Ch. 6 hw 7 e

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Ch. 6 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name: ____________________ __ _____ Instructor: ______ ______Grade: _ LO: 68_____ Chapter 6: Conceptual Work Sheets for Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following from Punishment) Please finish the following questions, fill in the blank contingencies and analyze complete diagrams. Definition: REVIEW Reinforcement  The response-contingent  presentation of  a reinforcer  resulting in an increased frequency of that response. Life in the Skinner Box Revisited Even though water-deprived Rudolph presses the lever, you no longer give him a drop of water. As a result, he stops pressing the lever. 3. Please analyze Rudolph’s behavior and put this example in the contingency diagram (2). Before Behavior After Definition: Principle Extinction  Stopping the reinforcement or escape contingency  for a previously reinforced response  causes the response frequency to decrease Life in the Skinner Box Each time water-deprived Rudolph presses the lever, you give him a drop of water. As a result, he presses the lever frequently. 1.Please analyze Rudolph’s behavior and put his example in the contingency diagram (2). Before Behavior After 4. What is this a diagram of? A. Extinction B. Reinforcement C. Escape D. punishment 5. What will happen to the future frequency of Rudolph’s behavior? A. Increase B. Decrease C. stays the same The Real World -- Part I. 2.What type of contingency is this? A. Reinforcement B. Punishment C. Escape D. Penalty Every time my dog, Snickers, wants me to play with him, he will sit in front of me and whine. Eventually I give in and give him the attention he is begging for. November 21, 2013 1
  2. 2. 6.Please diagram Snickers’ contingency (2). Before Behavior 11. Analyze my behavior and put this example in the contingency diagram (2). After Before 12. A. B. C. D. 7.What is this a contingency diagram of? A. Reinforcement B. Escape C. punishment D. penalty Eventually, if I ignore Snickers and don’t give him any attention, he will go entertain himself. 8.Please diagram Snickers’ contingency (2). Before 9. A. B. C. D. Behavior After What is this a diagram of? reinforcement extinction punishment penalty 10. What will happen to the future frequency of Snickers’ behavior? A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same The Advice Giver-Part 1 In staff meetings with my graduate assistants, I often suggest brilliant though time-consuming ways we can change our courses to get better results. My assistants all heartily agree, even commenting on my great insights as a behavioral systems analyst. Behavior After What is the contingency? reinforcement punishment extinction recovery The Advice Giver-Part 2 In faculty meetings with my colleagues, I also used to suggest similar brilliant though time-consuming ways we could change our programs to get better long-term results because in the past, my colleagues also gave me approval. But then my colleagues stopped agreeing and never commented on the brilliance of my insights, at least not favorably. So I gradually stopped making those suggestions in the faculty meetings. Here is what one student gave as an analysis: Before Behavior After I’m not agreed with I make a suggestion I no longer make suggestions 13. What Criterion does this contingency example violate on the pink sheet? A. the action test B. the deadman test C. the related-outcomes test D. the response-unit test 14. Now it’s your turn. Analyze the contingency when my colleagues stopped agreeing and making comments: 2
  3. 3. Before Behavior After 18. Please diagram Rudolph’s new “contingency” (2). Before Behavior After I make a suggestion 15. A. B. C. D. What is this a diagram of? reinforcement punishment escape extinction 19. A. B. C. D. Harsh Life in the Skinner Box What is this a diagram of? reinforcement punishment penalty extinction 20. What will happen to the future frequency of Rudolph’s lever press behavior? A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same Escape Contingency  The response-contingent  removal of  an aversive stimulus  resulting in an increased frequency of that response. Harsh Life in the Baby Crib Every now and then, as Rudolph sits in his Skinner box, a mild, but aversive electric shock is turned on. And when he presses the lever, you remove the aversive electric shock. Every now and then, as Eric lies in his crib, he wets his diapers and then experiences the resulting aversiveness. And when he cries, his mother immediately removes the wet diaper along with its aversiveness. 16. Please diagram Rudolph’s contingency (2). Before 17. A. B. C. D. Behavior After What type of contingency is this? reinforcement escape punishment penalty But now, even though Rudolph presses the lever, you fail to remove the shock. (Of course, this hypothetical example is just for illustration; in reality, you would never do this… would you?) 21. Please diagram the contingency for Eric’s crying(2) Before 22. A. B. C. D. Behavior After What type of contingency is this? reinforcement escape punishment penalty The above contingency is tricky, but let’s take a closer look. If you read the problem again, you can see that we are removing an aversive condition (the wet diaper), not presenting a reinforcer. But now Eric’s mother is stoned; she’s so whacked out of her head that she either doesn’t hear him or maybe she just can’t get it together to rescue her son from his discomfort. 3
