Chapter 5 homework


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Chapter 5 homework

  1. 1. Name:______________________________ Instructor:____________________ Grade: _________ LO: Chapter 5 Conceptual Work Sheets for Motivation of Learned Acts Behavior does not occur at random—there are always factors influencing whether behavior will occur and what form the behavior will take on. Some procedures or conditions affect the way we behave with respect to particular reinforcers (or rewards). For instance, going a long period of time without food makes behaviors that have produced food in the past more likely to occur because in this condition food is more reinforcing (or rewarding). In other words, when we are hungry we are more likely to engage in behaviors that result in food (such as opening the refrigerator, ordering food, or cooking) than when we are not hungry. This is because food is more reinforcing when we are hungry than when we are not. In this chapter, we will work toward understanding why some behaviors occur, how motivation affects learning, and how this affects survival. Motivation, Behavior, and Learning 1. What are the two basic causes of motion? (1) A. Fire and water B. Inertia and gravity C. Lack of fuel and gravity D. Lack of fuel and presence of harmful states 2. Besides motion, what else do the basic causes of motion produce? (1) A. Stillness B. Motion Sickness C. High winds and rain D. Learning E. Intelligence 3. When is food most reinforcing? (1) A. When it is held just out of reach of a creature B. When a creature has not recently eaten C. Immediately after the creature has eaten D. When it is given after a desired behavior E. When it is warm 4. Rats, pigeons, planaria, and fish all learn because of rewards. (1) A. True Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 B. False 5. What does research say about the role of individual learning differences within the same species? A. They can be accounted for using mathematical formulas B. Without individuality, creatures would be like robots, all alike C. There aren’t too many differences when dealing with basic learning processes D. It is the individual differences among animals that makes this country work E. Individual learning differences help the species function as a group. 6. How does the basic learning process for humans compare to that process for animals? (1) A. The basic learning processes don’t differ much B. The human learning process is creative, but the animals’ is not. C. It takes animals longer to learn than humans. D. Humans learn only what they want to learn; animals learn from the environment. E. The basic process for humans is much more complex. Studying Behavior 7. What sorts of responses and settings have been used to study human learning? (1) A. The same as those used with many animals. B. Responses such as reading and writing, and situations such as the home and college. C. Many complex settings and responses. D. Many simple settings and responses. E. All of the above. 8. Why is it sometimes better to do research in the lab rather than in applied settings? (1) A. The psychologist doesn’t have to move as much in the lab B. The researcher can have more control of outside factors that could affect results. 1
  2. 2. C. The methods for recording are much easier to get to in the lab than in applied settings. D. In applied settings you have to be awake all the time or you might miss something. 9. What reason (other than to help people) do scientists give for doing basic lab research? (1) A. They say they are basically lonely people B. They say they want to help people, but that they don’t like to be around them. C. Science for the sake of science D. They love animals. E. All of the above. Operant Conditioning Reinforcing consequences following a response increase its future frequency, while aversive consequences following a response decrease its future frequency. As you will see, the process of operant conditioning vastly contributes to the behavior of organisms. 10. Define operant conditioning. (1) A. The procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus B. A change in the likelihood of a stimulus due to the response to that stimulus. C. A change in the likelihood of a response due to the results of that response. D. The actions people take to receive unlearned rewards. E. A stimulus results from a response and changes the form or path of the next response. 11. Define Learning. (1) A. The results of lessons. B. A change in a response due to the stimuli preceding that response. C. A change in stimuli that occurs over time. D. A change in a stimulus due to the results of a response. E. A fairly long-lasting change in actions that occurs as a result of experience. 12. In contrasting feedback stimulus control and operant conditioning, what is the main difference? (1) A. In operant conditioning, a response is rewarded or punished. In feedback stimulus control, a stimulus is punished. B. In feedback stimulus control, the result of a response acts as a guide or cue for the next Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 response. In operant conditioning, the result of a response affects the future occurrence of that response. C. Feedback stimulus control mainly concerns stimuli, while operant conditioning mainly concerns responses D. Feedback stimulus control mainly concerns responses, while operant conditioning mainly concerns stimuli. E. Feedback stimulus control is just a type of operant conditioning. 13. Which of the following is an instance of operant conditioning with a creature motivated by lack of fuel? (1) A. Gore started to salivate as the meat touched its tongue. B. Dodo hadn’t eaten in hours. It went right to the spot where it had eaten the tasty berries so many times before. C. The furnace was low on fuel, so the worker quickly loaded it with fuel and all was well again. D. It was a long drive to BSU, so Juke filled the car with gas. E. None of the above. 14. Which of the following is an instance of operant conditioning with a creature motivated by a harmful state? (1) A. Dodo hadn’t eaten in hours. It went right to the spot where it had eaten the tasty berries so many times before. B. It was extremely cold in the building, so the worker loaded the furnace with fuel and the building got warm again. C. The dog chased after the cat and just missed getting hit by a car. D. After Sid told the joke, Juke laughed loudly. E. B&C 15. What would be the likely result for creatures that often do not learn? (1) A. They wouldn’t survive long enough to evolve. B. Other creatures would laugh at them. C. Other creatures would provide for them. D. They would evolve into creatures that do learn. E. Baby creatures would hate their parents. 16. Define reinforcer. (1) A. A stimulus that through pairing makes a neutral stimulus a conditioned stimulus. B. A stimulus that holds other stimuli together. C. A response that makes a stimulus occur 2
