Sex Show

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Establishment of sexual preference through operant conditioning.

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  • Jay Morre’s Comments:
    Jay Moore GAR 238C
    Dept. of Psychology (414) 229-4746
    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
    Re your talk/read, it seems to me that recognizing inherent
    genetic/physiological differences between male and female bodies is not a bad thing. Male and female brains differ, for example, in the hypothalamus. These differences are traced to the way genetics dictates that tissue will develop, and the proportions of male and female hormones that are produced. I see nothing problematic in recognizing that environmental stimuli beyond tactile can thereby have different effects on individuals. Presumably, one is also taking about a range of susceptibilities to environmental stimulation, as a function of the range of genetic differences. Onto this substratum are imposed the varieties of experiences we have. Some are consistent, some are inconsistent, with the susceptibilities.
    Therefore, I submit that some individuals are susceptible/predisposed in an unconditioned way to arousal by sight along the continuum from male to female anatomy. Nature has selected males who are distributed such that most are aroused by female anatomy, but a few by male anatomy. Nature has also selected females who are distributed such that most are aroused by male anatomy (exept for when they have a headache), but a few by female anatomy. Cultural rules or personal expereinces then either augment or oppose this selection.
    My thinking is that what the gay community does not want is that others make disparaging dispositional attributions about them in the Freudian sense, that something is “wrong” with them. A male who is genetically predisposed to arousal by female anatomy might have personal experiences that mitigate against this. Culture then further challenges the individual, and the individual becomes confused about his sexual orientation. The religious right converts him to heterosexuality and convinces him he was corrupted by the devil but has found salvation by taking a deity as his lord and savior, and so on. All this strikes me as troublesome, of course.
  • Algebraic some or not?
  • Algebraic some or not?
  • I think Collin Powell was a serious ho
  • Sex Show

    1. 1. Heterosexuality Homosexuality Bisexuality Transsexuality A Behavior AnalysisA Behavior Analysis of Human Sexuality.of Human Sexuality.
    2. 2. Click Here to Enter. See hot behavior analysts. See behavior analysts & animals. 1000’s of actual simulated photos. Actual cumulative records. Warning: You must be 18 to enter. Or have Mommy’s credit card.
    3. 3. Bobbie, the transsexual, says:
    4. 4. Help, I’m a woman trapped in a man’s body.
    5. 5. Principles of Behavior, Chapter 26, presents Bobbie’s story. • Bobbie, the transsexual. • Based on an article by Barlow et al. • The present talk is based on my article in Behavior & Social Issues & Elementary Principles of Behavior. • We will do a behavior analysis of sexuality • In terms of behavior, reinforcers, and sources of reinforcers.
    6. 6. Traditionally, People Paint with a Brush Too Broad. • The following concepts are too broad: – Heterosexual – Gay – Lesbian – Transsexual – Bisexual
    7. 7. Let Us Use a Brush Molecular Let us analyze in terms of – Sex-style behavior – Sexually reinforced behavior – Sexual values (i.e., reinforcers & aversive conditions). – Source of reinforcers.
    8. 8. Is Style of Sex-role Behavior Learned or Inherited? • Our sexual style seems so natural. • We seem born to act either feminine or masculine.
    9. 9. • We seem born either to wear dresses or pants? • And born either to wear earrings or not.
    10. 10. • Oops, there have been recent ear- ring mutations in some male homo- sapiens.
    11. 11. Is Style of Sex-role Behavior Learned or Inherited? • Sociobiologists say women are born to wear lipstick. • They are genetically coded to make their mouth look like a vagina. • Really.
    12. 12. Men are so easily fooled,
    13. 13. Men are so easily fooled, especially sociobiologists
    14. 14. I’m so happy I know my genetically coded role.
    15. 15. Sex Style Behavior • Bobbie, the transsexual, learned to sit, walk, and talk. • Mommy taught him traditional female behaviors. • Not intentionally • But what you reinforce is what you get, ready or not.
