Ch. 23 hw 7 e

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Ch. 23 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name: ________________________ Instructor: _____________________ Grade: _____ Learning Opportunities: __90___ Chapter 23 Conceptual Work Sheets for Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications Before you go on and risk making a fool of yourself, stop. Go to chapter 22 in PB and spend 15 minutes reviewing the definitions. Our experience is that, if you don’t, you’ll do dumb things in this homework.  I followed your advice  I prefer to risk being dumb (or at least poorly informed). In Chapter 22 you began studying contingencies that are analogs to reinforcement by the presentation of reinforcers. They’re like reinforcement contingencies. Some behavior analysts confuse them with reinforcement contingencies, but they’re not. The reason they’re not reinforcement contingencies is that the reinforcers are delivered too long after the response—the delivery is too delayed to reinforce the causal response. They fail the sixty-second test. The problem of delayed outcomes doesn’t just apply to reinforcement. What about the delayed removal and the delayed presentation of aversive conditions? That generates whole new sets of analogs to escape and punishment. Because of the delayed outcomes, we can also run into analogs to extinction, discrimination training, and on and on. So that’s what you’re going to deal with in this homework assignment on rule-governed analog contingencies. Each of our original examples in this assignment should be an indirectacting contingency, where the outcome that controls behavior is too delayed to directly reinforce or punish that behavior. All of your examples should deal with rule-governed behavior and should fail the sixty-second test. Before we get going, let’s stop and deal with one of the main common confusions that make this assignment a tough one. Rule-Governed Analogs to Avoidance Review these definitions first…. Definition: Concept Rule  A verbal description contingency. of a behavior Definition: Concept Behavioral Contingency  The occasion (SD) for a response (behavior)  the response (behavior)  and the outcome of the response (behavior). Consider this example: I like the child and so I give her a no-fat, no sugar, frozen yogurt cone. 1. Have I described a behavioral contingency for the child? A. Yes B. No 2. Please explain your answer: Another time, I tell the child, “If you pick up your toys before we go to town in a couple hours, then you will get some frozen yogurt when we get there.” 3. Was my statement to the child a rule? A. Yes B. No
  2. 2. Please explain your answer: Contingency Control or Rule Control? Definition: Concept Contingency Control 4. 5. Have I described a behavioral contingency for the child? A. Yes B. No Please diagram the behavior of picking up toys. In all of the contingencies in this homework, put the value of the delay in the before and after box, even if it is less than 60 seconds    Direct control of behavior by a contingency without the involvement of rules. 10. Consider the preceding example. Is the child’s picking up her toys an example of contingency control? A. Yes B. No 11. Please explain your answer: Deadline: Before Behavior After Definition: Concept 6. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 7. So is it a direct-acting contingency of reinforcement? A. Yes B. No If the contingency fails the sixty-second rule, it can’t be direct-acting, because it wouldn’t reinforce Rudolph the rat’s behavior even if he were into yogurt. Would you believe it—the child picked up her toys for the first time in her young 7-year life. 8. Is that an example of an indirect-acting, rule-governed analog to avoidance? A. Yes B. No 9. Please explain your answer: Escape Contingency  The, response-contingent  removal of an aversive condition  resulting in an increased frequency of that response. It’s an aversive 90 degrees. I turn on the air conditioner. Immediately, 72 degree air starts cooling me down. Before Behavior After 12. Please diagram the escape contingency: 13. Does the contingency fail the sixty-second test? A. Yes B. No 14. So is it a direct-acting escape contingency? A. Yes B. No There may or may not be a rule for a directacting contingency. A direct-acting contingency Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 2
  3. 3. can be rule-governed if the person never had contact with the contingency and simply responds because of the statement of a rule. Or, if the person doesn’t know the rule, the behavior can be contingency controlled. 15. Please explain how this relates: 18. Please diagram the contingency. Before Behavior After 19. Did you put the value of the delay in the before and after? A. Yes B. No (revise) When the person is capable of stating the rule describing a direct-acting contingency, you can’t be sure whether the person did state the rule. This means you can’t be sure whether you’ve got an example of rule control, contingency control, or a little bit of both. 16. So is my turning on the air conditioner an example of contingency control? A. Yes B. No C. Can’t tell 20. In analyzing the child’s behavior, does the contingency fail the sixty-second test? A. Yes B. No 21. So is it a direct-acting contingency? A. Yes B. No 22. Please explain your answer: 17. Please explain your answer: 23. Is this a rule-governed analog to avoidance? A. Yes B. No 24. Please explain your answer: Rule-Governed Analog to Reinforcement/Avoidance I say to the sulking child, “If you smile and say “thank you” to the nice Baskin Robins man, when he gives you your no-sugar, no-fat frozen yogurt cone, he’ll probably give you a bigger one when we come here tomorrow.” She does and he does, every day after that. Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 Why was the child sulking? Because she thought picking up her toys deserved a monstrous frozen-yogurt banana split, not a single-scoop cone. Tough luck kid, banana splits don’t grow on trees…or do they? 3