  3. 3. D. A change in conditions, stimuli, or events that precedes an act and causes a creature to learn that act. E. A change in conditions, stimuli or events that follows an act and causes a creature to learn that act. 17. Define reward. (1) A. All gifts given in good spirit B. A response that makes a stimulus occur. C. An everyday term meaning roughly the same thing as a reinforcer. D. A prize that causes much responding right after it is given away. 18. How can we find out if something is in fact a reinforcer (reward)? (1) A. Ask the person receiving the thing if it is a reward. B. Find out if it is a punisher. If it isn’t, then it’s a reward. C. If it costs over $100 then it’s a reward. D. If a response that occurs just after the presentation of the stimulus occurs more often in the future, then the stimulus is a reward. E. If a response that occurs just before the presentation of the stimulus occurs more often in the future, then the stimulus is a reward. 19. Under what conditions could a species evolve with a needed fuel not acting as a reward? (1) A. They can only evolve if other creatures feed them. B. If a species never lacks a needed fuel, a creature rewarded by that fuel would be no more likely to survive than one not rewarded by it. Thus, natural selection of the rewarded creature would not occur, even though the fuel is needed. C. The species can evolve if the needed fuel is a punisher and if the creatures are masochists. D. Creatures cannot live if they don’t eat, so it is impossible for a species to evolve that way. E. The species may evolve under any conditions, but the species wouldn’t survive for long. 20. What’s an example of a fuel needed by a monkey that does not act as a reward for it. (1) A. Gasoline B. Vitamin A C. Bananas D. Sugar E. French fries 21. How can non-biological reinforcers help a creature survive? (1) Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 A. By making the creature happier B. By eventually becoming biological reinforcers C. By making it more likely that the creature will get biological reinforcement. D. By decreasing the likelihood of the creature contacting harmful stimuli. E. C & D 22. Which of the following are examples of nonbiological reinforcers? (1) A. Fruits and vegetables B. Warmth and human contact C. Light and motion D. Fuel and escape from harm. E. Sugar and water Respondent Conditioning Behaviors that are sometimes considered reflexes (e.g. pupil dilation, blinking, and fear responses) can often be explained as respondent behaviors. Respondent conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned eliciting stimulus thorough pairing with an unconditioned stimulus. Say what? A stimulus can come to cause a response upon its presentation if it is paired with another stimulus that automatically produces the response. 23. Who was the first to do a thorough study of respondent conditioning? (1) A. B.F. Skinner B. Ivan Pavlov C. Malott & Whaley D. Carl Rogers E. Sigmund Freud 24. Which of the following describes the first classical experiment studying respondent conditioning? (1) A. Whenever a dog drooled it would be given food as reward. Soon the dog was drooling more and more. B. A rat was rewarded with food for pressing a lever. C. The dog that slobbered most and fastest was given a piece of meat that made it drool even more. D. A bell was rung just before putting small amounts of food in a dog’s mouth. After several trials, the dog drooled to the sound of the bell alone. 25. Choose the answer that best defines stimulus. (1) A. Events that cause responses B. Turning on a light C. Any event or thing in the physical world D. All things that are not responses. 3
  4. 4. E. All of the above. 26. In what way do respondent conditioning and evolution by natural selection serve the same function? (1) A. They may increase a creature’s chances of survival B. They both involve rewards for functional behavior C. They both involve stimuli that evoke a response D. They function to take the place of operant conditioning E. They both increase the chances a dog will slobber when food touches its tongue 27. In what way do respondent conditioning and evolution differ? (1) A. Respondent conditioning involves salivation; evolution does not. B. Evolution involves newborn creatures; respondent conditioning does not. C. Respondent conditioning involves newborn creatures; evolution does not. D. Respondent conditioning functions during the lifetime of a creature; evolution functions over generations. E. Stimuli are more important in respondent conditioning; responses are more important in evolution. 28. Define conditioned stimulus. (1) A. A stimulus that evokes a response even without prior experience. B. A stimulus that occurs several times before a response. C. A stimulus that evokes a response after a few pairings with another stimulus that already causes that response. D. All stimuli that are not unconditioned stimuli are by definition conditioned stimuli. E. A stimulus that occurs several times after a response. 29. Define conditioned response (1) A. A response evoked by a stimulus which has been paired with a stimulus that already causes the response. B. A response evoked by a stimulus even without prior experience. C. A response that occurs several times after a stimulus D. A response that occurs several times before a stimulus E. All responses that are not unconditioned are by definition conditioned. Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 30. A stimulus that can cause a response without prior experience is called: A. An unconditioned force B. An uncondensed stimulus C. A conditioned stimulus D. A magical stimulus E. An unconditioned stimulus. 