 1½ miles (2.414 km) east of the project area. OPRHPA111.19.00297 is listed as ‘Berry Picker Shacks and Midden’, and is described as two collapsed shacks with anassociated trash midden. These shacks and the associated midden have been dated to the mid-20th century, towardthe end of the period when a local berry picking industry flourished (Pickman and Harris, 2003:6). OPRHPA111.19.00298 is the associated ‘Botsford Farmstead and Store Midden’, and is located adjacent to OPRHPA111.19.00297. This structure was dated to 1899, however, research indicates the original building was built in the1850’s, and possibly stood in a different location. (Pickman and Harris, 2003:3). In addition to the historic sitesnoted, there are two National Register Listed historic districts within a 1-mile (1.6 km) radius of the project area.The above mentioned Cragsmoor Historic District includes a portion of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage sitethat is south of Old Inn Road. The district then extends to the west, north and east, encompassing most of the hamletof Cragsmoor. The Cragsmoor Historic District includes a total of 273 buildings, sites, structures, and objects, of(210 are identified as "contributing resources"), with structures dating from the Federal (Early Republic) to the early20th Century and Colonial Revival periods (NRRF 1996:1). The Cragsmoor Historic District will be discussed ingreater detail below. The second historic district is located approximately a ½ mile (0.804 km) southeast of the project area onVista Maria Road. This district, called ‘Chetolah’, was the estate of artist George Inness, Jr. According to theNational Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form, "Chetolah" represents an eclectic turn-of-the-century summer home of an artist in the well-established Cragsmoor art colony (National Register of Historic PlacesInventory - Nomination Form 1996). In addition to approximately 115 acres, a portion of which is the gardens, theestate includes the main house, two dwellings built for Innesss daughters, a greenhouse, studio, tennis house,garage, cabin, tower and a gatehouse. Several of these buildings are privately owned; these remain in goodcondition, but other buildings are in a deteriorated condition. None of the prehistoric sites identified will be impacted by the proposed project, though it is possible thatthe view from the Cragsmoor Rockshelter may experience visual impacts. "Chetolah", while located near theMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, is separated from it by distance and topography and will not be visuallyimpacted. The Cragsmoor Historic District, which incorporates a portion of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitagesite, will be impacted, both physically, in terms of construction and alterations to the landscape, and visually. Viewsfrom "Bear Cliff House" will be altered, as will those from both "Beveridge Cottage" and "Gardiner Cottage." The OPRHP and New York State Museum (NYSM) sites are listed in tabular form below:mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  9. 9. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 6Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York OPRHP Additional Distance from Site No. Site No. APE in m/ft Time Period Site Type thA111.19.00297 2261.61m/7420’ Mid 20 century Berry Picker Shacks/MiddenA111.19.00298 2414.04m/7920’ Late 19th/Early 20th Botsford Farmstead/Store century MiddenA111.19.00292 3218.69m/10560’ Orient Phase (3300- Stray Find/Surface Evidence 3000 BP)A111.19.00291 321.87m/1056’ Late Archaic Rockshelter/Stray find, including Normanskill ppt.NYSM 8648 1931.21/6336’ (presumably “Indian Village” Woodland)NYSM 7952 2253.08m/7392’ Unknown “Pestle, Knives, broken base(Tices Field stem”Locus 1 & 2) With respect to the potential of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site to contain prehistoric culturalresources, the assessment is that the potential is moderate. While there are recorded prehistoric sites located withina short distance of the project area, the topography of the reported sites is quite different from that found within theproposed project area. Among the factors contributing to the assessment of prehistoric potential is: • there are several streams on the project area, which, when flowing, could have provided potable water and floral and faunal resources (Photo 9 & 11); • the project area contains a high degree of cryptocrystalline quartzite that could have provided lithic resources that would have been a magnet for prehistoric peoples, • there are reported prehistoric sites within a 1-mile (1.6 km) radius of the proposed project area, indicating that prehistoric peoples utilized the area, • looking at the broader picture, there are sites located along the top of the Shawangunk Mountains with a broad range of dates, indicating that prehistoric peoples utilized the area of a long time period.The potential for historic cultural resources to be located within the proposed project area has been assessed asfollows: • research indicates that the J. L. Decker farm stood in the southeastern portion of the project area adjacent to Cragsmoor Road, and, while it is possible that evidence of the foundations of buildings associated with the farm could be present, along with privies, wells or cisterns, and, perhaps, dumps or middens, it is considered likely that these features will have been destroyed by the fire that consumed the house in 1887, road widening, the development of the golf course, landscaping and related activities; • research indicates that no structures associated with the Cragsmoor Inn were located within the boundaries of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site • no buildings associated with the Cragsmoor County Club were located within the boundaries of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site,mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  10. 10. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 7Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York • photographs indicate that the First Tee was located on the south side of Old Inn Road in the northwest corner of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, but evidence of this feature would have been destroyed by farming activities (Fig. 5) • the photograph of the First Tee includes a line of trees and a portion of a stone wall, which are regarded as historic features within the Cragsmoor Historic District, • and, there is the potential for dump sites, perhaps associated with "Beveridge Cottage" or "Gardiner Cottage" to be located on the edges of the site, but these areas would be protected to a degree by the proposed building set back.Based on the assessment provided above, the potential for the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site to containburied historic cultural resources is considered moderate at best. The potential for dump sites has been considered,but it is most likely that these sites, if they exist, will have been destroyed by road widening or would be limited tothe edges of the property nearest "Beveridge Cottage" and "Gardiner Cottage," and that these areas will not beimpacted by the proposed development of the property.Cragsmoor Historic District The information included in this portion of the Phase 1A report is primarily drawn from the NationalRegister of Historic Places Registration Form (NRRF), various Building Structure Inventory Forms (NRIF), and abooklet entitled "Cragsmoor: an Historical Sketch (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983), but other historic material wasalso consulted, including a number of books on the subject of the Catskills, particularly Evers, The Catskills fromWilderness to Woodstock, and Wakefields To the Mountain by Rail. Nathaniel Bartlett Sylvesters History of UlsterCounty, New York was also consulted. The Cragsmoor Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996, when it wasdescribed as extending from "the Chapel of the Holy Name (#54[1]) on Henry Road at the northern limits; to theformer Cragsmoor Inn Gateposts (#98A) (Photo 12) on Cragsmoor Road (aka County Road 104) at the southernlimits to the Thurston Residence (#20) on Sams Point Road at the eastern limits. (Map 3) The historic districtcovers approximately 362 acres and contains 210 contributing features on 107 properties: 168 contributingbuildings, 15 contributing structures, 11 contributing objects, and 16 contributing sites" (NRRF, 1996:2). Thebuildings range from individual dwellings and their associated structures, including a number of artists studios, tohotels, religious facilities, public buildings and cemeteries. In date these structures range from the Federal period(early 19th century) to the second half of the 20th century, with many homes dating to the late 19th and early 20thcenturies, when the Cragsmoor artist colony was in its heyday. "Orchard Cottage", which stands in the center ofCragsmoor and is thought to have been built in c. 1824, is of interest in the context of this report as an example of adwelling that went through a number of iterations, having served as a roadside inn and tavern, and then a boardinghouse catering to summer visitors. The statement of significance prepared for the National Register supported the nomination to the NationalRegister based on the following criteria: 1) Property [that] is associated with events that have made a significantmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  11. 11. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 8Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkcontribution to the broad patterns of our history, and 2) Property that embodies the distinctive characteristics of atype, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, orrepresents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction (NRRF Section8:1). The period of significance was identified as c. 1870 to 1945. The statement reads: The Cragsmoor Historic District, located near the southern border of Ulster County, New York, is historically and architecturally significant as a rare example of a late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century development as the first documented arts colony in the United States . . . . The building stock in Cragsmoor includes a broad cross section of vernacular architecture ranging from the year-round Federal homes of the settlement period through the seasonal shingle-style Victorian, Craftsman and Colonial Revival frame summer houses. The changes in the architectural style of the district reflect the varied cultural influences and building traditions of the early farming community [which] reflected the functional and subsistence nature of the community . . . Later development of the arts colony transformed a then small agrarian settlement into a populous summer town that brought forth the many creative talents of the new seasonal residents. The character of the early-twentieth century community was fast paced and resort oriented, and it quickly overshadowed the earlier nature of the unhurried rural town. The numerous shingle-style, Craftsman and Colonial Revival homes illustrate how the small agrarian community was overcome by the new hamlet of Cragsmoor. Today the district as a whole retains a visual unity that represents Cragsmoor at its peak as a summer colony in the early twentieth century, despite having transformed into a year-round community with a mixture of weekend and permanent homes (NRRF 1996: Section 8, page 2). Although the area around Cragsmoor is thought to have been settled as early as the 1770s, the areaincluded in the Cragsmoor Historic District remained sparsely populated until the late 19th century. Known asManceville in the mid-19th century, it had a post office, fire house and the Mance homestead. Evansville, which waslocated at the intersection of Cragsmoor Road (County Road 104) and Route 52 (referred to now as LowerCragsmoor) was the center of early development as a result of the construction of the Ellenville and NewburghPlank Road, which generally follows the path of Route 52 and opened in 1851. In 1854, the year when the Tillson& Brink Map of Ulster County, New York was published, Cragsmoor Road was not shown, nor was there anyindication of dwellings or the post office in the center of Manceville. (Map 4) At Evansville only two structures,one of them H. Evans Hotel, were identified. Although the Ellenville and Newburgh Plank Road is the onlyhighway shown in the area, according to the NRRF, there was another access to the area by way of a steep road fromWalker Valley to Ellenville that ran north of South Gully Road and east of Vista Maria Road (NRRF 1996:Section8, page 3 citing Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:11). In contrast to the area of Manceville and Evansville, Ellenvilleand the area along the Old Mine Road (Route 209) and the Delaware & Hudson Canal were well established. TheBeers 1875 County Atlas of Ulster, New York indicates that there was more development in theManceville/Evansville area, but, again in contrast with the area to the west, it was sparsely populated. (Map 6) TheBeers map does, however, show the dwelling of J. L. Decker on the west side of the road in the southwesternportion of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site. The origins of the Cragsmoor arts colony date to 1872, when Edward Lamson Henry first came to themountains on a sketching expedition. Some years later, having returned over a number of years, he purchased landand built himself a summer house. The process by which Cragsmoor was transformed from an agrarian communityto a tourist destination was repeated in many areas of the Catskills, where farm families began to take in summerboarders. While some of the summer people may have decided to purchase existing homes or build their own,mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  12. 12. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 9Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkothers remained regular visitors, but preferred to remain in lodging, where their needs were attended to by others.The history of the Cragsmoor Inn grows out of this particular trend. This will be discussed in more detail below. The NRRF concludes that Cragsmoor has now entered another phase in its development, as summer homesare transformed into year-round residences and new homes are built. (Photo 2) For the most part, the construction ofnew year-round residences has taken place outside the historic core, and the historic integrity of the community hasbeen preserved by this fact. The NRRF concludes that the . . . collection of late-nineteenth and early twentieth century summer homes . . . recalls the discovery and development of the mountain top community and its celebration of mature. This district has maintained its general setting, layout and viewscape; as such it has survived as an intact visual example of rural nineteenth and early twentieth century tourism development (NRRF 1996: Section 8, Page 11)History of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site The material presented below is not intended to be an exhaustive examination of the history of the site, butis, rather, an exercise to locate and identify structures either on or adjacent to the project area that may be of historicsignificance. For this purpose, a group of historic maps available at the State Museum in Albany have provided thebasis for the discussion. We are aware of the existence of another map that dates to c.1900, however, this mapappears to be in the private collection of Wendy Harris. It was not made available, nor does it appear that goodcopies of it are in the collections of the Cragsmoor Free Library, the Ellenville Library, or the archives at theMohonk Reserve. A reproduction of this map is included in the Hakam and Houghtaling pamphlet, but the qualityof the print is so poor that it could not be read or reproduced for this report. Although earlier maps exist, they do not, in most cases, identify points other than major highways orindividual structures. As noted above, Tillson and Brink’s 1854 Map of Ulster County, New York shows theShawangunk Ridge, including the project area, as undeveloped (Map 4). The project area was, at the time, interiorland, located some distance from the Ellenville and Newburgh Plank Road, the major highway through the area.The major area of development in the area is in the Village of Ellenville, located in a valley to the north. TheEllenville and Newburgh Plank Road, the Delaware and Hudson Canal and Sandburgh Creek are shown parallelingthe Shawangunk Ridge’s western face, along Ellenville’s eastern border. The Ellenville and Newburgh Plank Road,opened in 1851, generally followed the roadbed of present-day County Route 52. In terms of the project area’svicinity, little detail is shown, however, there were two structures located on the highway south of the project area.The first of these structures was a hotel owned by H. Evans, which was located about 1320 feet (402.33m) south ofthe project area on the east side of the County Route 52. The second structure, owned by L. Evans, was locateddirectly across the street from the hotel, on the west side of the highway. Other than these two structures, no otherdevelopment is shown to have existed in the vicinity of the project area. Other sources report that there was alsosome development near the intersection of Cragsmoor Road and South Gully Road, but this is not shown on the1854 map. In 1854 no structures of any kind appear within the boundaries of the project area, nor is there anyindication that there were access roads into the site.