  4. 4. Rule-Governed Analog to Escape Another Example of Rule-Governed Analog to Escape Definition: Concept Rule-governed analog to escape  An increase in the frequency of a response  as a result of a rule stating  the occasions when the response will remove or reduce an aversive condition. It is 90 degrees. You tell me, “If you turn on the air conditioner, it will produce 72 degree air, but it takes about an hour for it to start working.” So, I turn on the air conditioner. Remember, for rule-governed analog to escape, your diagram should look like this: Before Aversive Condition Behavior Aversive Condition removed after delay 25. Please diagram my behavior of turning on the A.C. Before Lenny will escape his current, aversive job by filling out a job application form elsewhere. He is able to fill out this application form without taking any breaks during this response. However, it may be two weeks before he may be asked to come in for an interview and be hired by his new employer. 29. What is the response? After Behavior Definition: Concept Rule-governed analog to escape  An increase in the frequency of a response  as a result of a rule stating  the occasions when the response will remove or reduce an aversive condition Behavior 30. Does filling out the job application pass the reinforceable response-unit test? A. Yes B. No 31. So what kind of response do we have? A. Response Unit (Good) B. Analog to a response unit After 1 hour later, it is 72 degrees. 26. Does the contingency fail the sixty-second test? A. Yes B. No 27. What kind of contingency is this? A. Direct-acting escape B. Rule-governed analog to escape Yes, response unit is correct. Filling out an application is part of the molecular-rule, and that’s what we want. Applying for another job is an example of what the molar-rule might have been (because there are many components containing breaks of 60 seconds). 32. Please diagram the contingency: Before Behavior After In two weeks Lenny may escape his old job. 28. Please explain your answer: 33. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes (You’ve got it) B. No (Revise) Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 4
  5. 5. 34. What kind of contingency is this? A. Escape Contingency: the termination or reduction of the aversive condition is within 60 seconds of the response unit. B. Analog to an Escape Contingency: the termination or reduction of the aversive condition is NOT within 60 seconds of the response unit. Analog to an Escape contingency is correct! The contingency fails the 60 second test but the response passed the reinforceable response-unit test. 35. Please explain why it is an analog to an escape contingency: Your Example of Rule-Governed Analog to Escape 36. Please describe your example of rulegoverned analog to escape. 37. First, whose behavior are you analyzing? ______________________ 38. Does the response pass the reinforceable response-unit test? A. Yes B. No 39. So what kind of response do we have? A. Response unit (good) B. Analog to a response unit. (Revise) Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 40. Please fill out the contingency diagram describing your example. Before: Behavior: After: Hint: Your escape example should look like this: Before: Behavior: After: Aversive condition Behavior No aversive condition after a delay Use the Contingency Diagramming Job Aid to make sure you diagrammed a correct analog to escape contingency (It should fail the 60 second test). 41. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 42. What kind of contingency do we have? A. Escape Contingency B. Analog to an Escape Contingency Rule-Governed Analog to Avoidance Definition: concept Rule-Governed analog to avoidance  An increase in the frequency of a response  as a result of a rule stating  the occasions when the response will avoid an aversive condition. Analog to avoidance needs to have a deadline. This deadline must pass the stimulus, event, or condition test. For example, a deadline for finishing this homework would be before the next class. I find it aversive when students don’t participate in class, because I think their participation is important to their learning. So I generated this rule: write a policy in the course syllabus stating that I will give grade-related points for discussion participation, and I will not experience the aversive silence of a nonlearning class. So, because I stated the rule to myself, I wrote a description of our participation policy in the course syllabus. This writing 5
  6. 6. occurred days before the first class discussion when the aversive silence would have been encountered. Does writing a policy in the syllabus pass the reinforceable response-unit test? On the edge. But if it was just a matter of sitting down and typing out a couple paragraphs, then it would pass. 48. Was my statement to the child a rule? A. Yes B. No 49. Please explain your answer: 43. Please diagram the contingency SD (Deadline) Before Behavior After 50. This is a rule governed analog to A. Avoidance of loss B. Reinforcement Use the Contingency Diagramming Job Aid to make sure your diagram is correct. 44. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 45. What type of contingency is this? A. Avoidance B. Analog to Avoidance Your example of rule-governed analog to avoidance 51. Please describe your example of rulegoverned analog to avoidance. Baskin Robins Revisited Consider this example: I like the child and so I give her a no-fat, no-sugar, frozen yogurt cone. 46. Have I described a behavioral contingency for the child? A. Yes B. No 47. Please explain your answer: 52. First, whose behavior are you analyzing? ______________________ 53. Does the response pass the reinforceable response-unit test? A. Yes B. No 54. So what kind of response do we have? A. Response unit (good) B. Analog to a response unit. (Revise) Another time, I tell the child, “If you pick up your toys before going to bed (deadline), Uncle Dickey will give you a frozen yogurt cone for breakfast.” (In other words, she will avoid the loss of the delayed opportunity to get the yogurt cone, if she picks up her toys before the deadline.) Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 6