31. Which of the following would be an example of an unconditioned response? (1) A. Smiling when someone smiles at you B. Grabbing the toast when it pops up C. Pulling your hand out of the blazing campfire D. Putting your hand into the blazing campfire E. Drooling towards your ears when riding a motorcycle 32. Which of the following are involved in respondent conditioning? (1) A. The pairing of conditioned and unconditioned responses B. A response followed by reward C. A stimulus followed by reward D. The pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli E. A and D 33. Which comes first in respondent conditioning? (1) A. Stimulus B. Response 34. In operant conditioning, does the behavior come before or after the relevant stimulus? (1) A. Before B. After 35. In respondent conditioning, does the behavior come before or after the relevant stimulus? (1) A. Before B. After 36. What is paired in respondent conditioning? (1) A. Two responses (conditioned and unconditioned) B. Two stimuli (conditioned and unconditioned Conceptual Exercise Mae lay in bed, knowing she had a big day ahead of her and that she’d need all the sleep she could get. But she kept thinking of her visit with Dr. Harper. He explained things so well. She hadn’t quite understood how conditioning applied to different animal species—until she 4
  5. 5. talked to Dr. Harper. The same basic processes he was studying in his lab also work in the “real” world, with all sorts of creatures. More than that, humans are governed by these same learning processes too. All the creatures on Earth are kind of one big happy family, related by the way they learn. Well, I’d better get a little more sleep if I want to be standing straight tonight. Mae rolled over to make the most of the rest of her free morning. A few minutes later, Mae opened her eyes without moving. She heard what sounded like someone rubbing back and forth on the outside of the door. But these rhythmic sounds weren’t coming from outside the room. Mae started to sweat as she slowly turned her head around. There he was, twisting and turning right before her eyes. He didn’t stop when she saw him, but instead moved faster. Mae was wide awake now; she couldn’t draw her eyes away from the heated activity. The little hamster was turning the exercise wheel so fast that the whole cage was rocking. Mae remembered how she and Dawn had agreed to take Freddy, the hamster, for the weekend. Beth, the girl next door, was going home, and her roommate was going to be at her boyfriend’s and couldn’t take care of him. Mae liked the hamster—he was such a fuzzy critter and fun to watch. Freddy ran a few more minutes while Mae looked on, and then lay down in his cage. May pondered. Why did the hamster run like that? Was there a reward for running in the exercise wheel? He wasn’t eating or drinking now that he had stopped running. What about respondent conditioning? What stimulus could have evoked Freddy’s running? Everything in the room was the same now as before Fred started. No new stimulus events. It seemed like the running behavior started out of the blue. Mae sat up in bed. Either there’s an answer to this or I’m selling my psych book. She thought about what she had read so far, and also about what Dr. Harper had said. She remembered how Gore, the mountain lion, had moved toward bright or moving objects, and that its movement was reinforced by getting closer to those objects. Such stimuli had evolved as rewards because staying close to them made getting biological rewards more likely. Could just running every once in a while make getting biological rewards more likely? Gore’s biophysical structure was such that bright or moving objects reinforced Gore’s moving toward them. Gore followed moving objects, often ate them, and lived to carry on the species. Dodo didn’t follow such objects, soon died, and, of course, didn’t reproduce. Could it be that the hamster’s running was reinforced by the visual stimulation of the turning wheel? Could be a factor, Mae thought. But Beth said that Freddy sometimes ran at night. It was coal black then. Mae yawned and lay back down, still perplexed. Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 Maybe a part of the biophysical structure made something else rewarding? Suppose both Gore and Dodo were rewarded for moving toward bright or moving objects, but Gore always ran toward the movement, while Dodo petered out on the way. If Gore engaged in regular exercise it would be in shape to run fast and hard for a long time… 1. According to a behavioral analysis based on the above, what might be rewarding the hamster’s regular exercise? (1) A. The bright movements produced by the turning wheel. B. Mae’s attending to the hamster when it runs. C. The bodily stimulation produced by running. D. The hamster is more likely to get food after running in the exercise wheel. E. The increased likelihood that the creature will get fuel. 2. How could regular activity have survival value for a creature? (1) A. By increasing the likelihood that a creature could get fuel. B. Creatures that win races are well cared for C. By increasing the likelihood that a creature could avoid or escape harm. D. The bodily stimulation produced by running is rewarding, and more rewards always aid in survival. E. A & C 3. Could the analysis of the hamster’s activity apply to other creatures as well? (1) A. Yes, but only if they are in cages with exercise wheels. B. Yes, in as much as their evolutionary histories are similar. C. Yes, to all creatures except man D. No, it would be too much of a generalization E. Yes, but only if the creature looks like a hamster Thought Questions 1. Assuming that stimulation from regular activity is rewarding, would you classify such stimulation as a biological or non-biological reinforcer? Do you think that a biological/non-biological distinction made among reinforcers is useful? Why or why not? (1) 2. A distinction made between the concepts of feedback stimulus control and operant conditioning was made in this chapter. Could a stimulus function as an operant reward or punisher for the response it follows, 5
  6. 6. and, at the same time, as a cue for the next response? Cite some examples to justify your views. (1) Revised by Jennifer Ward on 11/24/13 6