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  13. 13. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 10Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York J.H. French’s 1858 Map of Ulster County, New York shows a marked increase in development in thevicinity of the project area, as well as the Shawangunk Ridge in general (Map 5). Contributing to this developmentwas the construction of a highway connecting County Route 52 with the hamlet of Cragsmoor, then referred to asManceville. At the intersection of the Ellenville and Newburgh Plank Road there was now a toll gate, as well as theH. Evans Hotel. On the south side of the highway, near the toll gate, was a dwelling owned by J. Mance and anotherowned by H. Evans, presumably the owner of the hotel. In addition, there was a dwelling owned by H. Evans on thewest side of the road to Cragsmoor. The project area, formerly interior land, was located on the west side ofCragsmoor Road. In 1858 no structures were located within the project area. North of the project area, there wereseveral dwellings, including those of J. Boyce and J. Mance. On the east side of Cragsmoor Road a schoolhouse hadbeen built, replacing a log school that had been located at Evansville (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:11). This schoolreportedly served the local children, but also drew children from as far away as Walker Valley. By the time F. W. Beers’ 1875 County Atlas of Ulster, New York was published, the project area’s vicinityhad experienced some minor changes. At the intersection of Cragsmoor Road and Route 52, W. Oates now ownedthe hotel formerly owned by H. Evans. J. Mance still lived near the toll gate, while J. Marshall owned the house atthe southeastern corner on the intersection. North of the project area the road patterns had become more established,with the home of G. Brokely at the southwest corner of the intersection of Cragsmoor Road and South Gully Road.The schoolhouse is seen on the east side of the road. The project area was, apparently, owned by J. L. Decker,whose dwelling stood on the eastern edge of the property near Cragsmoor Road. The land to the north and west,which would include much of present-day Cragsmoor, was owned by J. D. Decker, whose dwelling was locatedsouth of the Brokely dwelling. In addition to the changes in the Cragsmoor community, the map indicated that theNew York and Oswego Railroad had been built east of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. The railroad runs in agenerally north to south direction about 1¼ miles (2.011 km) west of the project area. The railroad, which providedrelatively easy access from Weehawken to Ellenville, was important to the development of Cragsmoor as a touristdestination and resort area. Map research has demonstrated that in 1858 no development had taken place on the Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site, but that by 1875 the J. L. Decker home was located in the southeastern portion of the site adjacent toCragsmoor Road. In 1875 Old Inn Road was not yet opened and no structures are shown in the northern or westernportions of the property. The National Register Building Structure Inventory Form, prepared by Harry P. Hansen,states that "The Decker farmhouse became the first Inn in the 1870s and was called the Mountain House (NationalRegister Building Structure Inventory Form, hereafter referred to as NRIF 1995:3). While referred to in the NRIF asan "inn", this structure was an example of a farmhouse that accepted paying guests, and would be referred to as aboardinghouse. The Mountain House was purchased by Charles Geilhard in 1884, and proved so successful that herebuilt immediately when the building burned to the ground in 1887. Although it is not specifically stated in theNRIF, information obtained at the Cragsmoor Free Library indicates that the second building was not built at thelocation of the original Mountain House," but that it was built on the site of the later Cragsmoor Inn. Geilhardnamed his new boarding house "Wawbeck." (Fig. 4) The boarding house was purchased in 1903 by Mrs. AustaDensmore Sturdevant and Ernest and Helen Densmore, who were her uncle and aunt (NRIF 1995:3). Between 1903and 1908, the new owners, through a number of additions to the original building, changed the appearance of"Wawbeck," creating numerous open porches and balconies that overlooked the valley to the east, as well asancillary buildings and landscape features, including the entrance gates. This complex they named the CragsmoorInn.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  14. 14. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 11Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York The Cragsmoor Free Library has a brochure advertising the Cragsmoor Inn, which is described as "ADelightful Place (Cragsmoor Inn, undated brochure). At the time the managers of the inn were C. Densmore Curtisand Robin Dale Compton. Although undated, the brochure must date to the early 1920s, since it specificallymentions that golf is among the "amusements" available (Cragsmoor Inn, undated brochure:23) Accepting thatadvertising brochures may tend to exaggeration, the copy reads in part: Directly underneath the great palisades of Sams Point that forms the natural dykes about Maratanza lies Cragsmoor, a mountain plateau wooded and fertile, with running streams, green meadows and pleasant gardens. Here one finds all the quiet, intimate scenes of valley farm life, raised to the summit of the mountains and bordered by its picturesque declivities. The horizon stretches from the Catskills in the north to the Hudson Highlands in the south. There is much in the lines of the overlapping mountain ranges, and the precipitous descents of the foreground, that recalls the grand mountain scenery of Switzerland and of our own Great West (Cragsmoor Inn brochure undated:5-6). As described in the brochure, the Cragsmoor Inn was situated on Cliff Farm, which encompassed 300acres, covering much of the plateau. It contained 105 guest rooms, 43 of which were connected to private baths. Inaddition, there were 10 public baths, 6 public parlors, and 3 dining rooms (Cragsmoor Inn brochure undated: 6-7).The verandah was over 500 in length, and public areas and many of the guest rooms were heated by open fireplaces.The hotel clearly prided itself on the purity and wholesomeness of its food, pointing out that no canned food of anykind was served, and that much of the produce, poultry, and dairy products were locally acquired. The dining roomswere, again according to the brochure, supplied with "good china and napery." Although not advertising itself as asanitarium, indeed the brochure specifically states that it cannot accept "[p]ersons suffering from pulmonarydiseases", it is also clear that the owners of Cragsmoor Inn wished to draw attention to the purity of the air, thecleanliness of the accommodations, described as "approximate hospital sanitation," and the fact that at an elevationof 1857 above sea level the Cragsmoor Inn was located "three hundred feet higher than the two Saranac Lakes ofthe Adirondacks, and the same as Lake Placid in the same region, and that the air at Cragsmoor was "pure, dry andexhilarating. . . " (Cragsmoor Inn brochure undated: 22-26). While clearly a place where there was "abundant opportunity for the sports of young people and . . . aplace where children can be allowed freedom with safety", not everyone was equally welcome. The brochure states"Owing to neighborhood preferences, Hebrews are requested not