  7. 7. 55. Please fill out the contingency diagram describing your example D S (Deadline) Before Behavior After Use the Contingency-Diagramming Job Aid to make sure you diagrammed a correct analog to avoidance contingency. Your deadline must pass the stimulus, event, or condition test. 59. Suppose we say the response is my being too interruptive throughout the semester (in other words, the response unit is one semester long). Then, does interrupting and making negative, harsh comments throughout the semester pass the reinforceable response-unit test? A. Yes B. No 60. So, instead we probably need to say, that one instance of interrupting or being harsh will have some impact on the likelihood that I’ll get negative evaluations. In that case, what kind of response do we have? A. Response-unit (good) B. Analog to a response-unit (revise) 56. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 57. What kind of contingency do we have? A. Avoidance B. Analog to avoidance 61. Please put this example into the contingency diagram below. Rule-governed analog to punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition Use the Contingency Diagramming Job Aid to make sure you diagrammed correct analog to a punishment contingency. 62. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 63. What kind of contingency do we have? A. Punishment B. Analog to punishment Definition: Concept Rule-governed analog to punishment  A decrease in the frequency of a response  as a result of a rule stating  the occasions when the response will produce an aversive condition. On my course evaluations, some of my students have complained that I’m too critical. They say I don’t even let them finish their point before I start gleefully explaining how screwed up and mentalistic their argument is. I find such course evaluations aversive. So I’ve stated this rule to myself: If I interrupt students and make negative comments, I will have to read aversive course evaluations. Now only time will tell whether the frequency of my negativity decreases as a result of stating that rule, but let’s assume it will. 58. What’s the response? Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 Before Behavior After Your example of rule-governed analog to punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition Student example I have a car  I drive carelessly all semester  My parents take my car away from me Problem #1: This fails the reinforceable response-unit test. Problem #2: This is an analog to penalty, not punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition. 7
  8. 8. 64. Please describe your example of rulegoverned analog to punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition to escape. But then I took a look at the pink contingency-diagramming job aid. If it were supposed to be an escape analog it would fail the causality test. Now this is a tough one. 71. Please explain why it fails the causality test (in other words, does eating the salad actually cause you to lose the weight?) 65. What is the response? _______________________________ 66. Does the behavior pass the reinforceable response-unit test? A. Yes B. No 67. So what kind of response do we have? A. Response unit (good) B. Analog to a response unit (revise) 68. Please put this example into the contingency diagram below Before Behavior After Use the contingency diagramming job aid to make sure you diagrammed a correct analog to punishment contingency. 69. Does the contingency fail the 60 second test? A. Yes B. No 70. What kind of contingency do we have? A. Punishment B. Analog to punishment I analyzed the wrong behavior. For an analog to escape contingency, the response should not be going for the salad or pigging out at the 5,000 calorie level. At first, I thought eating the salad would cause a decrease in the aversively high numbers on the scale the next day. Realizing that eating does not cause you to lose weight at all, is the key. Not eating causes you to lose weight. Ah, but not eating is non-behavior, you say. That’s right, and what do we do when we have non-behavior? We roll over the dead man. We had not eating. Rolled over, it becomes eating. Eating anything, even a salad, will cause you to gain weight. It’s the burning more calories than you eat that causes the weight loss. So, we thought we had an analog to escape. Rolled over, we have an analog to punishment by the presentation of an aversive condition. Since you will probably burn more calories than you consume in eating a salad, let’s analyze pigging out at the 5,000 calorie level. If you pigout, tomorrow when you get on the scale, you will show a half pound increase. 72. Please diagram the behavior of pigging out. Before Behavior After Escape from a half pound vs. punishment by the presentation of a half-pound of flab You’re aversively overweight. At a restaurant, you can order the dieter’s salad or your usual 5,000 calorie, pig-out special. If you eat the salad, tomorrow when you get on the scale, you will show a half pound loss. When I originally analyzed this example, I thought it was an analog Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 73. What behavior are we analyzing? 74. Whose behavior are we analyzing? 8
  9. 9. 75. Does our presumed response unit pass the reinforceable response-unit test (you really pigged out, didn’t even bother to take a break while you were eating?) A. Yes B. No 76. So what kind of contingency do we have? A. Analog to escape B. Analog to punishment Rule-Governed analog to a discriminative stimulus By the way, if the so-called “discriminative stimulus” precedes the response by more than 60 seconds, it is probably a rule-governed analog to a discriminative stimulus meaning that the contingency would be a rule-governed analog contingency. Revised by Kelli Perry 12/6/2013 9

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