Ch. 7 hw 7 e

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Ch. 7 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name: _____________________ _ __ Instructor: ____________ ___ Grade: ________LO: 39 Chapter 7: Conceptual Work Sheets for Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment 3. Along what response dimension are you differentially reinforcing the response? In other words, what physical property is different in right paw pressing than in left paw pressing? (Subtle hint: I consider right vs. left paw presses to differ topographically.) a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate f. other ____________________ Differential Reinforcement in the Skinner providing water contingent on lever pressing Box You had been regardless of which paw Rudolph used to press the lever, but now you’ve decided to demonstrate differential reinforcement. Each time thirsty Rudolph presses the lever with his right paw, you give him a drop of water. When he presses with his left paw, you give him nothing. Now he presses the lever with his right paw. 1. Please diagram the plain old vanilla reinforcement contingency (1) Before Behavior Rudolph presses lever with any paw Differential Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Stimulus (Differential Escape) After 2. Please analyze Rudolph’s behavior and put this example in the contingency diagram. First behavior: right-paw press in the top branch of the diagram, and then the left paw press in the bottom branch(4). Tom got a splinter when he stepped on an old wooden board with his bare feet. So, Tom got the tweezers and tried to pull the small, pointy splinter out. If Tom grasps the splinter with sufficient care, then his foot will hurt less because the splinter will be removed. However, if he grasps the splinter with insufficient care, he will not manage to remove the splinter and his foot will continue to hurt. Differential Reinforcement Reinforcement Behavior: 4. Please diagram the plain old vanilla reinforcement/escape contingency. (the behavior should be “Tom grasps the splinter”)(2) After: Before Behavior After Before: Behavior: After: 5. Please diagram the first behavior: Grasping the splinter with sufficient care; put it in the top branch of the diagram. (Remember that even though this first contingency is an escape contingency, the escape contingency is really a type of reinforcement contingency, so it does go in that top branch, the reinforcement branch.) Then diagram the second behavior: Grasping the splinter with insufficient care; put it in the bottom branch (4). No Reinforcement Use the pink Contingency Diagram Checklist (Table of Criteria) to analyze this example. 1 November 21, 2013
  2. 2. Differential Reinforcement Differential Punishment by a Nasty Beverage Reinforcement Behavior: After: Matt enjoys having a full cup of coffee in the morning before going to class (or any time of the day really). Sometimes he’s in too much of a hurry when he pours his cup of coffee and immediately takes a huge gulp. Ouch! If he would have just waited 10 or 15 seconds he wouldn’t have burned his tongue again. Behavior: After: 10. Punished behavior: Immediately taking a gulp. Recovered behavior: Taking a gulp after a short pause (10 or 15 seconds)(4). Before: Differential Punishment No Reinforcement Punishment 6. Does this example pass the pink Contingency Diagram Checklist (Table of Criteria)? a. yes b. no Behavior: After: Behavior: After: Before: 7. What is the length of time you take to get the splinter out? a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate 8. What response dimension refers to how hard you pull the splinter out? a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate No Punishment 11. Does this example pass the pink Contingency Diagram Checklist (Table of Criteria)? Yes or No 12. What’s the response dimension along which that response is being differentially punished? a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate f. other _________________ 9. What response dimension refers to how you hold the tweezers and pull the splinter out? a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate 13. Why did you pick latency rather than duration? 2
  3. 3. 19. Please diagram your original example (3): Differential Reinforcement or Punishment in Everyday Life Differential Reinforcement or Punishment 14. What’s your original example of differential reinforcement or punishment? (Real student examples: I have to push the door hard, to get it to lock; when I am using the hose, if I turn the nozzle to the left, the water stays on. If I turn the nozzle to the right, the water turns off; if I talk on my cell phone outside I get good reception but if I talk inside, I don’t; if I drink my shot slowly I don’t gag, if I drink it quickly I gag.) Reinforcement or Punishment Behavior: After: Behavior: After: Before: No Reinforcement or Punishment 15. What is the set of contingencies? a. differential reinforcement b. differential punishment 20. Does this example pass the pink Contingency Diagram Checklist (Table of Criteria)? Yes or No 16. Diagram the plain old vanilla reinforcement or punishment contingency(2) Before Behavior It is important not to confuse response dimensions with stimulus dimensions. You’ll get more into stimulus dimensions in Chapter 13, but for now let’s preview the concepts. The stimulus dimensions are the physical properties of a stimulus (what the organism sees, hears, or smells). Response dimensions are the physical properties of a response (what the organism does). The lever being 1.5 inches above the floor of the Skinner box is an example of a stimulus dimension, not a response dimension. Brightness of a light and sweetness of a drink are also examples of stimulus dimensions. After 17. What is the reinforced or punished behavior? ___________________________________ 18. What is the behavior that is not reinforced/punished? ___________________________________ 21. Pushing the lever down with extreme force is an example of: a. response dimension b. stimulus dimension More student examples: Kristen, the converted slob gets a glare from her fiancé if she puts a dish away in the sink, but not if she puts it in the dishwasher. Jimmy works at a Mexican restaurant, cooking quesadillas. If he cooks them too long they get burned instead of golden brown, and he doesn’t get any compliments from the other cooks. Since Anne’s hair is extremely curly it hurts to comb it unless she starts combing it immediately after she gets out of the shower. 22. In your original example, what’s the response dimension along which that response is being differentially reinforced or punished? a. topography b. latency c. duration d. force e. rate f. other ___________________________ When Sean’s girlfriend whines, he mocks and makes obnoxious comments, but when she talks normally he doesn’t. Note that the sixty second test and the response unit test do not apply to the latency measure. To open the knife drawer in the group home where she was working, Tina had to put the key in upside down. If she put it in right side up, it would stay locked. 3
  4. 4. Graphic Display of Frequency Data Imagine that you have just collected baseline data for a differential-reinforcement experiment. You’ve recorded a total of 12 responses. The grams of force of each response are listed below: 1, 5, 2, 5, 4, 2, 5, 2, 3, 2, 4, 3 23. Prepare a frequency table for the preceding data (the grams of force with which Rudolph the rat pressed the lever). In the left-hand column, write the grams of force from 1 to 5 grams. In the right hand column, write the number of times the rat pressed with the corresponding grams of force. I’ve done the first row for you--1 gram of force and one response (8). Grams of Force | # of responses ________1_______|________1_______ ________________|________________ ________________|________________ ________________|________________ ________________|________________ 24. Now prepare a frequency graph. Don’t forget to label and scale both axes (this should be a bar graph) (3). X axis is _______________________ Y axis is _______________________ 4

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