to apply" and that a reference or personal interviewwas required (Cragsmoor Inn, undated brochure:26 & 29). While more recently it would not have been acceptableto boldly state that no Hebrews would be accepted, as late as the 1960s the requirement for a reference or a personalinterview remained a way for hoteliers to ensure that "neighborhood preferences" would not be undermined. The convenience of travel to the Cragsmoor Inn was emphasized in the brochure, which stated that it couldbe reached by the New York, Ontario & Western Railway from Weehawken to Ellenville. From there it was but "adrive of an hour to an hour and a half up a beautiful, shaded mountain road. . . ", the inn being located some distancefrom the highway in a private park (Cragsmoor Inn, undated brochure: 6). Its convenience was further emphasizedby the fact that it was "especially suited to week end guests who are able to reach office in New York by 10:30 onMondays (Cragsmoor Inn, undated brochure:27). The Cragsmoor Inn was a "focal point of Cragsmoor social life" for many years, but as the result of"change[s] in vacationing trends and the damaging effects of the Depression, the Inn fell upon difficult times . . . ",and in 1939 it was sold (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:24). Despite the difficulties, the Inn continued to operate intomahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  15. 15. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 12Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkthe 1960s, when it shared the buildings with the Mohonk Cragsmoor School for Boys, which used the buildings inthe fall to spring. The school moved out of the Cragsmoor Inn in 1963, at the end of its lease, after which it appearsthe buildings fell into disrepair to the point where in 1970 ". . . the Inn was burned as a fire drill by the CragsmoorVolunteer Fire Co. (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:24). The site of the Cragsmoor Inn is now vacant land (Photo 1),but several of the ancillary buildings related to the inn remain on the north side of Old Inn Road. Part of the openspace which was the former golf course remains as well, and is on a portion of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitagesite (Photo 5). The "Beveridge Cottage" is situated on the south side of Old Inn Road adjacent to the MahamudraBuddhist Hermitage site. (Photo 7) The NRIF, prepared by Betsy Farrell, is the source of the information providedhere. "Beveridge Cottage," which was built c. 1905 & 1920, was originally used as a summer cottage and was partof the Cragsmoor Inn property. The design of the house is attributed to Mrs. A. Sturdevant, while the stonework issaid to the work of Lawrence Keir. For a time after the Cragsmoor Inn closed "Beveridge Cottage," was used as theclubhouse for the golf course, which continued to operate as a public facility. Today it is a private house. The house to the west on the south side of Old Inn Road and on the western perimeter of the MahamudraBuddhist Hermitage site, is called "Gardiner Cottage." (Photo 8) The construction date is uncertain, but wasreportedly between 1900 and 1920. This building was never part of the Cragsmoor Inn, despite being located in thecenter of the Cragsmoor Inn property. It was built for Jennie Bell Gardiner and conveyed to Effie M. Whitelaw in1936. In addition to the house and garage, there is a pump house and well on the north side of the road. Reportedlythis well provided all of the water for the Cragsmoor Inn. (Photo 22) Associated with the Cragsmoor Inn, but considered a non-contributing structure, due to changes in thebuilding that include vinyl siding and a total renovation c. 1988, is the house at 97 Old Inn Road. (Photo 3)According to the NRIF again prepared by Betsy Farrell, the building, referred to as the cottage" was built before1899, probably by Charles Geilhard. It was used by the staff of the Cragsmoor Inn during the season, and by Mrs.Sturdevant and her daughter, Mrs. Compton, in the autumn after the inn closed for the season. The Cragsmoor Inn Gateposts are located at the entrance to Old Inn Road. (Photo 12) Today the half-moonstone wall constructed of Shawangunk grit conglomerate is all that is standing, but originally these walls and thestone posts (no longer in evidence) were topped with wooden columns and cross members, all of which provided animposing entrance to the Cragsmoor Inn. The NRIF states that the gates were designed by Mrs. Sturdevant and werein place by the summer of 1905. Although not now part of the Cragsmoor Inn site, "Bear Cliff House" is visually part of the landscape westof the golf course. The architect of the house, which was constructed c. 1909, was Mrs. A. Sturdevant, owner of theCragsmoor Inn. She built the house as her "dream house." Photos of the golf course show "Bear Cliff House" in thebackground. (Fig. 6) The Cragsmoor County Club, a portion of which includes the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, wasbuilt by the Cragsmoor Company, Inc, and leased by this entity, along with the Casino, which was to the south of"Beveridge Cottage." The Casino burned in the 1950s. The golf course was constructed c. 1924-25, primarily,according to K. T. Terwillinger, by Leonard Marl. The golf course was one of amenities advertised in the undatedCragsmoor Inn brochure, which indicates that the brochure must date to after that time. It was a nine-hole course,with the First Tee directly across Old Inn Road from the main building. As noted above, the golf course continuedto operate after the inn itself had closed, but at some point it too was abandoned and used as agricultural land.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  16. 16. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 13Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New YorkFarming has ceased on the property, and the land is gradually undergoing "old field succession" and returning toforest. At the present time there are no structures located on the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, but, in the1870s the J. L. Decker farmhouse, was located in the area where the new access road from Cragsmoor Road isproposed. With the exception of the stone walls, the tees and greens, the Decker dwelling and, perhaps, associatedoutbuildings, are the only structures ever located within the project area. Some of the stone walls are still standing(Photo 13), but the little evidence of the tees or greens, other than the land forms, would have survived the farmingepisodes. The visual inspection of the property indicated that there is no evidence of the Decker farmhouse oroutbuildings on the site.Additional Research Undertaken As part of the research, surveys completed for sites in the general area were consulted. However, only onesurvey was available, the Phase 1 Archaeological Survey for the Sam’s Point Interpretive Center (OPRHP00PR04229), which is located approximately 1½ miles (2.414 km) east of the project area. This survey covered theBerry Picker Shacks and the Botsford Farm and Store sites mentioned above, as well as their associated middens(OPRHP A111.19.00297 & A111.19.00298). It was recommended that the sites not be further disturbed, as theyrepresented potentially significant examples of rural Shawangunk extractive industry workers (Pickman and Harris2003:7). This report is referenced in the bibliography.Sensitivity Assessment and Site Prediction Professional surveys and excavations in the Town of Wawarsing and the surrounding area indicate thepresence of prehistoric sites in the vicinity of the project area. One of the sites, the Cragsmoor Rockshelter (OPRHPA111.19.00291), is located at the base of an escarpment at an elevation of 1900 (579.12 m). This site, whichyielded a Late Archaic Normanskill projectile point (c. 4000 BP), is in close proximity to the Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site. The Lake Maratanza–Sam’s Point Preserve site (OPRHP A111.19.00292), located about 2 miles(3.218 km) northwest of the project area, yielded a single diagnostic projectile point dated to the Orient Phase(3300-3000 BP). The presence of nearby prehistoric sites that yielded diagnostic material indicates that NativeAmerican peoples utilized the area over many millennia. The potential for prehistoric sites to be located on theMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage property is increased by the presence of on-site, though intermittent, streams thatcould have provided potable water, at least when they were flowing. There is also a large amount ofcryptocrystalline rich lithic resources, which could have provided lithic material needed by prehistoric peoples forthe manufacture of projectile points and other tools. Steep slopes and the extreme stoniness of the soils lessens thepotential for the site to contain prehistoric cultural resources, but, based on the NYSM and OPRHP environmentalmodels, the more level areas on the site are judged to have a moderate potential to yield evidence for prehistoricactivity on the site. With respect to the potential for the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site to contain historic culturalresources, the sensitivity of the site, despite the presence of a 19th century farmstead on the site (J. L. Decker farmand boarding house), is assessed as moderate at best. The reason for this is that no evidence of foundations orhistoric cultural material was observed during the walkover of the site. Historic farmsteads usually "announce" theirmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  17. 17. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 14Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkpresence by stone foundations, cellar holes, or the presence of artifacts on the ground. We know that this complexburned in 1887, and that the boarding house was rebuilt, not on the location of the Decker farmhouse, but on that ofthe Cragsmoor Inn. The second boarding house, as described above, was called "Wawbeck". It is possible that afterthe fire the area was cleared. The fact that the land associated with the Decker farm was later incorporated into theCragsmoor Country Club golf course may also have served to further eradicate the earlier buildings. Additionally, itis most likely that over the years Cragsmoor Road has been widened and otherwise altered, further reducing thepotential for the area to contain intact historic resources.Conclusions and RecommendationsPrehistoric Sensitivity Based on the presence of prehistoric sites in the general vicinity, the potential for the site to containprehistoric archaeological remains cannot be ruled out. Due to the intermittent nature of the streams that flow acrossthe site and the steepness of portions of the property, it potential of the site to contain prehistoric cultural resourcesis considered moderate. It is, therefore, recommended that a Phase 1B Archaeological Field Reconnaissance Surveytake place, focusing on the level portions of the property to document any prehistoric activity.Historic Sensitivity With respect to the potential for historic cultural resources, map research indicates that the J. LK. Deckerdwelling, which became the "Mountain House," was located in the southeastern portion of the project area. It isprobable that there were outbuildings associated with the farm that may have persisted into the era when it was usedas a summer boarding house. The Decker dwelling and possible outbuildings are the only structures that werelocated within the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site. There are a number of stone walls on the site (Photo 13);these are considered historically important by the community. The structures associated with the CragsmoorCountry Club were limited to the tees and greens, and only scant evidence of these features would not have survivedthe years of farming that followed the abandonment of the golf course. Two dwellings are located adjacent to theproject area on the south side of Old Inn Road. (Photo 7 & 8) It is possible that the northern edges of the projectarea might contain dump sites or middens associated with these structures; however, the building set back specifiedindicates that if such features are present, they will not be impacted by the proposed development. It is consideredthat the historic potential of the site, like that of the prehistoric, is moderate, with a focus on the area in which theDecker farm was located. It is, therefore, recommended that a Phase 1B Archaeological Field ReconnaissanceSurvey be undertaken and that the testing strategy be designed to rule out the presence of historic cultural resourceson the site.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  18. 18. PHASE 1B REPORTmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  19. 19. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 15Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New YorkPhase 1B Introduction On February 18th and 19th 2006, CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants completed a fieldreconnaissance level archaeological survey of the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site, Cragsmore Road and OldInn Road, Town of Wawarsing Ulster County, New York. (Map 1-2 & Fig. 2-3) Archaeological fieldwork was supervised by Stephanie Roberg-Lopez, MA, RPA, Principal Investigator.Kris Mierisch served as crew chief. Field technicians included Greg Korosec, Leah Redding and Beth Selig.Writing of the final report was completed by Beth Selig, under the supervision of Stephanie Roberg-Lopez.Preparation of the shovel test excavation records photography and drafting of the field reconnaissance map wascompleted by Beth Selig. The report was revised and produced by Gail T. Guillet.Project Area Description and Environmental Setting The description of the proposed project area and its environmental setting can be found in the Phase 1ALiterature Review & Sensitivity Analysis that is bound with this document. (CITY/SCAPE: Cultural ResourceConsultants, Phase 1A report: pp. 1-4)Assessment of Archaeological Sensitivity As described in the Phase 1A report, while there are no prehistoric sites identified on or adjacent to theproject area, there are several prehistoric sites in the vicinity, including the Cragsmoor Rockshelter (OPRHPA111.19.00291), which is located approximately ⅓ of a mile (0.536 km) north of the project area. In addition to theprehistoric site noted, there are two associated historic OPRHP sites within a two-mile (3.2 km) radius of the projectarea (OPRHP A111.19.00297 & A111.19.00298). Both of these sites are part of the Sam’s Point Interpretive Centersurvey, located approximately 1½ miles (2.414 km) east of the project area. None of the sites mentioned above willbe impacted by the proposed project. Both of these sites are in topography much different than that found within theproject area, but, based on the NYSM and OPRHP environmental models, the project area must be considered tohave a moderate potential to contain prehistoric sites. Among the factors contributing to this assessment are: • The project area contains streams that could have provided prehistoric people with potable water and floral and faunal resources. • The project area contains a significant amount of cryptocrystalline quartzite, in the form of glacial cobbles, which could have provided lithic resources that would have been a magnet for prehistoric peoples.Assuming prehistoric sites to be present, it is anticipated that they would be either short-term camps, focused on thefloral and faunal resources of the site, or special use camps that were utilizing the lithic materials on the site.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  20. 20. