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Ch. 21 hw 7 e

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Ch. 21 hw 7 e

  1. 1. Name: _______________________ Instructor: _____________________ Grade: _______ Learning Opportunities: __39___ Chapter 21 Conceptual Work Sheets for Respondent Conditioning 1. Please diagram this example. The Case of the Icy Bridge Real student example: Bob drove his car on an icy bridge and it spun out of control. Now driving on a bridge elicits an emotional reaction (a fear response). Before Conditioning What is the unconditioned stimulus? The stimuli accompanying spinning out of control— the sight of the spinning world, the feel of the centrifical force. What is the unconditioned response? A fear response involving smooth muscles and glands (i.e. galvanic skin response, heart rate increases). Unconditioned Response: Unconditioned Stimulus: Conditioning Procedure Stimuli to be Conditioned: Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: What is the conditioned stimulus? The sight of the bridge. What is the conditioned response? A conditioned fear response. The unconditioned response now occurs in the presence of the conditioned stimulus. What is the phobia? A bridge phobia. After Conditioning How might this phobia have been established? The bridge phobia was established through respondent conditioning—the pairing of the sight of the bridges with spinning out of control. Now the sight of the bridge elicits the conditioned fear response, a response similar to the unconditioned fear response which spinning out of control had elicited. Conditioned Stimulus: Conditioned Response: How would we do systematic desensitization to get rid of this phobia? First we would train Bob to relax. Next, we would ask him to imagine an icy bridge a quarter mile down the road. We would ask him to gradually imagine situations more and more like going over the
  2. 2. bridge without spinning out of control on the icy bridge. While he imagines these progressively fearful situations, we would have him do some different relaxation exercises (e.g., deep breathing, etc.) to keep him relaxed at all times. The final image would be of an icy winter day and he is now driving on the bridge that he spun out of control on in the past. How might this phobia have been established? Charlie acquired his wind phobia through respondent conditioning—the pairing of the sight and sound of heavy wind with the tornado. Now the sight and sound of heavy wind elicits the conditioned fear response, a response similar to the unconditioned fear response the tornado had elicited. Hopefully, as a result of our systematic desensitization, Bob’s conditioned fear response would be less likely to be elicited by icy bridges. But we wouldn’t really want Bob to be completely cool when driving over an icy bridge, because complete coolness leads to carelessness which leads to spinning out of control! How might respondent extinction have occurred, before we did systematic desensitization? If Bob’s bridge phobia were so strong that he completely avoided driving over bridges, then there would be little chance for respondent extinction (by the way, remember that respondent extinction isn’t the same thing as operant extinction). In that case, he would need something like systematic desensitization. Otherwise, he would continue driving over bridges as he went from home to school, to work, to the mall, and to his girlfriend’s. At first, the sight of the bridge would elicit the conditioned fear response. However, he probably would no longer spin out of control so the conditioned fear response would gradually extinguish. 2. Please diagram this example. Before Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: Conditioning Procedure Stimuli to be Conditioned: Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: The Case of the Tornado After Conditioning The following is an example from one of our previous students. Once upon a time, 4-year-old Charlie was caught outside in a tornado with heavy winds; now, even inside the house, the heavy winds elicits a strong emotional reaction in Charlie. What is the unconditioned stimulus? The feel of being knocked around by the heavy wind. What is the unconditioned response? A fear response. (Whether the tornado and fear were unconditioned or were themselves the result of prior conditioning isn’t clear. If they were themselves a conditioned stimulus and response, then this is an example of higher-order conditioning.) What is the conditioned stimulus? The sight and sound of heavy winds. What is the conditioned response? A conditioned fear response (i.e. galvanic skin response, heart rate increases). What is the phobia? A wind phobia Ch. 21 HW - 7E/13 Conditioned Stimulus: Conditioned Response: How would we do systematic desensitization to get rid of this phobia? First, we would train Charlie to relax. Then we would tell him to imagine a light breeze while he is inside a building with two-foot-thick stone walls. We would ask that he gradually imagine situations more and more like the tornado, ensuring that he relax at all times. The final image would be of heavy winds and a TV report of a Tornado watch with him inside his house. -2- 11/21/2013