    16. 16. Bobbie
    17. 17. Bobbie’s Intervention • Barlow taught Bobbie/Bobby traditional male behaviors. • Sexual style is arbitrary and learned.
    18. 18. Sex-style behavior is learned from subtle, social reinforcement and punishment.
    19. 19. Sex-style behavior is not the same as sexual behavior, itself (i.e., behavior reinforced by sexual stimulation).
    20. 20. • So, now let’s look at sexual behavior rather than style of sex-role behavior. • Let’s look at the behavior that produces sexual stimulation (sexual reinforcers).
    21. 21. • The behavior that produces a reinforcer is arbitrary. • It’s the reinforcer that’s inherently important. • Consider imprinting.
    22. 22. The chick hatches.
    23. 23. And soon, proximity to Mom becomes a powerful acquired reinforcer—the imprinted reinforcer.
    24. 24. Normally, the natural but arbitrary response of walking toward Mom, produces the reinforcing proximity to Mom.
    25. 25. However, in the laboratory of the crazed, but kindly, behavioral scientists,
    26. 26. The unnatural and arbitrary response of pecking a disk, produces the reinforcing proximity to Mom, the imprinted reinforcer.
    27. 27. • Imprinting demonstrates that the behavior that produces a reinforcer is arbitrary.
    28. 28. • Imprinting demonstrates that the behavior that produces a reinforcer is arbitrary. • It’s the reinforcer that’s inherently important.
    29. 29. • As it is with imprinting, • So it is with sex-style behavior and sexually reinforced behavior. • It’s the reinforcer and the contingency, not the behavior that’s important. • The behavior is arbitrary.
    30. 30. • And just as the behavior of wearing earrings, lipstick, and a dress is arbitrary. • So is the behavior that produces sexual stimulation arbitrary. • It’s the reinforcer and the reinforcement contingency that are important.
    31. 31. Copulation, masturbation, sodomy, & using electro-mechancial stimulation are all arbitrary responses.
    32. 32. Copulation, masturbation, sodomy, & using electro-mechancial stimulation are all arbitrary responses. The arbitrary response of copulating and pushing a button on a vibrator will both produce inherently reinforcing sexual stimulation.
    33. 33. Just push the button on the electrical device and receive the inherently reinforcing sexual stimulation. I dare you. Just push the button on the electrical device and receive the inherently reinforcing sexual stimulation. I dare you.
    34. 34. Just push the button on the electrical device and receive the inherently reinforcing sexual stimulation. I dare you.
    35. 35. All depends on the contingencies. Nothing depends on whether you’re male or female or uncertain.
    36. 36. All depends on the contingencies. Nothing depends on whether you’re male or female or uncertain.
    37. 37. It’s often hard or impossible to change our style. I must be the real ME.
    38. 38. Yeah, right.
    39. 39. There is no REAL you.
    40. 40. And there is no REAL me.
    41. 41. We’re just accidents of our behavioral history.
    42. 42. We’re just the chance products of Mommy and Daddy’s behavioral contingencies.
    43. 43. A Bi-cultural Parallel
    44. 44. Senor Malott has spent more years in Latin America than I have.
    45. 45. But his Spanish accent still sucks.
    46. 46. Once a gringo, always a gringo.
    47. 47. Do you suppose his gringo accent is genetic?
    48. 48. No, it’s just that it’s almost impossible for him to overcome his behavioral history.
    49. 49. The language we speak is an accident of our behavioral history.
    50. 50. In the same way our sexual style and sexually reinforced behavior are also accidents of our behavioral history.
    51. 51. And just as our accent is not inherited, so our sex-role style is not inherited. And just as a well-learned accent is almost impossible to change, so is a well- learned sex-role style.
    52. 52. The Genetic Basis of Lever Pressing.
    53. 53. But my lever pressing is both genetic and learned, right? Wrong.
    54. 54. The fact that we both press the lever, has a genetic basis. Right.
    55. 55. But I press the left lever; and you press the right one. Yes?
    56. 56. And the difference between us is completely learned. Right.