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 16Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New YorkHistoric Archaeological Sensitivity In addition to the historic sites noted above, particularly the J. L. Decker farm, there are two NationalRegister Listed historic districts in Cragsmoor, one of which includes a portion of the Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site. As reported above, the Cragsmoor Historic District covers over 300 acres, and includes a total of273 buildings, sites, structures, and objects, with structures dating from the Federal period (early 19th century) to theearly 20th Century and Colonial Revival periods. The Cragsmoor Historic District is considered significant in partbecause it is the first art colony in the United States. It has maintained much of its integrity, despite its gradualconversion from a summer colony to a year-round community. The Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site is situatedon a portion of the now abandoned Cragsmoor County Club golf course, the northern portion of which is within theCragsmoor Historic District. (Photo 5 & 23) The fact that the project area lies within an historic district increasesthe sensitivity of the site with respect to the views, vistas, and view sheds. Several of the buildings within theCragsmoor Historic District area adjacent to the project area and will be visually impacted by it. The second historic district, "Chetolah", is located approximately a ½ mile (0.804 km) southeast of theproject area on Vista Maria Road. It was s originally the estate of artist George Inness, Jr., and is significant becauseit represents an eclectic turn-of-the-century summer home of an artist in the well-established Cragsmoor art colony.Chetolah will not be impacted by the proposed project, due to topography and distance. An examination of the relevant historic maps indicates that the J. L. Decker farm, later called the"Mountain House," was located in the southeastern portion of the site. The visual inspection of this area during thewalkover of the site did not identify any foundations or historic cultural material associated with the Decker farm.With the exception of the Decker farmhouse and possible outbuildings, no other buildings were located within theproject area. There are standing stone walls on the site that are considered historically important by the Cragsmoorcommunity. (Photo 13) The possibility that dump sites or middens might be associated with the "BeveridgeCottage" and "Gardiner Cottage" has been discussed above, but, because of the building set back along theboundaries of the project area any such features would be protected. Although the visual inspection gave no indication that prehistoric or historic cultural resources were presenton the project area, the presence of prehistoric sites in proximity to the project area and the fact that an historic farmwas located on the site, indicated that a Phase 1B Field Reconnaissance Survey of the Mahamudra BuddhistHermitage site was warranted.Methodology Results of the Phase 1A Literature Review and Sensitivity Analysis confirmed that the MahamudraBuddhist Hermitage site is located in an area of documented prehistoric and historic activity. With respect to theprehistoric sensitivity, the landscape conforms to an ecological model that indicates the project area is moderatelysensitive for prehistoric cultural materials. Map research had indicated the potential for historic resources in thesoutheastern portion of the site. Therefore, the testing strategy for the site was structured around the knowledge thatthe property possessed a moderate probability to yield prehistoric and/or historic cultural remains.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  21. 21. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 17Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Areas selected for subsurface testing were identified during a comprehensive walkover of the property,using a map provided by Tim Miller Associates, Inc. (TMA) that identified the Area of Potential Effect (APE).While for the purposes of the Phase 1A review the APE was considered the entirety of the site, the map provided byTMA was used as the basis for the Phase 1B Field Reconnaissance Survey Map. In addition, a map that includedthe proposed plan and slopes in excess of 12 % slope was also provided by TMA. Together these two mapsdetermined the placement of the transects for shovel testing. Slopes in excess of 12 % and areas outside the APEwere eliminated from testing. The comprehensive walkover served to evaluate the site, assess loci of disturbance,rule out slope, assess available raw material and habitation resources, and determine former land usage. It alsoindicates that foundations associated with the Decker farm were not present on the site, nor were historic artifactsobserved. The northern portion of the project area is a golf course that was abandoned in the 1960s and in recentyears has been farmed. (Photo 5) The surrounding land is forest that consists of 50 to 60 year old hardwoods andconifers. (Photo 4) The wooded area consisted of steep slopes, interspersed with level terraces. In the northwesternand southern portion of the property, several streams were identified. (Photo 9 & 11) At the time of the pedestrianreconnaissance the stream beds in the northwestern part of the site were dry. The steep slopes within the projectarea contained exposed sandstone and shale bedrock, but none that were of sufficient height to have acted as arockshelter. (Photo 10) Those areas selected for shovel testing were subjected to tests at intervals of 50’ (15 m) along transectsconforming to the land surface. Determinations about the sensitivity of the various areas were based uponenvironmental factors, topography, and known activity patterns of the prehistoric population. The locations of thetests, and disturbed areas were recorded on a large-scale map that shows surveyed borders, structure locations andthe project area boundaries. (See Field Reconnaissance Map)Field Methodology Field Methodology employed at the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site consisted of several stages ofinvestigation. These included: 1. A walkover and visual inspection of the site to assess areas of potential sensitivity for prehistoric cultural remains. 2. The excavation of a stratigraphic control test to establish the stratigraphy of the site and to identify the depth and composition of the sterile glacially deposited sub soils. 3. Systematic visual inspection of the land surface to rule out the presence of exposed bedrock, rock faces and overhangs. 4. Shovel testing in the areas identified as having a potential sensitivity for prehistoric remains. 5. Photographic documentation of the overall site. The methodology for shovel testing in the sensitive areas involved excavating 16 inch (40 cm) diametershovel tests at 50’ (15 m) intervals. Soils were passed through a 0.25" (0.63 cm) steel mesh screen and the materialsmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  22. 22. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 18Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkremaining in the screens were carefully examined for historic and prehistoric artifacts. Had items been recoveredfrom the screens they would have been assigned to the stratum from which they were obtained. As reported above,no cultural material was recovered. The stratigraphy of each test was recorded, including the depth and the soildescription of each layer. (Appendix D: Shovel Test Record)Field Results Once a testing strategy had been established and areas unsuitable for testing eliminated from the survey,potentially sensitive areas were systematically shovel tested and inspected. CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants conducted a pedestrian reconnaissance of the +90.5 acre(36.2 hectare) property and excavated a total of two hundred and two (202) shovel tests along thirty seven (37)transects within the 30.1 acres (12.04 hectare) Area of Potential Effect (APE). (See Field Reconnaissance Map) Theareas subjected to shovel testing were the more level (slopes < 12%) and undisturbed areas within the Area ofPotential Effect (APE). Transects and shovel tests were placed along the level terraced areas. The length andlocation of transects conformed to the undulating landscape. The northern portion of the project area was in recent years a golf course that was subsequently farmed(Personal communication, Local resident to Beth Selig 02/18/06). TR 1 through 8 tested this open area. (Photo 14)Transects are oriented on a west to east angle, and conformed to the limits of the APE. The terrain, thoughrelatively flat, is still easily recognized as part of a golf course. TR 7 and 8 covered a putting green and associatedbunkers, which are clearly visible on the landscape. TR 37 is aligned southeast to northwest along the corridor of aproposed access road that connects to Old Inn Road. Portions of this access corridor were eliminated from testingdue to steep slopes. The soils in the area are heavily mottled and show evidence of disturbance. The top stratumconsisted of a yellow brown silt clay loam underlain by mottled yellow brown and dark gray clay with gravel. The surrounding land is forest that consists of 50 to 60 year old hardwoods and conifers. (Photo 4, 15 & 16)The wooded area consisted of steep slopes, interspersed with level terraces. (Photo 15-17) TR 9 through 21 werelocated