  4. 4. 23. Please diagram this new “contingency” for Eric’s crying (2). Before 24. A. B. C. D. Behavior After What is this a diagram of? reinforcement punishment penalty extinction 25. What will happen to the future frequency of Eric’s crying? (Yeah, the answer to this last question may be debatable; but assume the only reason Eric’s been crying is because of the escape contingency.) A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same Original Example of Extinction One exceptional student example: - Reinforcement: No “Thank you”; Hold door for someone; “Thank you” - Extinction: No “Thank you”; Hold door for someone; No “Thank you” – After a while, you won’t hold the door open for people if no one ever says thank you. 26. Please describe an original example of extinction. 27. Please diagram the reinforcement contingency in your example (2): Before Behavior After 28. Please diagram the extinction “contingency” for your example (2): Before Behavior After 29. Is this extinction after A. reinforcement B. escape Definition: Review Punishment Contingency  The response-contingent  presentation of  an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)  resulting in a decreased frequency of that response Definition: Principle Recovery From Punishment  Stopping the punishment or penalty contingency  for a previously punished response  causes the response frequency to increase  to its frequency before the punishment or penalty contingency Back in the Skinner Box Now, every time Rudolph presses the lever, he not only gets a drop of water, but also a mild electric shock. 4
  5. 5. 30. Please diagram the contingencies for Rudolph’s behavior of pressing the lever (3). Reinforcement or Escape Contingency Before After The Real World Two Behavior Before 34. What will happen to the frequency of Rudolph pressing the lever? A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same After Little Jimmy loves to see the products of his artistic talent on the white walls of Mom and Dad’s bedroom. But, every time Mom catches him in the middle of his artistic frenzy, she gives him an aversive scolding. 35. Please diagram Jimmy’s contingency (3). Reinforcement or Escape Contingency Punishment or Penalty Contingency Before 31. What will happen to the future frequency of Rudolph’s pressing the lever, now that the shock has been added (for this example, let’s assume that Rudolph isn’t too water deprived)? A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same 32. Now you no longer shock Rudolph when he presses the lever. Please diagram this contingency (3). Reinforcement or Escape Before After Behavior Before After Recovery 33. What is the bottom diagram called? A. B. C. D. punishment penalty recovery from Punishment extinction After Behavior Before After Punishment or Penalty Contingency 36. What will happen to the future frequency of Jimmy’s behavior? A. increase B. decrease C. stay the same By definition, a punishment contingency decreases the response. Now for the next question, let’s get realistic: It isn’t likely that Jimmy’s mother will usually catch him in the act and be able to scold him right away. 37. Which Contingency-Diagramming Criterion does this fail? A. the Deadman Test B. the Sixty Second Test C. the Stimulus Test D. the Related-outcome Test The Real World -- Part Three Sarah, a four year old child with autism exhibits extreme self-stimulatory behavior and extreme self-destructive behavior. In other words, the stimuli resulting from self5
  6. 6. stimulation were reinforcers for Sarah; and for some reason, the results of her self-destructive behavior, for example hitting herself, were also reinforcing, though the reinforcing results might have been the typical reactions of the surrounding adults. Every time Sarah exhibited these behaviors, you remove her opportunity to play (of course, play is a strong reinforcer for her). (By the way this is a time-out contingency). 38. Please diagram the contingency for Sarah’s behavior (3). Reinforcement or Escape Contingency Original Example of Recovery 42. Give an original example of recovery from punishment or penalty. The diagram in #43 includes the underlying reinforcement or escape contingency that maintains the punished response. Please describe your example here: After Before Behavior Sarah has sensory stimulation. 43. First diagram the contingencies (3). Before After Reinforcement or Escape Contingency Before Punishment or Penalty Contingency Behavior To prove that time-out was actually reducing selfstimulatory and self-destructive behaviors, the behavior analyst stopped the time-out contingency. Before 39. Please diagram this procedure, that is, the recovery from punishment or penalty contingency, described above in the bottom contingency, not the reinforcement or escape contingency. Before After Behavior After Opportunity to play After Punishment or Penalty Contingency 44. Now, please diagram the recovery procedure for your example. Again, diagram the punishment/penalty contingency and not the reinforcement/escape contingency (2). Before Behavior After 40. With recovery from punishment we stop A. the self-stimulation B. the time-out contingency 41. A. B. C. D. What is this an example of? extinction recovery from either punishment or penalty punishment escape 45. Is this recovery from… A. punishment B. penalty 6

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