    57. 57. And you wear pants and I wear a dress. So?
    58. 58. That sex-style difference is also completely learned. You’re cute.
    59. 59. But what about the brain?
    60. 60. Are Behavior Analysts Biological Determinists?
    61. 61. Known Homosexual Behavior Analyst Known Cognitivist Known Mentalist Early brain surgery in search of the source of homosexuality.
    62. 62. A Behavior-Analytic Alternative to this Traditional Biological Determinism
    63. 63. Born to Be Bisexual. • The bonobos (pygmy chimps) • Our closest relatives • Sharing 98% of our genetic profile. • Like the fox and the dog. • Bonobos are vigorously bisexual. • There, but for our behavioral histories, we go.
    64. 64. So I was born bi-sexual.
    65. 65. Or even multi-sexual.
    66. 66. Me too.
    67. 67. And then, subtle, cultural programming restricted our options.
    68. 68. And we acquire strong positive and negative biases for our sources of sexual stimulation.
    69. 69. So strong, our biases for sources of sexual stimulation seem innate.
    70. 70. It’s hard to imagine our biases toward sexual sources were culturally programmed.
    71. 71. Just like our biases for and against certain types of food were culturally programmed.
    72. 72. A Southern Delicacy
    73. 73. I won’t eat no purple pickled pig lips.
    74. 74. A Tourist Delicacy
    75. 75. Mama don’t allow no ‘gator eatin’ ‘round here.
    76. 76. Time for a Brief Review
    77. 77. Is Value of the Source of Sexual Stimuli Learned or Unlearned?
    78. 78. Dr. Sato, the source could be a male, a female, an old boot, or whatever. And the value of the source is learned. So,in the dark, all cats are gray. But, in the light, some cats are disgusting.
    79. 79. How Does the Forbidden Source of Sexual Stimulation Become Aversive? • In the lab, we could do it like this: – In the presence of a red light, sexual stimulation is paired with shock. – And in the presence of a green light, sexual stimulation is not paired with shock. – Then red light would become a learned aversive stimulus.
    80. 80. • But our life is not normally that straightforward. • With us, it’s a matter of subtle verbal analogs of pairing forbidden sexual stimulation with aversive conditions. • Like expulsion from the Garden of Eden for eating the forbidden apple (i.e., getting some nookie).
    81. 81. • With the result that forbidden sex produces disgust, shame, and aversion. I feel such self- loathing. Don’t ever bake another apple pie. Was it something I ate?
    82. 82. REVIEW: Sexual Style Is Completely Learned. • Ot at least the differences between individuals is completely learned?
    83. 83. REVIEW:REVIEW: Sexually Reinforced Behavior IsSexually Reinforced Behavior Is Completely Learned?Completely Learned? • Within the limits of mechanicalWithin the limits of mechanical constraints, that isconstraints, that is.. • Just as nose picking has mechanicalJust as nose picking has mechanical constraints,constraints, • So does copulation.So does copulation. • ButBut the behavioralthe behavioral differencesdifferences betweenbetween individuals is completely learnedindividuals is completely learned??
    84. 84. Is Value of Sexual Stimulation Learned or Unlearned? • The value of a stimulus is its reinforcing or aversive properties. • Proper tactile stimulation of the erogenous zones is an unlearned reinforcer.
    85. 85. The Nature vs. Free-choice Fallacy
    86. 86. If we didn’t inherit our sexual values, then we must have chosen them.
    87. 87. So them homosexuals must have chosen to be homosexual.
    88. 88. What’s Charlie been smoking? Dare I contradict him?
    89. 89. It’s so hard for most people to appreciate the power of the behavioral contingency. I dare to contradict Charlie, because
    90. 90. And the power of learned reinforcers and learned aversive conditions.
    91. 91. We leave little room for free choice.
    92. 92. Is Homophobia Innate?
    93. 93. The Power of Homo- phobia
    94. 94. Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. • But then where can America’s fighting men take their showers? • Poor Bill Clinton was naive about the amazing strength of American homophobia.