on a level terrace immediately south of the open field. The shovel tests on these transects were excavatedwith the standard 50’ (15 m) interval wherever possible. Along certain transects a larger interval was used in orderto conform to the steeply sloped landscape. The soils in this area contained undisturbed stratigraphy. The topstratum consisting of a dark grayish brown silt loam was underlain by yellowish brown silt clay loam subsoil at anaverage range of 60-10 inches (15-25 cm) below ground surface. (Appendix D Shovel Test Records) TR 22 through 25 were located southeast of TR 21 along a large relatively level terrace. The ten (10)shovel tests are spaced at 50’ (15 m) intervals within the flat areas. Transects in this area contained larger shoveltests intervals ranging 75 to100’ (22-30 m) targeting the level terraces, which are interspersed with steep slopes.These transects were oriented southwest to northeast. Soils in this area consisted of a dark yellowish brown silt clayloam underlain by yellowish brown sandy clay. The stratigraphy was shallow; the substratum was encountered onaverage at a depth ranging 4 to11 inches (10-28 cm) below ground surface. The landscape is littered with looserock, boulders and bedrock outcrops at the ground surface. (Photo 21)mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  23. 23. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 19Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York TR 26 through 29 were located in the west central part of the APE directly east of TR 22 through 25 andorientated northwest to southeast. The ten (10) shovel tests in this area conform to the level segments of this area.The soils in this area are consistent with the soils discussed above. TR 30, aligned northwest to southeast, was excavated along side a rock wall in the central portion of theAPE. The terrain adjacent to the wall was level, although the surrounding terrain was sloped. There was noevidence within the stratigraphy in these six (6) shovel tests to indicate that the terrain had been altered. The soilsvaried slightly to a brown silty sandy loam, underlain by a subsoil of yellowish brown sandy clay. The changes inthe stratigraphy remained shallow, and free of rock obstructions. TR 30 through TR 35 were excavated at the southernmost portion of the APE. They were aligned on a duewest to east angle, conforming to the landscape. The large area was mostly level, and the majority of the thirty eight(38) shovel tests were excavated at the 50’ (15m) interval. Segments were eliminated due to slope and a roadwaythat crossed the APE in the southeastern corner. This roadway was tested, STP 168, the soils analyzed weredisturbed, as such, no other STPs were excavated along this roadway. TR 36 was excavated in the southern portion of the APE. The three (3) shovel tests were aligned on anortheast transect to target a small level vertical terrace. This terrace was considered to have a high potential toyield prehistoric information as it overlooks a small stream along Cragsmoor Road. (Photo 11) No cultural materialof any kind was recovered from this area. The final transect excavated was TR 37, which was placed to test theaccess roadway that traversed a former fairway and putting green. (Photo 19) STP 194 through STP 202 wereexcavated in this area. No cultural material of any kind was recovered.Rockshelters and Mines The Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site contained several location of exposed surface rock, either in theform of bedrock outcrops or ledges. The outcrops created high or steep slopes within the wooded area. Several ofthese outcrops were only slightly visible, or were level with the ground surface. (Photo 10) None of these outcropswere of sufficient height to have served as rockshelters or windbreaks. All outcrops were inspected for evidence ofcryptocrystalline rock or quarrying and occupation. None were identified.Summary and Conclusions A walkover reconnaissance inspection was completed on the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site in theTown of Wawarsing, Ulster County, New York. A thorough review of the existing body of archaeological datarelevant to the project area was undertaken and conclusions drawn concerning the probability of encounteringhistoric and prehistoric cultural remains on the site. Areas of prior disturbance and excessive slope were eliminatedand sensitive areas were identified and comprehensively tested. CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants did not identify any archeological sites within the APE ofthe proposed Mahamuda Buddhist Hermitage. No cultural materials of any kind were recovered. The soils withinmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  24. 24. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 20Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New Yorkthe open field area (the golf course) were heavily disturbed, containing heavy mottling and gravels. The soilsfurther south, within the wooded area, were naturally stratified, if very shallow. The terrain was very rocky,although, none of shovel tests terminated at bedrock. The occasionally loose channery was encountered within theshovel test pits. No evidence of the Decker farm was identified in the southeastern portion of the site near theproposed entrance to the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site from Cragsmoor Road. A total of two hundred and two (202) shovel tests along thirty seven (37) transects were excavated withinthe Area of Potential Effect (APE). Of the 202 shovel tests none yielded cultural material of any kind. Based onthese results, no further archaeological investigation is recommended for the Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  25. 25. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 21Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New YorkBibliographyBeauchamp, William1900 Aboriginal Occupation of New York. In Bulletin of the New York State Museum, vol. 7, No. 32. University of the State of New York: Albany, NY.Beers, F. W.1875 County Atlas of Ulster, New York. Walker & Jewett: New York, NY.Brown, Phil1996 Catskill Culture: A Mountain Rats Memories of the Great Jewish Resort Area. Temple University Press: Philadelphia, PA.1996 Catskill Culture: The Rise and Fall of a Jewish Resort Area Seen Through Personal Narrative and Ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. Vol. 25. No. 1. April 1996, pp. 83-119.Anonymousn.d. Cragsmoor Inn: A Delightful Place. Advertising brochure. Source: Cragsmoor Free Library.Eisenberg, Leonard1978 Paleo-Indian Settlement Pattern in the Hudson and Delaware River Drainages. Occasional Publications in Northeastern Anthropology, No. 4. Franklin Pierce College: Rindge, NH.1991 “The Mohonk Rockshelter: A Major Neville Site in New York State.” In Occasional Publications in Northeastern Anthropology. vol. 11. Archaeological Services: Bethlehem, CT.Evers, Alf1972 The Catskills from Wilderness to Woodstock. Doubleday & Co., Inc.: Garden City, NY.French, J. H.1858 Map of Ulster County, New York. Taintor, Dawson & Co.: Philadelphia, PA.1860 Gazetteer of New-York State. Heart of the Lakes Publishing: Interlaken, NY. [Reprinted 1981]Funk, Robert E.1976 Recent Contributions to Hudson Valley Prehistory. New York State Museum Memoir 22. Albany, NY.Hakam, Margaret & Susan Houghtaling1983 Cragsmoor - an Historical Sketch. Cragsmoor Free Library, Cragsmoor, NY.Kinsey, III, W. Fred 1972 Archeology of the Upper Delaware Valley. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission: Harrisburg, PA.Küchler, August W.1946 Potential Natural Vegetation of the Conterminous United States. American Geographical Society: New York, NY.Parker, Arthur1920 The Archaeological History of New York. New York State Museum Bulletin. No. 237 and 238. The University of the State of New York: Albany, NY.Pickman, Arnold & Wendy E. Harris2003 Phase 1 Archaeological Survey. Sams Point Interpretive Center. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York (OPRHP 00PR4229). Prepared for The Nature Conservancy, New Paltz, NY.Ritchie, William A.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  26. 