  3. 3. Hopefully, as a result of our systematic desensitization, Charlie’s conditioned fear response would be less likely to be elicited by heavy winds. How might respondent extinction have occurred before we did systematic desensitization? Charlie would continue experiencing heavy winds now and then in the absence of tornadoes. At first, the heavy winds would elicit the conditioned fear response, but because they would no longer be paired with tornadoes, the conditioned fear response would gradually extinguish. The Case of the ( 3. Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response 1. Loud sound or touch to the corneaeye blink 2. Tactile stimulus under lid or chemical irritant (smoke)eyes watering. 3. Irritation to nasal mucosasneezing. 4. Irritation to throatcoughing 5. Low temperature shivering, blood vessels become smaller. 6. High temperaturesweating, blood vessels become larger. 7. Loud sound contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius muscles in ear. 8. Food or weak acid solution in mouthsalivation 9. Indigestible food in stomachrelease of insulin 10. Sugar in stomach release of insulin 11. Pain stimulus in hand or foothand or foot withdrawal Conditioned stimulusConditioned Response 1. Smell of fish nausea 2. Sight of cigarettes eyes water 3. Sound of bell salivation 4. Sound of cat sneezing, itching 5. Sight of white rat fear Non-examples These are higher order conditioning 1. Claustrophobiafear of small spaces 2. Arachnophobiafear of spiders 3. Homophobiafear of gay persons Student Examples       Real story. When Amy was four, she walked behind her dog when he was eating; and he went for her; so Amy acquired a fear of cocker spaniels but not other dogs. Eventually, however she got over it, because her friend had a cocker spaniel. (Three out of nine grad students in Summer 2000 P610 also had a dog phobia. This seems to be fairly common.) Erin started sliding on icy I94 which elicited a big fear response that caused her to escape I94 under similar circumstances. (Seven of nine grad students have had driving phobia) Tracy’s dad acted like he was going to throw her into the Grand Canyon; now she has a negative emotional reaction every time she visits the Grand Canyon, which seems to be an unnaturally popular vacation spot for her family. You know that feeling when you’re on a rollercoaster? Your heart is racing and you’re terrified; meanwhile you can also see all of the other rides in the amusement park. Now just the sight of all of the rides causes your heart to race and your palms to get sweaty. Every time Kara hears the sound of chalk screeching on a chalkboard she gets goose bumps and chills (fear response). That sound has been paired with the sight of the chalk, which now gives her chills and goose bumps When Kathleen was little she got stung by a bee which was very frightening. Now just the sight and sound of a buzzing bee is terrifying for an adult Kathleen. Ch. 21 HW - 7E/13 ) Describe your original example of a phobia. Make sure you are not using higher-order conditioning. Here is a list of stimuli that are commonly used when talking about plain old-fashion respondent conditioning. -3- 11/21/2013
  4. 4. 4. What is the unconditioned stimulus? Through pairing the (CS)___________________ With the (US)____________________________ Now, the (CS)___________________________ Elicits the (CR)__________________________ A response similar to the unconditioned (response)_________________ that the (unconditioned stimulus)___________________ had elicited. 5. Is it really an UNCONDITIONED stimulus? (hint: if it has acquired its ability to elicit a response as a result of pairing with some other stimulus then it is NOT an UNCONDITIONED stimulus.) A. Yes (Good) B. No (Revise) If you said No, then you need to revise your example because it involves higher-order conditioning. Look at the examples above to get an idea. 6. 11. Please diagram this example. Before Conditioning What is the unconditioned response? Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: Hint: in this chapter, remember your examples should all deal with respondent response (like emotional responses) and not operant responses (like lever presses). 7. What is the conditioned stimulus? Conditioning Procedure 8. Stimuli to be Conditioned: What is the conditioned response? Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned Response: Hint: the conditioned response is always more or less the same as the unconditioned response, though perhaps a little weaker. Be careful to select the right response. For example, driving over the bridge or running into the house would not be the conditioned responses. Why not? Because they were not unconditioned responses elicited by the unconditioned stimuli. Instead, they were operant responses (resulting from operant conditioning). If it fits your example you can just write conditioned fear response, instead of listing all the physiological details. 9. After Conditioning 12. Conditioned Stimulus: Conditioned Response: What is the phobia? 10. How might this phobia have been established (fill in the blanks)? Use the stimuli and response from your example to fill in the blanks. (Don’t give technical terms, use your example.) Ch. 21 HW - 7E/13 -4- 11/21/2013
  5. 5. How would you do systematic desensitization to get rid of this phobia? ((Warning: Make sure you desensitize to the conditioned stimulus and not the unconditioned stimulus).  First we would train (person’s name) ___________________ to relax.  Next, we would tell the person to imagine situations more and more like (the phobic stimulus conditions)___________________, ensuring that the person remained relaxed at all times.  The final image would be (direct exposure to the phobic stimulus condition) _________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 13. Hopefully, as a result of your systematic desensitization, the phobic response would be more or less likely to occur? (Hint: the behavior of interest is the phobia, the fear response, not the approach response; for example, it is not the response of driving over the bridge.) A. More B. Less 14. How might respondent extinction have occurred, before we did systematic desensitization? Be prepared to explain your example to the class. Ch. 21 HW - 7E/13 -5- 11/21/2013

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