    95. 95. House of Lords Debate on Homosexuality Bill. This sort of thing (homosexuality) may be tolerated by the French—but we are British, thank God. Viscount Montgomery (1887–1976), British soldier. Speech, 26 May 1965
    96. 96. Homophobia Is Learned. • Otherwise we wouldn’t need our strong legal and religious sanctions • Against non- procreative sex • E.g. same-sex behavior.
    97. 97. History of Homophobia. • Controlled homosexuality was cool with the ancient Greeks • It was so-so in ancient Rome. • Today, homosexuality is cool in 2/3 of a sample of 76 societies. • E.g., homosexuallity etc. is almost universal among the Arunta of central Australia
    98. 98. History of Homophobia. • But homosexuality is uncool in many industrialized societies. • E.g., homosexuality may cause job loss, housing discrimination, government blacklisting, social ostracism, and even imprisonment
    99. 99. The Bible: Homosexuality • If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, • both of them have committed an abomination: • they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them • [Hebrew Bible. Leviticus 20:13]
    100. 100. Religious and Legal Control: Homosexuality • In European cultures, • religious and secular laws against homosexuality • began in the Middle Ages • as prohibitions against any kind of sexual activity not aimed at procreation.
    101. 101. The Bible: Sodomy. • Anal intercourse or copulation with an animal • Named after Sodom of Sodom and Gomorrah fame, • The two cities destroyed by fire from heaven • Because of their unnatural carnal wickedness, according to the Bible;
    102. 102. The Bible: Sodomy • And so great a sin was sodomy, • that, while fleeing Sodom’s coming destruction, • Lot’s wife, disobeyed God’s orders, looked back at the city • and was turned into a pillar of salt for that voyeuristic sin.
    103. 103. The Bible: Onanism • masturbation and coitus interrupts—named after Onan, son of Judah (Genesis 38:9) • Both were prohibited.
    104. 104. Woody Allen comments on masturbation
    105. 105. Hey, don’t knock masturbation. It’s sex with somebody I love.
    106. 106. • Admittedly, a homosexual can be conditioned to react sexually to a woman, or to an old boot for that matter. • In fact, both homo- and heterosexual experimental subjects have been conditioned to react sexually to an old boot, and you can save a lot of money that way. Homosexual, beat poet William Burroughs comments on learning the value of the source of sexual stimulation:
    107. 107. But not just any old boot, you silly Billy.
    108. 108. A Behavior-Analytic View • People’s biological inheritance has no more to do with their preference for the source of their sexual stimulation • than it does with their preference for the source of their auditory stimulation.
    109. 109. A Behavior-Analytic View • There is no gene that determines whether we prefer same-gender or opposite-gender sexual stimulation, • just as there is no gene that determines whether we prefer heavy metal, new wave, or polkas. • Well, maybe there is a polka gene.
    110. 110. My Goal • To teach behavioral technology. – Easy • To teach a behavioral world view. – Hard • And, to save the world with behavior analysis. – I need some help.
    111. 111. The Dragons We Must Slay Are Simplistic Analyses.
    112. 112. The Dragons We Must Slay Are Simplistic Analyses. • Free-willism. • Mentalism/Cognitivism. • Spiritualism. • Simplistic, methodological behaviorism. • Biological determinism. • This issue of sexuality is just one example.
    113. 113. I Hope You Got the Point.I hope you got the point.
    114. 114. But, in Case You Didn’t • Sexual stimulation is – Unlearned • The value of the source of sexual stimulation is – Learned • Sex-style behavior is – Learned • Sexually reinforced behavior is – Learned
    115. 115. Therefore • The differences between • “Heterosexuality” • “Homosexuality” • “Bisexuality” • “Transsexuality” • Are learned.
    116. 116. In Summary
    117. 117. Better living, through Behaviorism
    118. 118. In Summary
    119. 119. Save the world with behavior analysis.
    120. 120. Anyone Here Whom I Have Not Yet Offended?
    121. 121. The End

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