26. Revised Phase 1A Literature Review & Sensitivity Analysis & Phase 1B Archaeological Field Survey 22Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York1969 The Archaeology of New York State. Natural History Press: Garden City, NY.Ritchie, William A. and Robert Funk1973 Aboriginal Settlement Patterns in the Northeast. Memoir 20. New York State Museum and Science Service. Albany, NY.Schuberth, Christopher J.1968 The Geology of New York City and Environs. The Natural History Press: Garden City, NYShaver, Peter (compiler)1992 The National Register of Historic Places in New York State. Preservation League of New York State: Albany, NY.Snow, Dean R.1980 The Archaeology of New England. Academic Press: New York, NY.Tillson, Oliver J. & Henry B. Brink1854 Map of Ulster County, New York. Scale: 1¼" = 1 Mile.Thompson, John J.1966 Geography of New York State. Syracuse University Press: Syracuse, NY.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)1989 Soil Survey of Sullivan County, New York. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.United States Department of the Interior.1980 National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form. "Chetolah (George Inness, Jr. Estate). Vista Maria Road. Cragsmoor. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York.1996 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. Cragsmoor Historic District. Cragsmoor. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York.United States Department of the Interior.1985 National Register Bulletin # 24: Technical Information on Comprehensive Planning, Survey of Cultural Resources, and Registration in the National Register of Historic Places. Reprint. National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division. Washington, D.C.Wakefield, Manville B.1970 To the Mountain by Rail. Wakefield Press: Grahamsville, NY.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  27. 27. APPENDICESmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  28. 28. LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A: Maps & Figures Appendix B: Photographs Appendix C: Soil Description & Map Appendix D: Shovel Test Records Appendix E: Correspondencemahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  29. 29. APPENDIX A MAPS & FIGURESmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  30. 30. MAP & FIGURE LISTMapsMap 1: Location Map including Project Area. USGS Topo. 7.5 Minute Series. Ellenville Quadrangle. Scale: 1:50,000.Map 2: Location Map including Project Area (from Jimapco Atlas of Hudson Valley 2002). Plate 25. Scale: 1:36,000.Map 3: Map of Boundaries of Cragsmoor Historic District, Wawarsing, Ulster County, New York. (Source: National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 1996) Scale: 1" = 600Map 4: Oliver J. Tillson & Henry P. Brinks 1854 Map of Ulster County, New York. Scale: 1¼” = 1 Mile.Map 5: J. H. Frenchs 1858 Map of Ulster County, New York. Scale: 1¼” = 1 Mile.Map 6: F. W. Beers 1875 County Atlas of Ulster, New York. Scale: unknown.FiguresFig. 1: Soils Map for Project Area. (Source: USDA 1979) Scale: 1:15,840 (1" = 400) (Located in Appendix C)Fig. 2: Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site Tax Parcels. (Source: Tim Miller Associates, Inc. 2006) Scale on map.Fig. 3: Plan of Proposed Development of Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site. (Source: Tim Miller Associates 2006) Scale: None shown.Fig. 4: "Wawbeck House then Cragsmoor Inn" (Source: Collection of Cragsmoor Free Library)Fig. 5: View of Bear Cliff House from Golf Course. 1930? (copy 1980) (Source: Collection of Cragsmoor Free Library)Fig. 6: "Driving from the First Tee" from Brochure of the Cragsmoor Inn. (Source: Collection of Cragsmoor Free Library) Phase 1B Field Reconnaissance Map (in sleeve)mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  31. 31. APPENDIX B PHOTOGRAPHSmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  32. 32. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 1: View to northeast from Old Inn Road looking to site of Cragsmoor Inn. Inn was burned in 1970 as a "fire drill by the Cragsmoor Volunteer Fire Department (Hakam & Houghtaling 1983:24). View to northeast. Photo 2: Example of 20th century homes located on Old Inn Road. View to southwest.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  33. 33. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 3: House was initially part of Cragsmoor Inn. Used as guest house and home for owners during off-season. Renovations make this a non-contributing structure to Cragsmoor Historic District. View to northwest. Photo 4: Recent growth forest with open areas of grass and fern characterize areas on site not cleared for golf course. View to southwest.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  34. 34. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 5: Looking southeast across golf course from location of one of the tees. Land is undulating and steep in areas. Photo 6: Swimming pool associated with Cragsmoor Inn located on north side of Old Inn Road. View to north.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  35. 35. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 7: "Beveridge Cottage" (built c. 1905 & 1920). Design attributed to Mrs. A. Sturdevant, owner of Cragsmoor Inn. After inn closed, used as clubhouse for golf course. Today it is a private house. View to south. Photo 8: "Gardiner Cottage" reportedly built between 1900-1920. Recent renovations would probably cause this to be declared a non-contributing structure in the Cragsmoor Historic District. View to southeast.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  36. 36. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 9: One of several streams that flow across site. View to southwest. Photo 10: Sharangunk conglomerate bedrock outcrops were observed on site. None were of sufficient height to have served as rockshelters of windbreak. View to northeast.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  37. 37. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 11: Stream bordering southern edge of site near Cragsmoor Road. View to northwest. Photo 12: Half-moon stone entrance gates to Old Inn Road. Entrance has changed significantly since Cragsmoor Historic District was designation in 1996. Gates are outside proposed project area. View to west.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  38. 38. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 13: Low stone walls were observed on site. Stone walls are considered a component of Cragsmoor Historic District. View to southwest.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  39. 39. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 14: Open grassland makes up northern portion of project area. Field crew excavates TR 4. View to north. Photo 15: Steep slopes interspersed with level terraces are found within APE. View to west.mahamuda1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  40. 40. Appendix B: PhotographsMuhamadura Busshist Hermitage Site. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 16: Areas of open forest cover 90 percent of APE. View south. Photo 17: Transects and shovel tests were placed along level terraces. Shovel test interval was lengthened to avoid areas of slope greater that 15 percent. View north.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  41. 41. Appendix B: PhotographsMuhamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 18. Soils within APE are very rocky and substratum is shallow. Photo 19: Transect 37 tests acsess road traversing fairway and putting green. Golf course, built in 1924-25, was operational into 1960’s. View south.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  42. 42. Appendix B: PhotographsMuhamudra Buddhist Hermitage Site. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 20: Brush and other vegetation cover landscapes level terraces. View west. Photo 21: Landscape is littered with loose rock, boulders and bedrock outcrops at ground surface. View east.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  43. 43. Appendix B: PhotographsMahamudra Buddhist Hermitage. Cragsmoor Road & Old Inn Road. Town of Wawarsing. Ulster County, New York Photo 22: Pump House on north side of Old Inn Road opposite "Gardiner Cottage." Water from its well reportedly served entire Cragsmoon Inn property. View to north. Photo 23: View looking across Mahamudra Buddhist Hermitage site from edge of "Gardiner Cottage" property. View to southeast.mahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants
  44. 44. APPENDIX C SOIL DESCRIPTION & MAPmahamudra1a/1b CITY/SCAPE: Cultural Resource Consultants

×